Udus anafuk

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Asuneɣ n unagraw anafuk (ur yegguni ara ɣef imsektiyen n tidet) and i d-tettbin tfukt d yimtiwgen igensuyen d ubaggus n izunyuren d yimtiweg uffiɣen d ubaggus n Kuiper d Plutu (yellan zik-nni yettumeggez d amtiweg, yakk d yiwen n usmil).

Anagraw anafuk neɣ Udus anafuk d yiwen n unagraw amtiwgan i gebren seg tfukt d wayen yakk i tezzin fell-as am tegnit d yimtiwgen niden, akken daɣen i yegber seg tfekkiwin tigennawin meẓẓiyen am yimtiwgen igezlanen d iseffuden d yismilen yakk d ugedṛur anamdal, akken daɣen illan imṭafaren n yimtiwgen yettusemman s wayyur,[tamawt 1] anda llan ugar n 150 n wayyuren yettwassnen deg unagraw anafuk, amur ameqran deg-sen tezzin ɣef yimtiwgen icafcalen n ugaz. Maca tafekka tameqqṛant yakk deg unagraw anafuk tga d tafukt igan d itri i d-izgan deg tlemmast n unagraw yerna i teqqen igmamen d tfekkiwin n unagraw-a s teldayt-is, anda takura-ines tewweṭ ɣer 99,9 n tkura n unagraw-a s timmad-is. Akken i tga d aɣbalu agejdan i tafat d weẓɣal ittaǧǧan tudert tezmer ad tili deg tegnit, deffir n tfukt ttasen-d 8 n yimtiwgen s umizwar (s unect n wyggug ɣef tfukt): Merkur (neɣ Aziweɣ), Tatrit, Tagnit, Mezweɣ (Imtiwgen ineẓruyen) yakk d Yebter, Awihad neɣ Asturn, Uṛanus, Niptun (yimtiwgen icafcalen n ugaz).

Llant waṭas n tfekkiwin tinafukin i yezmer wemdan ad ten-tt-iẓer s wallen-is (anagar Tafukt d wayyur) am Merkur, Tatrit, Mezweɣ, Yebder yakk d uwihad akken i zemrent wallen n wemdan ad ẓṛent ula d kra n izunyuren yettfeǧǧiǧen[tamawt 2] yakk d yismilen imazrayen neɣ iseffuden anda i yezmer wemdan ad ten-iẓer mi ara ad kecmen ɣef tegnawt n tegnit w ad ṛɣen sin akin ad ssegren usuɣen. S tmerniwt ɣer wanect-a, snulfu n wemsaddas (atiliskup) d win yeǧǧan amdan yezmer ad iẓer aṭas n tfekkiwin niden ur yezmir ara ad ten-tt-iẓer s wallen

Imir-a, amur ameqran n imesnallunen ttɣilen d akken udus anafuk d win i d-ilulen send n 4,6 n imelyaṛen n iseggasen seg yiwen n usigna acafcal n igazen d igedṛuren yettwassnen s usignew anafuk. S unect n teẓri ayi, Asignew-a yebda-d s uɣelluy ɣef yiman-is s usrag (ssebba) n teldayt-is anda adad-is agensuy yella ur yezmir ara ad tt-yezbu

Asnirem d tamusni n wudus anafuk[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

I yigiman (luluf) n iseggasen, imdanen llan ttɣilen d akken tagnit i d-ammas n usedday yerna tbedd deg wadeg-is akken i d-temgarad ɣef tfekkiwin tinallunin niden, ɣas ma yella ufelsaf Anegrik Aristark n Samus iɣil d akken d tafukt i d ammas n usedday.[1]
Nikola Kopernik d amezwaru yesneflin tamudemt tamusnakt ɣef tisselmest n tfukt d wudus anafuk. deffir-s deg tsut tis 17, Galileo Galilei d Isaac Newton d Johannes Kepler gan d wid i d-isneflin irmawen isengamen, ayen yeǧǧan ad ldin abrid i wakken ad tettwiddeg (ad tettwaqbel) tekti n tuzzya n tegnit ɣef tfukt, yakk d akken imtiwgen d wid i kellun s isudaf isengamen s wacu tkellu tegnit. Sin akin deg tallit-a tatrart, asnulfu n yimsaddasen d win yeldin iberdan i wesnirem n tumanin tisnakalin am yidurar d tkucin timnaggasin yakk d tumanin n tesnignewt am usigna

Tamuski n wudus anafuk[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Tafukt tgebber asger agejdan deg unagraw anafuk, anda i tga d itri yeṭṭafaren asesmel atraw G2, Takura-ines tessiliɣ-d 99,86 seg tkura n unagraw anafuk akken i d-tɣemmer ɣef umussu n tegrawt s usrag n teldayt-is.[2] ma d takura n yimtiwgen igaziyen (Yebter, Awihad, Uṛanus, Niptun) ssiliɣen-d 99% n tkura i d-igran seg unagraw anafuk, dɣa Yebter d uwihad iman-nsen ssiliɣen-d 90% seg tkura n 4 n yimtiwgen igaziyen.[c]

Amur ameqqran n tfekkiwin timeqqṛanin itezzin ɣef tfukt mmersent ɣef weswir n tegnit yettwasemman Ecliptic , acku imyiwgen udsen s waṭas ɣer ukala n tfukt ma d ismilen d tfekkiwin n ubaggus n Kuiper ttilin (deg tuget n tegnatin) mmersen deg tɣemrin meqqren s waṭas ɣef ukala n tfukt.[3][4] imtiwgen yakk d wamur ameqran n tfekkiwin tezzin ɣef tfukt yakk d tnila n tuzzya n tfukt ɣef yiman-is. Maca llant kra n tsurifin amedya deg wayen yezzin ɣef wesmil n Halley yakk d yimtiwgen niden (anagar tatrit d Uṛanus)

Asileɣ d temhazt[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Anagraw anafuk d win i yemmugen s usrag n uɣelluy deg teldayt n usignew acubran acafcal send n 4,568 n imelyaṛen n iseggasen.[5] Yerna ahat asignew-a d win izegren i waṭas n ifawatayen akken daɣen i yezmer ad yili yettekka deg tlallit n waṭas n yitran.[6]

Tamnaṭ deg wanda i d-issemti usileɣ n unagraw anafuk tettwassen s usignew n tfukt azwaran,[7] ass mi i d-trab tugeẓ ɣef wuntum amussay ayen i d-tiǧǧan ad tezzi s urured meqqren. Sin akin yemsegraw wamur ameqran n tkura deg wammas yerna tuli teẓɣelt-is (ammas-nni) anda taseddart n weẓɣal n wammas-nni tuɣal d tin yugaren taseddaṛt n weẓɣal n tseɣleyt n tagra.[6] u yal mi ara ad yenɣes usignew, ad yernu seg tuzzya alammi i yebda yettuɣal am tagra tamtiwgant tamazzayt s ukdu n 200 tiggtin tisnallunin w ad yegri itrazwaran aẓeɣlan deg wammas.[8][9] Dɣa imusnawen ttɣilen d akken tafukt deg tallit-a tella d itri T tauri. Tizrawin ɣef yitran T tauri mmalent-d d akken-iten teddun-d yakk d tagra n tnegwa n umtiweg azwaran s tkura imalen gar n 0.001 ɣer 0.1 seg tkura tanafukt, anecta yesskanay-d d akken tuget seg tkura n usignew teqqim deg yitri-nni yakan.[10] sin akin nnulfan-d yimtiwgen seg unerni n tagra ayyi [11]

Deg 50 n imelan n iseggasen, adad d tneẓẓi n uhidṛujin deg wul n yitri amzawar yuɣal d win yugten s tfesna ara ad yeǧǧen tisedmirin n wezday aɣisan ad ssemtint.[12] taẓɣelt d yisir n tisedmirt d wadad d tneẓẓi d wid yernan alammi iwwṭen ɣer wagaz n umnekni ahidṛustatik anda tafasa taẓeɣlawt tuɣal tessegdal tadusi n teldayt ayen yeǧǧan tafukt deg tallity ad teṭfer asesmel n welkam.[13]

Allus n tudert n tfukt

Tafukt yellan deg wass-a ad teqqim alamma tbda tmehhez s unect n usesmel n Hertzsprung-Russell, acku mi ara ad tfak yakk tumast-is tahedrujint tajummant ad yader usafaɣ n tfasa ayen ara ad yeglun s waqqaf n tfukt ɣef yiman-is, ayen yettaǧǧan adad d teẓɣelt ad rnun deg weɣyay-is. s usrag n wanect-a yakk, tamhalt n truɣi d tin yettruruden akken irennu wesfijjej-is s wazal n 10% deg yal 1,1 n imelyaṛen n iseggasen.[14]

Seld n wazal n 5,4 n imelyaṛen n iseggasen seg tura, Ahidṛujin yakk illan deg wul n weɣyay n tfukt ad yuɣal d ahilium s wakka ad tfak tallit n welkam agejdan mi ara ad fakkent tsedmirin n uhidṛujin. Aɣyay ad yettwaseqqef ugar i wakken ad yernu wadad d teẓɣelt sin akin ad ilint tsedmirin tiɣisanin i whilium itṛuɣen deg weɣyay deg tseddart n wezɣal yeflalen (ɛlayen) i wakken ad yiɣur usafaɣ aẓɣlaw s waṭas ɣef wanect ig yella deg tallit n welkam agejdan, Dɣa deg tallit-a, tissi tuffiɣt n tfukt d tin yettihriwen s wazal n 260 n tikkal seg ukdu-ines agejdan i wakken ad ad tuɣal tfukt d acafcal azeggaɣ s usrag n tmerniwt tameqqṛant deg tjumma n tiggi-inesmaca taẓɣelt-is d tin ara ad yadren s waṭas ɣef wanect yella deg tallit n welkam agejdan (kra n 2600° C).[15].Deg taggara, ahilium ad ifakk w ad yettwačč deg weɣyay ugar n uhidṛujin d tseddart anda timerɣiwt n uhilium tesgensis amur meẓẓiyen seg wakud n tmerɣiwt n uhidṛujin. yerna acku tafukt ur meqqer ara s wayen ara ad yeǧǧen ad tili timerɣiwt n iferdisen iẓayanen seg uhilium, anecta igellu-d s tdersi n tsedmirt taɣisant deg wul n tfukt d unesses n tissi tuffiɣt ɣer tallunt i wakken ad tegri tfukt d agezlan amellal s tneẓẓi yeflalen (ɛlayen), s wakka ad tili (tfukt) s wezgen n tkura-ines taẓaṛant yakk d ubleɣ yegdan ableɣ n tegnit [16], ma d tissiwin tunessisin ssiliɣent-d asignew amtiwgan ma d kra seg tnegwa i d-issilɣen yakan tafukt ttuɣalent d tinegwa tigratrawin

Tafukt[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Ammas agramtiweg[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Tifekkiwin n unagraw anafuk[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Anagraw anafuk agensuy[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Anagraw anafuk uffiɣ[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Deffir n Niftun[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Tamiwin timaggagin[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Assedɣer amaẓallaw[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Anarag n wudus anafuk[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Udusen inafuken niden[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Ẓeṛ daɣen[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Imniren[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]


Tuccḍa n temsisɣelt: Des balises <ref> existent pour un groupe nommé « tamawt », mais aucune balise <references group="tamawt"/> correspondante n’a été trouvée

  1. Empty citation (help)
  2. . doi:10.1046/j.1468-4004.2000.00012.x. Unknown parameter |amaddad= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |tasniwin= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |azwel= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |aseggas= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |amaskar= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |aɣmis= ignored (help); Cite journal requires |journal= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
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  4. . doi:10.1006/icar.1996.5637. Unknown parameter |amaddad= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |azemz n ufaylu= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |akala= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |amaskar= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |akala n ufaylu= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |azwel= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |tasniwin= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |aseggas= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |azemz n tuwwṭa= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |aɣmis= ignored (help); Cite journal requires |journal= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  5. The date is based on the oldest inclusions found to date in Tagersas, and is thought to be the date of the formation of the first solid material in the collapsing nebula.
    A. Bouvier and M. Wadhwa. "The age of the solar system redefined by the oldest Pb-Pb age of a meteoritic inclusion." Nature Geoscience, in press, 2010. Doi: 10.1038/NGEO941
  6. 6,0 et 6,1 Empty citation (help)
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  8. . doi:10.1126/science.1101979. PMID 15637266. Unknown parameter |amaddad= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |azemz= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |akala= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |aneggar= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |azemz n ufaylu= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |akala n ufaylu= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |amezwar= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |amdan= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |tasniwin= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |azwel= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |azemz n tuwwṭa= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |aɣmis= ignored (help); Cite journal requires |journal= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
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  10. M. Momose, Y. Kitamura, S. Yokogawa, R. Kawabe, M. Tamura, S. Ida (2003). "Investigation of the Physical Properties of Protoplanetary Disks around T Tauri Stars by a High-resolution Imaging Survey at lambda = 2 mm" (PDF). In Ikeuchi, S., Hearnshaw, J. and Hanawa, T. (eds.) (ed.). The Proceedings of the IAU 8th Asian-Pacific Regional Meeting, Volume I. 289. Astronomical Society of the Pacific Conference Series. p. 85. Unknown parameter |azemz n ufaylu= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |akala n ufaylu= ignored (help)CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) CS1 maint: extra text: editors list (link)
  11. . doi:10.1086/429160. Unknown parameter |amaddad= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |amaskar= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |amezwar2= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |aseggas= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |azwel= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |tasniwin= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |aneggar2= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |Aɣmis= ignored (help); Cite journal requires |journal= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  12. . doi:10.1086/321795. Unknown parameter |amaddad= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |azemz n ufaylu= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |akala= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |amaskar= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |akala n ufaylu= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |azwel= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |aseggas= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |tasniwin= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |aɣmis= ignored (help); Cite journal requires |journal= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  13. . doi:10.1080/0010751042000275277. Unknown parameter |amaddad= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |azemz n ufaylu= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |akala= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |amaskar= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |akala n ufaylu= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |azwel= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |aseggas= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |tasniwin= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |aɣmis= ignored (help); Cite journal requires |journal= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  14. Empty citation (help)
  15. . doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.13022.x. Unknown parameter |amaddad= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |azemz n ufaylu= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |akala= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |amaskar= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |akala n ufaylu= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |aseggas= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |tasniwin= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |azwel= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |aɣmis= ignored (help); Cite journal requires |journal= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
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