Ibn Baṭṭuṭa

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Ibn Baṭṭuṭa
Tameddurt
Talalit Tin Iggi, 24 Fuṛaṛ 1304
Tutlayt tayemmat Taɛrabt
Lmut Fas, 1368
Tawacult
Tissulya akked première femme d'Ibn Battuta (fr) Suqel  (1325 -
Tiɣri
Tutlayin Taɛrabt
Tafursit
Taterkit
Amahil
Amahil explorateur ou exploratrice (fr) Suqel, géographe (fr) Suqel, amaru, cartographe (fr) Suqel, lqaḍi, amsenzu, voyageur ou voyageuse (fr) Suqel d faqîh (fr) Suqel
Important works Le Rihla (fr) Suqel
Taflest
Asɣan Tineslemt

Abu Ɛebdellah Muḥemmed ibn Ɛebdellah al-Lawati al-Ṭanji ibn Baṭṭuṭa (s taɛrabt : أبو عبد الله محمد بن عبد الله بن محمد بن ابراهيم اللواتي الطنجي[1]), qqaren-as Ibn Baṭṭuṭa (s taɛrabt : ابن بطوطة[1]), illul ass n 24 yebrir 1304 deg Tingi, d amessikel ineslem meqqren akk deg Tallit-Tanammast, d ameskar n yiwen seg idlisen mucaɛen akk n assikel qqaren-as s taɛrabt : تحفة النظار في غرائب الأمصار وعجائب الأسفار, deg adlis-nni Ibn Baṭṭuṭa iglem-d yisiklen-is n ahat n 120 000 km, anda yeẓra-d ɣer aṭas n timura yimselmen ed ar Ccinwa ed Sumaṭra (deg Indunisya n tura)[2].

Tudert ed yisiklen[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Ibn Baṭṭuṭa illul ass n 24 yebrir 1304 deg Tingi (deg uwanak n Ayt Mrin), mis n tawacult taqayemt[3] laṣel-is d Imaziɣen n Ilwaten (s taɛrabt : Lawata, لواتة)[4], deg-s llan aṭas n inezrafen (iqaḍiyen), mi meẓẓiyet, yeɣra taɣdemt ed tasekla deg tamdint n wanida yezdeɣ Tingi[2].

Isiklen ɣer Tafriqt ed Usamar alemmas (1325-1332)[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Isiklen n 1325-1332.

Ɣer 21 n yiseggasen (deg 1325), Ibn Baṭṭuṭa yebda iskilen-is s Lḥeǧǧ ɣer Mekka, yettεeddin ɣef timura n Tafriqt Ugafa, Nnil, Dimecq ed Ḥaleb, uqbel ad yawi ubrid ɣer n Mekka, anda yewweḍ deg 1326. Ardeqqal, iteddu ɣer Tamurt n Faris (Iṛan n tura) ed Beɣdad, ed ad d-yuɣal ɣer Tazunegzirt taɛrabt (deg 1327) anda yeqqim kraḍ n iseggasen. Syin akkin, iteddu ɣer tillis n timura n yimselmen ɣef Ilel Azeggaɣ ed ugemmaḍ Usammar n Tafriqt, yewweḍ alamma tegzirt n Kilwa (deg Tanzanya n tura), iteddu daɣen ɣer Abagu Afarsi ed Tamurt n Faris (deg 1332), uqbel ad d-yuɣal tikkelt nniḍen ɣer Lḥeǧǧ deg Mekka[3].

Isiklen ɣer timura n ugafa Lhend ed Ccinwa (1332-1346)[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Isiklen n 1332-1346.

Deffir Tazunegzirt taɛrabt, Ibn Baṭṭuṭa iteddu ɣer agafa ɣef Anaḍul (deg Tturk n tura) ed Tzunegzirt n Qirim [en] (deg Rusya ed Ukrayin n tura), Tirkaf n wuṛeɣ [en][3], anda yessen-is l-Xan-nsen[2], ed iteddu syin akkin ɣer Istambul akked yiwet seg tlawin n l-Xan. Ardeqqal, ad d-yuɣal ɣer l-Xan ed iteddu ɣer usamar ɣef Lhend, yettεeddin ɣef wasif n Volga, Afɣanistan, Idurar n Hindu Kuc [en] ed yewweḍ ɣer Delhi deg 1333, anda yeqqim ahat tẓa (tesɛa) n iseggasen ixeddem sselṭan[3] em Qaḍi (anezraf)[2]. Deg 1342, rran d anmahal ɣer amenkad n Ccinwa, Ibn Baṭṭuṭa yeǧǧa Delhi ma d askil-is yella yeččur imihiyen; iẓdem-d fell-as iɣewwaɣen ihendusen, ixesseṛ ayla-s ed isefka n amenkad n Ccinwa. Yugad urrif n sselṭan-is, Ibn Baṭṭuṭa yextaṛ ad iṛuḥ ɣer Imeldiwen[2], anda yeqqim ugar n yiwen aseggas ed ixeddem em Qaḍi (anezraf), syin akkin, iɛewwel ad iteddu ɣer Ccinwa[2], yettεeddin ɣef Seylan (Sri Lanka n tura), Tamurt n Bangal (deg Bangladec ed agafa-usammar n Lhend n tura) ed Sumaṭra (deg Indunisya n tura)[3], i yerza ar Pekin ed ad yuɣal ɣer Sumaṭra[2].

Tuɣalin ɣer Asamar alemmas ed Tafriqt (1349-1354)[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Ibn Baṭṭuṭa deg Maṣer, tugna n Jules Verne (1878).
Isiklen n 1349-1354.
Aẓekka izemren ad yili n Ibn Baṭṭuṭa deg Tingi.

Ibn Baṭṭuṭa ad d-yuɣal ɣer Asamar alemmas ɣef Lhend ed Abagu Afarsi[3], alamma Beɣdad ed Surya, anda iḥewweṣ ɣer aṭas n timdinin dinna[2], uqbel ad d-yuɣal tikkelt nniḍen ed taneggarut ɣer Lḥeǧǧ deg Mekka (deg 1349)[3]. Iteddu syin akkin ɣer Maṣer ed Tunes seg Taskendrit, yettεeddin daɣen ɣef Sardinya, Lezzayer, ed taggara yewweḍ ɣer Fas d tamanaɣt n sselṭan n imarinen, deg wamber 1394[2].

Kra n lweqt deffir tuɣalin-is (deg 1350), Ibn Baṭṭuṭa iteddu ɣer Limara n Ɣernaṭa. Deg 1352, yessikil ɣer Aneẓruf Ameqran n Tafriqt, ɣef lamer n sselṭan[2], yettεeddin ɣef wasif n Nnijer, Tin Buktu, Gao, Ahaggar ed Isgelmasen[3], ed yeqqim yiwen aseggas deg Tamnekda n Mali[2].

Lewhi n tagara n 1353, Ibn Baṭṭuṭa ad d-yuɣal ɣer Meṛṛakec, anda ixeddem em Qaḍi deg yiwet seg timdinin-s[2].

Lmut-is[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Isegziyen (ttfaṣil) n lmut n Ibn Baṭṭuṭa ur tban ara ar tura, yezmer lḥal ad yemmut deg 1368/69 neɣ deg 1377, yettwamḍel deg temdint ideg tlul Tingi[2].

Ayen yura[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Tanɣelt n udlis n Ibn Baṭṭuṭa (seg 1836), deg Taqahirt.

Deffir 1353, ed ɣef asuter n sselṭan, Ibn Baṭṭuṭa ad yezbuɣ waktayen-is n isiklen i amaru Ibn Juzayy (amaru andalusi yemmut deg 1355)[2]. adlis-agi qqaren-as s taɛrabt : Tuḥfat an-Nuḍḍār fī Ɣaraʾib al-Amṣar wa Ɛaǧaʾib al-Asfar, تحفة النظار في غرائب الأمصار وعجائب الأسفار, neɣ al-Rriḥla (Asikel), الرحلة , d warrat d axatar i yessefhem-d aṭas n tamiwin n amezruy anmetti, adelsan ed amserti n timura yimselmen, ullisen-is n issikelen ɣer Anaḍul, Tafriqt Umalu, Tafriqt Usamar, Imeldiwen ed Lhend, llin aɣbalu meqqren n amezruy n timnaḍin-nni[5].

Tijmilin[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

  • Mall n Dubay (Ibn Battuta Mall, 2005)[6].
  • Amafag n Tingi (مطار طنجة ابن بطوطة الدولي)[7].
  • Uruz n wayyur (Ibn Battuta lunar crater)[8].

Ass n 25 fuṛaṛ 2012, Google yemmug d tajmilt i Ibn Baṭṭuṭa i imulli-is wis 708, akked tugna n yisiklen-is[9].

Muqqel daɣen[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Tizmilin[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

  1. 1,0 et 1,1 azday s Taɛrabt ed azday s tafransist Ibn Batuta, Voyages d'Ibn Batoutah, texte arabe, accompagné d' une tr. par C. Defrémery et B.R. Sanguinetti. 4 tom,Volume 1, 1853, (taɣuṛi), tawṛiqt 1-2.
  2. 2,00 2,01 2,02 2,03 2,04 2,05 2,06 2,07 2,08 2,09 2,10 2,11 2,12 et 2,13 (en) Ibn Battuta, deg britannica.com.
  3. 3,0 3,1 3,2 3,3 3,4 3,5 3,6 et 3,7 azday s tafransist Abu Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Abd Allah Ibn Battuta, deg larousse.fr.
  4. (en) Ross E. Dunn, The Adventures of Ibn Battuta: A Muslim Traveler of the 14th Century, University of California Press, 1989, (ISBN 9780520067431) (taɣuṛi), tawṛiqt 19 ed 314.
  5. (en) Travels work by Ibn Battuta, deg britannica.com.
  6. (en) bn Battuta Mall: Shopping centre that lets you explore new places, deg gulfnews.com.
  7. azday s tafransist Christiane Dupont Nangle, De Tanger à Marrakech, Marsam Editions, 2007, (ISBN 9789954210932) (taɣuṛi), tawṛiqt wis 18.
  8. (en) Ibn Battuta (Moon), deg wenamethestars.inkleby.com.
  9. azday s tafransist 708e anniversaire de la naissance d'Ibn Battûta, deg google.com.