Aziweɣ (amtiweg)

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Aziweɣ neɣ Merkur (Azamul-is ) d amtiweg meẓẓiyen deg wudus anafuk yerna d netta i yudsen (iqerben) yakk ɣer tfukt. Imaziɣen zik-nni fkan-as isem n «uziweɣ», aẓaṛ n yisem-a yekka-d seg z w ɣ yefkan assaɣ ɣer tezweɣ d weẓɣal. Ma d tutlayin n iɣerfan ur nessin ara amtiweg-a ssexdament isem Alatin yettaken assaɣ i yellu n tnezzayt ɣer iṛumanen.

Aqqaṛ n uziweɣ ila (isɛa) azal n 4880 km ma d takura-ines tegda 0.055 n tkura n tegnit. Yettfakka-d yiwet n tuzzya tummidt ɣef tfukt deg 87.969 n wussan. Anfal amezzay n umtiweg-a d win ilan (isɛan) atig meqqren yakk gar n yimtiwgen n udus anafuk akken ila annuz agellusan meẓẓiyen yakk gar-asen anda i d-ittfakka 3 n tuzzyiwin ɣef ugellus-is i yal snat n tuzzyiwin timezzayin. Afafuk deg tmezzit n uziweɣ deg umussu-ines azazwar d win yettbeddilen s yisig n 43 n tesdatin tiganzawin deg yal tasut. Annecta yella-d fell-as usegzi sɣuṛ n teẓri n timasseɣt tamatut n Albert Einstein deg tazwara n tsut tis 20.[1]

Aziweɣ yettbin-d d aseflalay mi ara ad tiwali wemdan deg tegnit, Azal-is amaskad iga gar n -2.3 alamma d 5.7 d acu kan mači d ayen ifraren (isehlen) ad yettwaẓeray deg tehriwin yeflalen am akken i yettwaẓeray deg tehriwin n wadda d tid n tlemmast aladɣa mi ara ad yili deg tegnit n wenzeɣ Afellay s wassaɣ ɣer tfukt, Dɣa taseddaṛt n wenzeɣ-a tga 28,3° send ma ad tefrar tfukt neɣ seld n uɣelluy. Ulac win izemren ad iwali aziweɣ deg tafat n wass anagar imanayen neɣ deg talliyin n wefsax n uɣrid tfukt mi ara ad yekk zdat n tegra n wefsax-a, anelfuy-a (aneḍru agi) 13 n tikkal deg yal tasut.
Isalan yellan ɣef uziweɣ drus-it s umata, acku imsaddasen n tegnit sbanen-d anagar imuren izin-ziren n tjumma-ines. Tanawt tamezwarut yakk yerzan ɣer uziweɣ tga d Mariner 10 i d-ifkan tigertilin i wazal n 45% seg tjumma-ines seg useggas n 1974 alamma d 1975. Ma d asikel wis sin yella-d s tanawt n MESSENGER i d-irnan azal n 30% seg tigertilin n umtiweg-a ass mi i d-ikka zdat-s deg wass n 14 yennayer 2008

Talɣa n uziweɣ d tin yettemcabin ɣer wayyur acku igber seg waṭas n tkucin timackaṭin d izaɣaren d tamiwin tileggaɣin, Aziweɣ ur ila ara (ur yesɛa ara) tignut tamtiwgant d wayyur agaman maca ila aɣyay n wuzzal s tenmegla n wayyur, ayen i d-t-ittaǧǧan ad isnulfu iger adekran igdan 1% n watig n yidef adekran n tegnit. Tineẓẓi n umtiweg-a tga d tasureft s wassaɣ ɣer ubleɣ-ines s usrag n ubleɣ n weɣyay-is meqqren,[2] ma d taẓɣelt-is d tin yettbeddilen s tuget anda deg wass tessawaṭ ger n 90 alamma d 700 C° ma deg yiṭ ɣezzifen tezmer ad tader alamma d -150C°.
Temẓi n uziweɣ teǧǧa-t ad yili meẓẓiy ɣef kra n wayyuren icafcalen am ganimid d titan, tasuddest-is tga 70% d imɣuzen yakk d 30% d silikat,[3] ma d tineẓẓi-ines tga d tineẓẓi yeflalen tis snat deg wudus anafuk, tugar-itt tineẓẓi n tegnit s wazal n 5.515 g/cm³ kan.[4]

Annay n uziweɣ[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Azal amaskad n uziweɣ d win igan gar n -2.3 ɣer +5.7 (d aseflalay ugar n iserɣi), ma d atig afellay yakk n wazal-is amaskad yettili-d mi ara ad yili yudes ɣer tfukt.[5] Annay n uziweɣ d acuran amacemma s usrag (s sebba) n waddas-is ɣer tfukt maca yezmer wemdan ad tiẓer deg wakuden tefrara d wednunnes, Dɣa timeẓriwt d wannay n uziweɣ d win isehlen deg wezgen anaẓul n tegnit wala deg wezgen agafan

Aziweɣ ɣer imezwura[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Tamudemt n wannay n Iben Ccaṭir i uziweɣ

Tifelwiyin n (Mul.Apin) ttumeggzent d tamawin timzikin (tiqburin) tisnallanin yakk ɣef uziweɣ. Imusnawen ttɣilen d akken tifelwiyin-a xdmen-iten-id iwasuren deg tsut tis 14 s.t,[6] Tasuɣelt n tira tunttirt n yisem n umtiweg-a deg tfelwit tusa-d s unamek n “Amanttag”.[7] Ifuyla ibablen i uziweɣ ttuɣalen ɣer tengimt tamezwarut st anda i sessemman nabu i d-isgensisen yellu n tesnagt d tira s unect n tumgisent-nsen. Ma yella ɣer yegriken deg tallit n Hesiodo ssnemlen-d amtiweg-a akken i sefkan isem n «Stílvon, Στίλβων» yakk d «Hermàon, Ἑρμάων) acku llan ttɣilen d akken iga d snat n tfekkiwen yettwabṭan, sin akin fkan-as isem n Apullu ass mi i d-ittbanay deg wakud n tefrar yakk d Hermes mi ara ad ibin deg wakud n wednunnes. Deg tsut tis 4 st ufan-d imesnallunen igriken d akken ismawen-a ttwanefken i yiwen n umtiweg.[8] Sin akin, iṛumanen fkan-as isem n «Mercurius» yettmagaren yellu Hermes ɣer yigriken acku yettewlilwel s urured ugar n yal amtiweg niden. Amusnaw Ameẓeran-Aṛuman Klawdius Pṭilimus yura ɣef wezray n uziweɣ zdat n tfukt akken i d-issumer d akken azray-a ur d-ittbanay ara acku azray-a ur d-yettales ara terna aziweɣ d ameẓyan.[9].

Tanaramt n uziweɣ s imsaddasen inegniyen[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Annay n wezray n uziweɣ (Azag aberkan s ddaw n wammas n tugna) ma d azag yellan ɣef tama tazelmaṭ n tegra tanadukt d azmul anafuk

Annay anezwaru yakk i uziweɣ s umsaddas yella-d deg tsut tis 17 sɣuṛ n umesnallun Galileo Galilei anda i yerra tamawt ɣer wannuf amtiwgan ass mi i d-yuni tatrit maca amsaddas-is ur yelli ara d win igedṛen i wakken ad iwali annuf n uziweɣ. Ma d Pierre Gassendi ixdem-d deg useggas n 1631 yiwen n umsaddas s waci i yezmer ad yani yis azray n umtiweg zdat n tafukt. Ma deg useggas n 1639 yessaweṭ Giovanni Battista Zupi ad yani w ad isnirem d akken aziweɣ ila (yesɛa) annufen imezzayen yettemcabin agla n tettit d wayyur, dɣa tamawt-a tessentem-d tuzzya n uziweɣ ɣef tfukt.[3]

Yiwen seg inelfuyen imesnallanen imidrusen iga d adrag, anda iderreg uziweɣ d tetrit yiwet n tikkelt yal kra n tsutin. Dɣa annay amyiwen i wnelfuy-a yella-d deg wass n 28 mayyu 1737 ass mi i d-tt-yuni umusnaw John Bevis deg usanay ageldan n Greenwich. Ma d adrag i d-iteddun yezmer ad yili deg wass n 3 dujamber aseggas n 2133.[10]

Iffigen imallunen ɣer uziweɣ[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Tafelwit i d-immalen kra n yiffigen ɣer uziweɣ
Tanawt Anelfuy Azemz Tanegga tamallunt
Mariner 10 Tessufeg wamber 1973 NASA
Aṭɣar amezwar meɣres 1974
Aṭɣar wis 2 ctember 1974
Aṭɣar wis 3 meɣres 1975
MESSENGER Tessufeg ɣuct 2004 NASA
Aṭɣar amezwar 14 yennayer 2008
Aṭɣar wis 2 6 dujamber 2008
Aṭɣar wis 3 30 ctember 2009
Asrus ɣef tmezzit meɣres 2011
BepiColombo Tessufeg yettwasɣiwes deg ɣuct 2014 Tanegga tamallunt tanurupt/Tanegga n tnaramt tamallunt n Yapant

Tasuddest tagensawt[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Anezwu deg uziweɣ[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Tignut tamtiwgant[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Iger adekran[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Timezzit d tuzzya[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Ẓeṛ daɣen[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Imniren[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

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