Tadunatit

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Painting of Augustine of Hippo arguing with a man before an audience
Agerram Uɣesṭin yettesqerdic akked yidunatiyen (unnuɣ n tasut tis 18 ) .

Tadunatit tella d abrid amasiḥi i d-yeffɣen seg usɣan -agi i yessebḍan timezgida n Qerṭaj ɣef sin n yiḥricen , seg tasut tis ukkuz ɣer tasut tis seddis . Walan idunatiyen belli imunak ilaq ad ilin ur sɛin ara akk deg umezruy-nsen ayen n diri , werǧin i ɣelḍen . Tebda tdunatit deg wussan n tallit n yimasiḥiyen n Tefriqt n Ugafa ( ussan-agi d Tunes , agafa n Lezzayer akked teftist n umalu n Libya ) deg wakud n utbaɛ d karuh n yimasiḥiyien n Diqlyanus . Tettusemma ɣef yisem n urgaz i tt-ixedmen : amunak amaziɣ amasiḥi Dunatus Maɣnus , aṭas i ykecmen tadunatit deg tasut tis ukkuz d tis semmus .

Aẓar d yimenɣi[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Yella unembaḍ arumani n Tefriqt n Ugafa , d amsameḥ d waṭas n yimasiḥiyen yellan ttidiren deg tmurt imi imiren Deqlyanus yella yeṭṭafar-iten akken ad ten-ineɣ  , yeɛǧeb-as lḥal mi asen fkan yimasiḥiyen tabibelt-nsen am uzamul n tuffɣa-nsen ɣef uɣiddi-nsen . Mi yekfa uḍfar-nni . Imasiḥiyen i yxedmen aya ttwaḥesben d ixeddaɛen -widak i yefkan ( leḥwal i yqeddsen ) - seg wid-iten ikerhen ( yellan amur ameqqran seg-sen d igellilen ) .

Walan yidunatiyen belli timezgida ilaq ad tili d timezgida n "yigerramen " ( macci d tinna n "yiceffaren " ) , yal leqdic i yexdem yoiwen seg yixeddaɛen-aghi deg tmegida ur yettwaqbel ara . Deg 311 yuli Kaysilyan ɣef uqerru n tmezgida taqerṭajit , yettwaḥseb d axeddaɛ imi win i t-yessuli, yella ula d netta d axeddaɛ , yennuɣ mgal uɛdaw-is Majurinyus , umi ibedd-d s deffir-s Dunatus .

Ardekal n sin yiseggasen , ttwaḥussben yidunatiyen sɣur yikatuliken . Ḍefren-ten yirumaniyen , gemnen ad ten-nɣen imi dduklen d yifellaḥen igrawliwen , dɣa ḥesben-ten d ixeddaɛen n tmurt , maca agdud aɣelnaw yeddukel yid-sen , iɛdawen-nsen tedda tid-sen Rum d taggara n tmezgida takatulikit . Mazal idunatiyen sɛan awal meqqren s ṭul tudert n Uɣesṭin n Hibun , ur nesli ara yis-sen kan ardekal anekcum n yinselmen deg tasut tis ṣa d tis ṭam . Ugin akk yidunatiyen ad ḍefren abrid ideg llan yimunak d yigerramen i yxedɛen ajjed-nsen . Uɣalen-d yixeddɛen ɣer yimukan-nsen mi yuli Qusṭanṭin I ; idunatiyen llan ttwaqenɛen belli amunak yellan zik d axeddaɛ d awezɣi ad yettwaqbel yiwen seg lbaḍnat iqeddsen ( lbaḍnat iqeddsen, deg tmasiḥit d : abellez , asfaḍ s zzit , asečči , asteɛref , aseḥlu n yimuḍan , zzwaǧ d unekcum ɣer timunekt ) .

Kra deg-sen llan bɣan ad ẓren ma yella yiwen seg yixeddaɛen-agi yegmen ad yesteɛref s wayen yexdelm , ma yella yezmer ad yuɣal ɣer wadeg-is aqbur neɣ ala , timezgida tenna-d belli yezmer ad ten*-isellek usteɛref ,. Ar ass-a mazal timezgida tqas wid i as-yeffɣen s uqissi ameqqran , ilaq di tazzwara ad sutren smaḥ seg wid i ykeččmen timezgida si twwura-ines n beṛṛa , syin yettwaɛmed-asen ad qqimen ɣef tgecrar-nsen daxelm n tmezgida . Mi akken ad as-yettwaɛmed ad yeqqim ɣer tama n yimẓulla , syin ad yizmir ad yesɛu azref akken ad yeqdec s lbaḍnat i yqeddsen , ad uɣalen am akken llan zik . Ɣer yidunatiyen , tuffɣa seg usɣan amasiḥi tessufuɣ argaz i lebda seg uzref n walluy ɣef uqerru n tmezgida ( imi yeffeɣ i wajjed ur yesqenneɛ ara yis anamek-is belli yeɛmed i ukehrir ad yurar s wallaɣ-ines .)

Awal aneggaru d tigin n tiffkin n lbaḍnat i yqeddsen i yixeddaɛen , agerram Uɣesṭin iwala belli maɛlicv ad uɣaen ɣer yimukan-nsen imi abrid ɣer Yillu yettili duga duga kan , ma d Idunatiyen fkan-d awal aneggaru bvelli amunak axeddaɛ d awezɣi ad yargu s tuɣaltin ɣer timunekt . Kra n temdinin llan ttidiren deg-s yidunatiyen d yikatuliken i sin .

Later[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Yerna umḍan n yidunatiyen s daxel n Tefriqt n Ugafa , mi akke iḍerru umennuɣ di Qerṭaj ɣef usentel n timmunekt . Yefka Qustenṭin s usirelm n uḥbas n yimenɣi , idrimen i umunak ar-adunati Kaysilyan akken ad ɛiwden i tmezgidat yettwahudden neɣ yettwasenzen deg tallit-nni i deg ṭṭafaren imasiḥiyen , iban belli Qusṭenṭin ur yeẓri ara annect yeuweḍ yimenɣi-agi , aya yesserfa idunatiyen id-yessutren i Ruma , ad teḥkem s uzref gar yimasiḥiyen akken ma llan mebla asefreq-agi , ihi xedmen-d tarbaɛt i yemhel ubabat deg useggas n 313 , ugin yidunatiyen ad aɣen awal n usqamu arumani ssawlen i usqamu aɣelnaw akken ad ḥekmen ɣef yimenɣi-agi deg Qsenṭina . Deg uuseggas n 314 , yella-d usqamu n Arles , i deg ḥekmen i yikatuliken , rfan yidunatiyen i yessutren i Qustenṭin ad yeḥkem s teɣdemt . Usan-d kra seg Rumɣer Qerṭj akken ad d-afen tifrat maca ur tečči ara, ffɣen yidunatiyen ɣer yibeerdan imi rfan , ugin ayen id-yeffɣen seg usqamu-agi i yefkan azref i umunak akatuliki .

Xas akken akk imasiḥiyen qeblen ayen id-yekkan sɣur umenkad maca idunatiyen kemmlen ttagin rran amenkad d akehrir . Ɛerḍen acḥal d abrid ad d-afen tifrat maca ur lḥiqen ara , ihi yessufeɣ-d umenkad Qustanṭin asaḍuf i yḥekkmen s lmut ɣef yal yiwen ara iɛerḍen ad yesseḥbes talwit n umenkud ; yeffeɣ-d s deffir-s usaḍuf nniḍen i yessawlen ɣer usenzi n yakk ayen i tesɛa tmezgida tadunatit , yugi Dunatus ad yefk lebni-ines di Qerṭaj , iceyyeɛ-d unembaḍ arumani aɣelnaw akken ad sḥebsen Dunatus d wid i t-iḍefren , ɣas akken amezruy dagi ur d-iban ara aṭas maca kra n yidunatiyen iban ttwanɣan ma d imunak ttwanfan .

Berra n Qerṭaj , ulac d acu i xeddmen i tmezgidat d yimunak ; ur yelḥiq ara Qustenṭin ad yessemlil timezgida d yidunatiyen , deg 324 yessuter-d i yimunak ad sbegnen taɣdemt d ssbeṛ aked yidunatiyen , deg tallit tameẓẓyant n umenkad Julyan , ukinn-d yidunatiyen farṣen tagnit xedmen tagraxla sseṛɣen timezgida tikatulikin d yigran n yinesbaɣuren irumaniyen ikatuliken . Yessufeɣ-d Baluntinyan I isaḍufen mgal yidunatiyen ardekal ɣelluy d timenɣiwt n ugrawliw adunati Firmus .

Tanmegla[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Yexdem ugerram Uɣesṭin leqdic akken ad yesseɣli tadunatit , tuli turtuduksit deg tefriqt n Ugafa

yexdem kra n tmental ɣef wacu id-yessebgen ayen yeḍfer abrid n yidammen mgal yidunatiyen deg yiwet n tebrat

Ɣelluy[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Tehbda tdunatit tɣelli mi akken yexdem Uɣesṭin leqdic-nni-ines akken yisaḍufen n umenkud , mi d-kecmen yiwindaliyen ɣer Tefriqt n Ugafa tuder tdunatin akken i as-teḍra i tkatulikit d turtuduksit imi iwindaliyen llan ṭṭafren taryusit , maca tuɣal-d ɣer tudert mi d-ikcemucengu abizenṭi deg tallit n umenkad Justinyan I , ur neẓri ara acḥali tesɛa tdunatit deg yila-s neɣ melmii teɣli , kra n yimussnawen n umezruy ttwalin belli tazɣent-aagi gar yimasiḥiyen id--yessɣawlen anekcum n yinselmen, ɣer temnaḍt imi lukan llan dduklen tili akken ma llan ad qedcen akken ad ssufɣen maca imi yal yiwen yettwali kan iman-iis ytuweḍ-d tneslemt ɣer temnaḍt .

Tirbaɛ i yesɛan assaɣ yid-sen[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Sɛan yidunatiyen assaɣ d trebbaɛ nniḍen gar-asent:

Kra n trebaɛ tidunatiyin targnusiyin[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

  • Irugatisiyen  i yellan d tarbaɛt i yugin talwit
  • Ikludyanen i yedduklen d yidunatiyen ɣef ufus n umunak adunati Briyan n Qerṭaj .
  • Yella Tikunyus d bu texmam i ssufɣen yidunatiyen seg-sen imi yugi tikti n uɛawed n ubellez
  • Ineḍfaren n Maksimilyan i yeffɣen seg tdunatit .

Tirbaɛ tidunatiyin nniḍen umi ǧǧan-d deg-s yiɣnuṣiyen later[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

  • Tirbaɛ n useḍher d tirbaɛ tuimasiḥiyin tirebrabin i yettwalin timuɣrest d iswi n umdan di tudert macci akken tettwali tmezgida n Qerṭaj belli d tterbya i d ṣṣeḥ deg tudert n umdan . Kran n yidunatiyen , i yeslan s wayen akk xedmen , rran-ten d imeddukal-nsen tettwaḥuseb umbeɛd terbaɛt-agi i yellan tettamen s tayri tilellit d tukksa n urḍal d tilelli n waklan , d tigin n zwaǧ d tiseddarin n yimdanen , d umeslay deg sselɛat
  • Timezgida n yimceyyɛen ur neẓri aṭas fella-sen maca neẓra belli wwin-d abrid-nsen seg yidunatiyen, .

Tirbaɛ tidunatiyin nniḍen[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Deg Mauretania d Numidya,Llant aṭas n trebaɛ yeffɣen io tkatulikit , armii idunatiyen s timmad-nsen ur lḥiqen ara ad tent-ḥesben

Imunak[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Idunatiyen snen kra n yimunak d wigi :

  • Majurinus (311–313)
  • Dunatus Magnus (313–355; yettwanfa deg 347)
  • Barmeniyan (355–391)
  • Brimiyan (391–393)
  • Maximyanus (393–394)
  • Brimiyan (394–. 400)

Later deg wurmir[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

  • Teffeɣ-d terbaɛt n lxawariǧ umi d tarbaɛt yeffɣen i ubrid n tneslemt deg temnaḍt n Tefriqt n Ugafa ideg ddren yidunatiyen zik nni