Tafsut n Yimaziɣen

Si Wikipedia, tasanayt tilellit.
(Yettusmimeḍ seg Tafsut n Imaziɣen)
Neggez ar: ẓer isebtar, anadi

Ass n 20 ibrir, d amulli n tefsut amaziɣ, amulli n tefsut n tlelli. D yiwen wass i deg a nesfugel i tikkelt tis 25 tadyant n imaziɣen. Anwa-t weqbayli ur nesli neɣ ur nessin tafsut n imaziɣen ? Anwa-t umaziɣ im’ ur yiwiḍ yissel? Wa yecfa wa ala akken it-iccenu Abranis deg yiwet si tezlatin-is maca, tura, seg weqrur-nni amecṭuḥ alma d amɣar-nni acaraf, ssnen awk anamek-is uzemz-a*. Azekka daɣen, a nemyager akk d yiman-neɣ, akk d weḥric-a axatar deg umezruy azi* n Tferka n ugafa.

Mačči d asfugel iɣ-d-yeggran ass-a, ur ɣ-yeţţak wul i waya acku gran-aɣ-n yiswan wuɣur mazal werɛad nessaweḍ, yeggra-ɣ-n webrid i mazal ur ifuk ara, ggrant-aɣ-n ccfayat ur neḥriz akken iwata...teggra-yaɣ-n tutlayt tamaziɣt i yuɣalen amzun d taǧǧalt. Ggrant-aɣ-n terwiḥin n wid yeţwanɣan di tefsut taberkant. Widak-nni i d-yekkren di 1980 d widak i d-yekkren di 2001 yiwen n yiri nsen. Timesbaniyin-nni i yeḍran di tmurt n leqbayel send iḍelli, iḍelli neɣ ass-a, ţţakent-ed udem n weqbayli i yerɣan af tilelli. Ayen awk wiɣer id-nessaweḍ ass-a,123 n imeɣrasen i nɣan iserdasen d isultiyen n udabu azzayri aɛrab inselmizri akk d ibuxusen-is, yesban-aɣ-d dakken: ger yiḍelli d wass-a, ulac dacu i ibeddlen fell-aɣ. Imi mazal neqqen arrac nneɣ am yizan, teţwaḥreṣ ugar n yiḍelli. « Aman-nni yeččuren d ḥellejɣar d nutni d nutni, bedlen-asen kan acemmux » Tafsut n imaziɣen mačči kan akka i ţ-lul-ed ger yiḍ d wass: dayen wiɣer i d-nessaweḍ, dayen awk id-yekkan zdat-es i ţ-id-ismentsen.

Idim mazal tuɣ yeḥma ass mi yeţwakkes usarag n (Dda lmulud) Mulud At Mɛammer af tmedyazt taqburt n yeqbayliyen(asarag-a tuɣ teţţuhega-n i wass n 10 meɣres), yugi-ţ udabu azzayri, teţwakkes kan akka...d amnukal n ugerzu n Tizi-Wezzu s yiman-is i s-ţ-yennan i dda Lmulud. Si tal tama, di yal adrum, bdan medden ţţarran nnehtat si cayaḍ i sen-iserkeb udabu azzayri, bdan ţţiwzagen waman...aseqqi yemmar-ed akken yerɣa. Meḥyaf-nni i isik Bu-iledyen af yeqbayliyen yezzi-d af bab-is, tefɣ-ed tiɣri n wid yugin ddel d uzaglu. Dɣa tetṭerḍeq af tikkelt, temmar-ed af yiwin yidis. Krim Belqasem d yiwen seg yiḍan n “El-Moudjahed“ i s-d-itekkan i dda lmulud, s rregmat akk d useglef; ira ad yefk iɣil i wat-is: wid-nni iɣ-d-imedlen tiwwura, wid-nni iţţarrayin af wegdud. Tamesbanit tamenzut i d-yellan di Tizi-Wezzu d tin n 11 meɣres 1980, tsembiwel addad(liḥala) n timiren. D inelmaden d tinelmadin n [[Taseddawit Asif Ɛisi]] d Iḥesnawen i yetṭfen tuɣḍaṭ-a, ur ẓẓrin ara kan dacu i yellan yegguni-ten …

Aɣaram asdawan n wasif ɛisi, mazal-it ar ass-a i wakken a d-yesmekti wid yeţţun, akken a ten-d-yeḥku af yiḍ-nni n 19 yebrir1980 mi d-mkuben iserdasen s yeqjan. D ahmaj i hemjen deg inelmaden d tnelmadin. Acḥal iwin ar lḥebs, acḥal ɛedmen ger-asen... A nekk seg wayaki mebla ma neţţu awk imeɣnasen i s-yefkan udem azedgan i wayen i d-yeḍran. Ur ntekk ara kan akka ma yella ur d-nudir irgazen am Ɛebbuṭ, Lunawsi, Mezdad, Saɛdi, Ferḥat Mhenni, Zituni... d yawk arrac imaziɣen i iseblen iman-nsen i wakken tadyant n 20 Yebrir a ţ-aweḍ ar tal taddart di tmurt n Yeqbayliyen. Aseggas yezzi af waya, si tama n Bgayet iɣ-d-tekka taɣrit n Imaziɣen tikkelt-a...Tafsut n 1981 Ilmeẓyen d telmeẓyin n din ččan aḥlalas n udabu azzayri, awal nsen yiwen: werǧin ad teḥlelli-d tugduţ i yeqbayliyen

Seg wass-nni, Iqbayliyen fkan awal, ggulen dakken tineţţi nsen ur tnegger u s deffir-sen ḍefren-d imaziɣen s umata. Ulayɣer a nesṭuqet awal, d timuggiyin i asenfar nneɣ. Imal n yeqbayliyen atan di tmurt nsen, iẓuran-nsen ɣzan almi anda yiwen ur yessin…Imal n tutlayt nsen atan ger tarwa-s, atan di tmurt-is, deg urebbi n warraw-is. Talalit n Amussu Adelsan Amaziɣ s tumert medden ay ţ-muggren, ass-nni i yebda umennuɣ af yidles d tutlayt nneɣ yeţţali yeţnerni almi ass-a, ulac win ur nessin xas ula cwiyya n umezruy nneɣ. Tafat iɣ-d-isiɣ Umussu d ajgagal s wiyes nerfreẓ abrid deg wi’ nteddu, nerfed aqerru nneɣ ar igenwan mebla akukru. Ula ma xas ass-a, Amussu yebḍa d icḥricen seg mi kkan ikabaren nnig-es, iswi-s amenzu n win n widak icḥemlen ayla nsen, akal nsen...

Azekka d amulli n wass mi d-tefrari tagut af wid iran seg wul tugduţ d yetṭfen deg iẓuran nsen…amennuɣ simmal irennu, agdud simmal yeţţaki. Ad rnuɣ af wayaki, amennuɣ n imeɣnasen s yimru , tamedyazt d ccna.

Maɛṭub Lwennas seg imezwura i sen-yerran tajmilt i tlawin d yergazen n tefsut imaziɣen, tasfift i d-yessufeɣ kra n wayyuren kann s deffir 20 yebrir anda icennu:

Eḥzen Lwad Ɛisi Mi yebda imenɣi Yewweḍ-iten Lɛesker deg Yiḍ Tuddar slant irkwelli, suwwent ɣer Tizi Kul abrid a yeţfeggiḍ Ur telli d tisselbi, nehwaǧ tilleli, Uqbel aɣ-ḥerren ɣer lhid. Akken nella zik a nili, Ma yella imenɣi, Wi’ mmuten ad yennerni mmi-s. A wid iḥekmen ayenni, ur nelli d ulli, Tamurt iban-d lsas-is. Tamaziɣt ad tennerni …

Ferḥat Mhenni, yeccna tafsut imaziɣen:

Nnif d lḥerma dayen yeḍran Di tefsut n Tizi Wezzu Llan d ilemẓyen d tlemẓyin fɣan-d s iberdan. Nnan-d ala dayen neɛya Si lbaṭel akk d uzaglu ...

Neɣ ayen yeccna Buǧemɛa Agraw :

Timest n 54 tensa di 62 Teggra-d tirgit deg iɣed-nni Tuɣal tecɛel di 80 Tetṭef-iţ-id tideţ n lesnin Ansi i d-isuḍ ubeḥri D leqbayel i izuggiren Mazal-aɣ d imaziɣen … Ma ţţuɣ arrac nneɣ yeɣlin, Nekk mačči d aqbayli

Lwennas d dda Lmulud Mazal-aɣ d imaziɣen Ur neţr’uz ur nkennu Ur nqebbel ara azaglu Mazal-aɣ…mazal-aɣ d imaziɣen ...

Amezruy n Tefsut n Yimaziɣen : D acu yeḍran ?[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

[Tafsut n 1980 deg Tmurt n Leqbayel d tin ay ikecmen deg umezruy (ttarix) n tmaziɣt d win n Ldzayer akk-n ma tella. Deg wussan-nni, ḍrant aṭas n tɣawsiwin s tghawla, d tid ay yuraren ddurh d ameqqran deg tikli i lmend n wakkaz s tmazight deg tmurt-is. Yelha ma nessawel-d ghef way-n yedhran deg Tefsut-nni akk-n ad nefhem xir tidyanin-a. Adhris-a ay d-nuwey d tukkist (extrait) seg "Weghmis n Tedyanin n Tmurt n Leqbayel" ay yura Racid Caker deg tallit-nni u yeffeɣ-d deg tesɣunt (revue) n "Les Temps Modernes" (uṭṭunen 432-433, Yunyu-Ɣuct 1982), akk d tesɣunt Tafsut.]


Ass n lḥedd, 9 Meɣres 1980 : Tasdawit n Tizi Wezzu tella tesaa imir-n sin n yiseggasen d wezgen seg wasmi ay tettwaldi yernu yufa-d lḥal yagi tga tlata yisundilen (grèves) imeqranen, aneggaru deg-sen d win ay d-yellan deg gar 17 Tubeṛ d 13 Nwembeṛ 1979. Asunded-nni gan-t ɣef wugur n ugenses idetti (représentation authentique) n yinelmaden sdaxel n tesdawit. Akabar n Tirni n Weslelli Aɣelnaw (FLN) yella la d-yeqqar dakk-n inelmaden ara yesseḥṛasen akk-n ad gen isundilen-a d "imesmaziɣen" (berbéristes) neɣ d imaṛksiyen imaziɣen (u llan qqaren-asen "Bougiots").

Seg yimir-n, iselmaden ay llan ttwalin-ten d imarksiyen, llan ur ten-ttaznen ara ɣer Tizi Wezzu, wanag ttaznen-ten ɣer tesdawit n Sṭif. Ma d iselmaden idzayriyen ay yeghran deg Fransa llan ttqaraaen-ten u tikkwal ssagaden-ten. Yagi, deg way-n iaaddan, adtas n tikkal ur jjin ara ad d-ilint tmeskanin tidelsanin (manifestations culturelles) tidelsanin timaziɣin deg Tizi Wezzu. Ur jjin ara At Mengellat neɣ Yidir ad cnun, gedlen tamezgunt (pièce de théâtre) n "2000 n yiseggasen n Ṭradh" ay llan tturaren-tt-id s teqbaylit.

Kra n wussan uqbel ma yusa-d Mouloud Mammeri ɣer tesdawit n Tizi Wezzu akk-n ad d-yeg asarag-is, sneṭḍen yinelmaden inazalen (affiches) deg yiɣerban akk-n ad d-xebbren ɣef way-a. Anemhal n tesdawit (recteur), ɣas ma yella ur as-yeɛjib ara lḥal, yeqbel ad d-yili usarag-nni imi d aseqqamu (comité) n uɣaram (cité) n Asif Aɛisi ay d-yelhan s tigin n usarag-a yernu aseqqamu-a testeɛṛef yes-s tedbelt (administration). D acu kan, aṭas n yinazalen ay d-yettwasɣersen. Deg yiḍ n wass n lḥedd d letniyen (ɣef ttnac n yiḍ), yeɣra-as-d yiwen i Mouloud Mammeri, yenna-as dakk-n d netta ay d anemhal n tesdawit n Tizi Wezzu u yenna-as dakk-n asarag-nni-ines yebṭel.


Ass n letniyen 10 Meɣres 1980 Azekka-nni taṣ̣ebḥit, Mouloud Mammeri yesteqsa, u d Mass Arab, anemhal (directeur) n tesdawit n Tizi Wezzu s timmad-is ay as-yennan dakk-n maci d netta ay as-d-yeɣran yernu asarag-ines ur yettwamneɛ, ur yettuwexxer. Ɣef tizi n ttnac n wass, Mouloud Mammeri yeqleɛ seg Ldzayer, yedda id-s Salem Caker d yiwen n unehhaṛ iqeddcen deg CRAPE, la tteddun ɣer Tizi Wezzu. Mi uwḍen ɣer Dreɛ Ben Xedda, ɣef jjuj, yeḥbes-iten yiwen n wuggug (barrage) n yibulisen (uggug niḍen yella yegguni-ten deg Buxalfa).

Sdeffir ma walan lekwaɣeḍ-is, ibulisen uwyen Mouloud Mammeri ɣer uwali n Tizi Wezzu, u d netta ay as-d-yennan s yimi-s dakk-n asarag-ines (conférence) ɣer "yisefra iqdimen n teqbaylit" yettwamneɛ imi ay-a "yezmer ad d-yawi ccwal", am wakk-n ay as-yenna ad yeffeɣ seg Tizi Wezzu imir-nni kan. Yuɣ lḥal, awali yekcef-d ula d win ay iwekkel akk-n ad as-d-iɣer i Mammeri deg yiḍ-nni u ad as-yini dakk-n asarag-is yettwamneɛ. Wagi d Mass Merabten, d anemhal (directeur) n COUS. Akk-a, Mammeri yeqqel yeẓra dakk-n anemhal n tesdawit ula ay t-yegren deg way-nni. Yuɣ lḥal, anemhal n tesdawit akk d umaru amatu (secrétaire général) qqlen nnan-as i Mammeri dakk-n ay-nni yekka-d nnig n tezmert-nsen. ɣef ṛṛebɛa d wezgen n tmeddit, llan ugar n 1000 n medden ara yettṛajun melmi ara yebdu usarag-nni. Mi ẓran dakk-n yettwamneɛ, bdan la ten-id-ttalin wurfan, yernu ssefran ad gen timlilit i uzekka-nni, 11 Meɣres, ɣef 9 n tṣ̣ebḥit.


Ass n ttlata 11 Meɣres Inelmaden gan tameskant-nsen (manifestation) tamezwarut deg yizenqan n Tizi Wezzu. ɣef ttesɛa n tṣ̣ebḥit ay mlalen u gar n 10:15 d 12:15, gar n 500 d 700 n yinelmaden ay yelḥan deg yizenqan n Tizi Wezzu, zzin-d sin iberdan ɣef yizenqan imeqranen n temdint. Tikli teḥbes sdat n Useqqamu Aɣelnaw Aɣerfan (CNP) n FLN, sdat n twilayt u sdat n tesnawit (lycée) n temdint, u llan refden tiḥucay ay deg d-uran "Idles amaziɣ : idles aɣerfan", "Awali, Aseqqamu aɣelnaw aɣerfan, asarag n Mammeri yettwamneɛ ?", "Ḥebset aqmaḍ n yedles". Uran-d daɣen s tefṛensist : "Ad yeɣli weqmaḍ" (répression), "Awali, Aseqqamu aɣelnaw aɣerfan d iqettalen". Ma s tmaziɣt uran-d "Tamaziɣt d tameslayt-nneɣ", "Ad nerreẓ wala ad neknu", "Neɛya deg lbaṭel".

Imeẓla (ssrabes) n weqmaḍ (respression) llan ḥedṛen s waṭas dinna : ibulisen, ijadeṛmiyen d yisexsayen (pompiers), d acu kan, ur d-giren ara iman-nsen. Kullec yeḥbes deg temdint yernu medden llan la d-ttḍillin seg ṭṭwaqi n yexxamen. Medden amzun ddan u fkan-asen lḥeqq i yinelmaden-nni, maca ur d-sbanen ara lebɣi-nsen akk-n ad ttekkin neɣ ad ɛawnen inelmaden. D acu, llant kra n temɣarin nnant-asen d "arrac ijehlen". Deg tmeddit n wass-nni, mlalen yiselmaden idzayriyen n tesdawit n Tizi Wezzu u uran-d aḍris (texte) n yiwet n tsakbabt (pétition), aḍris-nni gan-t d tabṛat yeldin i uneɣlaf (ministre) n usselmed aɛlayan. Deg weḍris-nsen, iselmaden ur qbilen ara imi ay yettwamneɛ usarag (conférence) n umeddakel-nsen deg tesdawit, u sḥeṛsen i wakk-n ad tettuqader lḥeṛma n tesdawit (ur qbilen ara imi ara d-keccmen yibulisen ɣer daxel n tesdawit ...), a m wakk-n ssuttren ad tili tlelli n wawal ladɣa deg way-n yerzan idles d yiles amaziɣ. Tabṛat-nni zemlen-tt (stenyan-tt) ṛebɛin n yiselmaden (ṛebɛa yimuren ɣef xemsa seg yiselmaden idzayriyen yellan qeddcen deg tesdawit n Tizi Wezzu).


Ass n laṛebɛa 12 Meɣres 1980 Agraw amatu (assemblée générale) n yinelmaden n Tizi Wezzu yura-d yiwet n "tebṛat yeldin i Uselway n Tegduda". Tabṛat-nni ssuffɣen-d seg-s luluf n tsukan (copies) u ferqen-tent deg waṭas n yimukan (Ldzayer, Bumerdas, atg.). Tabṛat-a yettwarun s yiles ur nqesseḥ ara aṭas d tin ay deg d-bedren yinelmaden ay-n d-yeqqar werkawal aɣelnaw (charte nationale). Daɣen, inelmaden bedren-d deg tebṛat-nsen akk ay-n yeḍran deg wussan-nni nnan-d dakk-n iles d yedles imaziɣen ttalasen ad ttusnernin, am wakk-n d-ssuttren dakk-n tamaziɣt ad teqqel d iles aɣelnaw wis sin deg tmurt.

Deg Ldzayer tamaneɣt, medden yeslan s way-n ara iḍerrun deg Tizi Wezzu, banen-d amzun ur uminen ara, bitt llan kra kra nnan-d dakk-n ay-a d lekdeb akk yernu ur uminen ara ula s Mouloud Mammeri dakk-n yella. D acu kan, llan kra n medden, qlilit, llan bɣan ad gen tameskant (tamesbanit) deg wezniq !


Ass n lexmis 13 Meɣres 1980 Iselmaden n Usudu n Tussniwin Tudmisin (institut des Sciences économiques) n Ldzayer tamaneɣt) asmi ay ẓran s lexbar, gan tasakbabt (pétition) ay fkan i weɣlif (ministère) akk-n ad d-sseknen dakk-n ur qbilen ara amnaɛ n usarag-nni (conférence) n Mammeri. Aḍris-a zemlen-t (stenyan-t) ṛebɛin n yiselmaden, meḥsub tlata n yimuren ɣef ṛebɛa seg yiselmaden idzayriyen (gar-asen wid iqeddcen deg PAGS [akabar amesdukli (parti communiste)] d wid iqeddcen deg tedbelt (administration)]. Deg webrid, gar Budwaw d Tizi Wezzu, amur ameqran deg yigalisen (tiplakin) akk d tseddariyin (abribus) uran deg-sent s ssbiɣa : "Tugdut", "Aït Ahmed deg tmurt !", "Ḥebset assenger n yedles !", "FLN amaynut d afaci", "Akk d inmeglayen" (opposants). Tira-a uran-tent deg yiḍ n 12 d 13 Meɣres. Medden walan daɣen tira am tigi deg Tizi Wezzu akk d yiberdan yettalin ɣer tuddar deg Tmurt n Leqbayel. Adabu yeɛreḍ ad yeffer akk tira-nni s tɣawla s ssbiɣa tamellalt neɣ taweṛdit, deg wass n lexmis, 13 Meɣres. Ass-nni daɣen ay d-yeffeɣ umagrad (article) amezwaru deg lbeṛṛani ɣef way-n ara iḍerrun deg Tizi Wezzu. Wa d amagrad awezlan ay d-yeffɣen deg weɣmis afṛensis n Libération, yeḥka-d ay-n yeḍran s tidet deg wass n 11 Meɣres. (Mebla ccek, d ay-n ay yejjan akk lejnas ad d-rren lwelha-nsen ɣer tedyanin-a !).


Ass n ljemɛa 14 Meɣres 1980 Medden bdan la ttmeslayen ɣef tira-nni u mxallafen leṛyuy-nsen fell-asen.


Ass n ssebt 15 Meɣres 1980 Terza yiwet n tfagla (délégation) n yinelmaden i tikkelt tamezwarut ɣer tselwit (présidence) u tejja-n dinna tabṛat yeldin i uselway. D A. Benhabyles ay ten-yemmugren, iban-d yewhem maca ur d-yesban ara taɛdawt-ines. Inelmaden sseknen-as-d amek ay tettwaru tmaziɣt (s tfinaɣ) u yenna-d dakk-n yefka tira-nni i Uselway (?). Deg temlilit-ines tis snat akk d yinelmaden ay d-yesban addud-ines (position).


Ass n lḥedd 16 Meɣres 1980 Deg Ldzayer, medden la ttmeslayen dakk-n tella yiwet n tewriqt n FFS ay yettwaferqen ɣef yinelmaden deg wussan-nni (yuɣ lḥal, d tin ay d tawriqt tis tlata ara yefreq ukabar-a deg setta n wayyuren ineggura). Tawriqt-a tessawal-d ɣef tedyanin-nni n Tizi Wezzu u tenna-d dakk-n 2000 n yinelmaden ay yettekkan deg tmeskant-nni (tamesbanit) n 11 Meɣres (yili ay-a ur iṣ̣eḥḥa).

Deg Tmurt n Leqbayel, ass n lḥedd 16, letniyen 17 d wass n ttlata 18 Meɣres, medden gan timeskanin (timesbaniyin) deg Laṛebɛa n Ayt Yiraten, deg Yiɛeẓẓugen akk d Ɛin Lḥemmam. Deg Laṛebɛa n Ayt Yiraten, medden qqimen la tteddun deg yizenqan tlata n wussan, wa sdeffir wa. Aṭas seg wid yettekkan deg tmeskanin-a d ilmeẓyen (inelmaden n tesnawiyin [lycéens], atg.), akk d kra n yigerdan d tlawin (amur ameqran deg-sent d timɣarin). Ḍrant tɣawsiwin yessewhamen. Deg Larebɛa n At Yiraten, medden kecmen ɣer lkaziṛna u ḥettmen iserdasen (iɛsekṛiyen) ad d-ffɣen seg-s s yiceṭṭiḍen n waddal (sport) (imi ay llan la ttgen addal) i wakk-n ad ttekkin yid-sen deg tmeskant ɣef yiles amaziɣ. Ula d amɣiwan (lmir) ḥettmen-t ad d-yeffeɣ, u ad yezwir i ṣ̣ṣ̣ef u ad d-yini "Ad ddren Yimaziɣen".

Deg yal amkan, medden rẓan jjaj d yigalisen (tiplakin) n lbenyanat n ddula u uran fell-asen isekkilen (lḥuṛuf) n tfinaɣ. Deg Yiɛeẓẓugen, yiwen n ubulis yusa-d ad yennaɣ medden imi ay rẓan yiwen n ugalis n FLN, dɣa smaren fell-as acabcaq n ssbiɣa tazewwaɣt. Imsenza (ttejjaṛ) ɣelqen tiḥuna-nsen maca kra nnan-d dakk-n d medden ay ten-iḥettmen ad ɣelqen.


Ass n letniyen 17 Meɣres 1980 Daniel Junqua yellan la iqeddec d anemyaru (correspondant) deg weɣmis n "Le Monde", yedda ɣer Tizi Wezzu u yebda la yesteqsay inelmaden d yiselmaden. Yeɛreḍ ad yesteqsi daɣen kra n yemḍebbren, maca ur yessaweḍ ara (anemhal n tesdawit [recteur] ulac-it, atg.). Deg wass n 19 Meɣres, yeffeɣ-d umagrad (article) amezwaru deg Le Monde u yeḥka-d ɣef lumuṛ akk-n ḍrant (mebla azeyyed wala assenqes).

Deg tesdawit n Tizi Wezzu, inelmaden d yiselmaden la ssawalen ɣef wakk ay-n yeḍran. Llan kra bɣan ad d-sseknen dakk-n ur qbilen ara ad ad d-gren iman-nsen yikabaren (partis) n tenmegla (oppisition) deg temsalt-a u ad ɛerḍen ad sqedcen tidyanin-a deg leṣ̣laḥ-nsen, d acu kan, rran-ten deg rrif yernu jjan ay-n akk-n llan bɣan ad t-gen. Tameddit-nni, Ferhat Mhenni, acennay n terbaɛt Imaziɣen Imula iga abaraz (gala) deg telmessit (foyer) n yinelmaden deg Yiḥesnawen. Ḥedṛen azal n 1000 n yinelmaden, gar-asen anemhal (directeur) n COUS, Merabtene, yellan yeskeṛ yernu llan la smesxiren yes-s yinelmaden. Abaraz-nni yeqqel d timlilit ay yes d-sseknen yinelmaden dakk-n ur qbilen ara aqmaḍ (respression) n ddula. Timlilit-a teqqel mechuṛet imi ay sqerdcen yinelmaden s lejheṛ ɣef kra n temsal tisertiyin (politiques) am tuqqla n Aït Ahmed d Boudiaf. Arezki About yellan iqeddec deg unegmi (laboratoire) n tesdawit, yessawel-d ɣef yiwet n tewriqt ay n FUAA ay d-sɛeddan s ddaw n tewwurt n texxamt-is.


Ass n ttlata 18 Meɣres 1980 Lexbar n timeskanin (timesbaniyin) ay d-yellan deg Laṛebɛa n Ayt Yiraten, Iɛeẓẓugen d Ɛin Lḥemmam yelfa-d d tidet. Medden qqlen la ttwalin lumuṛ s leḥder (ladɣa irgazen imeqranen), imi ugaden "lemmer ad yekker ṭṭrad aɣarim (guerre civile)".


Ass n laṛebɛa 19 Meɣres 1980 Aneɣlaf (lewzir) n usselmed aɛlayan, Bererhi, yemlal i tikkelt tamezwarut akk d Mammeri, u yessutter seg-s ssmaḥ d ameqran s yiles "aẓidan am tamemt", maca ur iban ara ɣef wacu. Tikkelt niḍen, yeɣra-as akk-n ad t-yenṣ̣eḥ ur yettekkay ara deg yisaragen (conférences) ay ssefran ad ten-gen yinelmaden deg uɣaram (cité) n tesdawit n teqcicin deg Ben Aknoun, ɣef yedles aɣelnaw. Nnan-asen daɣen akk-a i Mass Labidi akk d Rachid Boudjedra, imi ay ugaden lemmer ad ttekkin deg yisaragen-nni. Mammeri yessutter ssmaḥ s leḥdaqa deg teqcicin ay t-iɛerḍen. Kra n teqcicin n Tdukli Taɣelnawt n Yelmeẓyen Idzayriyen (UNJA) ɛerḍent ad frunt ugur-a, maca ur ssawḍent ara.


Ass n lexmis 20 Meɣres 1980 Aɣmis n El Moudjahid yessuffeɣ-d yiwet n tebṛat n ucemmet d rregmat yettwaxetmen s yisem n K.B. (mebla ccek d Kamel Belkacem, anemhal n tira [rédacteur en chef] n weɣmis-a). Tabṛat-a tetthem Mammeri (mebla ma tebder-d isem-is) belli d axabit ixeddmen akk d temharsa (colonialisme). Tasɣunt n "Révolution Africaine" tessuffeɣ-d daɣen tigejdit (éditorial), ur yettwafhem ara d acu ay d-yeqsed maca, deg tgara, iwet-d deg wid ay d-yessekren ccwal deg Tizi Wezzu. Ma d aɣmis n Algérie Actualité yenna-d dakk-n tirzi ay iga Chadli ɣer Ccerq Alemmas d tin ay yessefra ad tt-yeg aṭas ay-a, yernu ccwal yekkren deg tmurt n Leqbayel ur yeqqin ara ɣer tirzi-a. Nnig way-a, Chadli yessefra ad yerzu ɣef Tizi Wezzu deg wass n 15 neɣ 16 Meɣres. ɣef way-a ay gan kra n lecɣal n ucebbeḥ n temdint s tɣawla deg wussan-nni.

Deg Dreɛ Lmizan, inelmaden n tesnawiyin (lycées) ɛerḍen ad gen tamsekant (tamesbanit) i tikkelt tamezwarut deg wussan-nni n yimuras (vacances). Ttekkan azal n 200 n yinelmaden deg tmeskant-nni. Deg Tizi Wezzu, inelmaden gan timlilit iweɛṛen ay deg kra ur qbilen ara imi ay d-gren iman-nsen yikabaren n tenmegla (partis d'opposition) am FFS, FUAA d PRS. Kra bedren-d ula d PAGS (akabar amesdukli [parti communiste]) yellan la yesseqdac ma ulac sin wid yellan "la d-ssenkaren" inelmaden). Deg temlilit-a, inelmaden n Tizi Wezzu fran-tt-id ad ddun ɣer Laṛebɛa n Ayt Yiraten, Iɛeẓẓugen d tmura niḍen u ad ɛerḍen ad ten-qennɛen ur d-ttadren ara ɣer Tizi Wezzu akk-n ad msegrawen dinna. Tameskant-nni ay ɣef llan la ssawalen medden aṭas ay-a (ula deg Ldzayer) yewɛeṛ akk-n ad tt-ḥebsen. Iɣallen n laman llan swejden iman-nsen akk-n ad wten.


Ass n ssebt 22 Meɣres 1980 Iselmaden n Tizi Wezzu la ssawalen ɣef tririt ara gen i umagrad-nni (article) n ucemmet d rregmat ay d-yeffɣen deg El Moudjahid. Yuɣ lḥal, amagrad-a iḥuza ula d iselmaden n tesdawit n Tizi Wezzu. Deg Ldzayer, kra n yiselmaden n tesdawit ɛerḍen ad d-gen tasakbabt (pétition) ara fken i El Moudjahid akk-n ad as-yeḍmen i Mammeri lḥeqq n uwajeb deg weɣmis-a. Ciṭṭaḥ kan ay iqeblen ad zemlen (ad stenyin) tasakbabt-a. Ula d wid iqeddcen deg CRAPE (anda ay yella Mammeri iqeddec d anemhal [directeur]), maci aṭas ay tt-izemlen.


Ass n letniyen 24 Meɣres 1980 Iselmaden n tesdawit n Tizi Wezzu ur msefhamen ara ɣef lecɣal ara gen. Tabṛat yeldin ay uran i uneɣlaf (lewzir) werɛad ur tt-uzinen ara. Deg Usudu n Tussniwin Tudmisin (Institut des Sciences Economiques) deg Tizi Wezzu, anemhal Arab yessebded-d taseqqamut taslemdant (commission pédagogique). Iselmaden ssuttren deg tedbelt (administration) ad asen-tefru ugur n ussuffeɣ n tsukan (polycopies) uqbel n 29 Meɣres. Ma ur yefri ara wugur-a, ad gen asunded (grève).


Ass n ttlata 25 Meɣres 1980 Asudu n Tussniwin Tudmisin (Insitut des Sciences Economiques) n Ldzayer yebda-d asunded (grève) n tlata n wussan imi aseqqamu (comité) n usudu-nsen ur testeɛṛef ara yes-s tesdawit.

Aneɣlaf (ministre) n Usselɣu (information), Mehri, yemlal d Mammeri u yessutter seg-s ssmaḥ s leḥdaqa imi ur yezmir ara ad t-yejj ad d-yessuffeɣ tiririt-ines deg weɣmis n El Moudjahed. Mammeri ur yebɣi ara ad ikemmel asseḥṛes-ines ɣef El Moudjahed, dɣa yeɛred ad yessutter ad d-yessuffeɣ tiririt-ines deg Algérie-Actualité. Gar way-a d way-n niḍen, anemhal n Unadi ussnan (rechercher scientifique) n weɣlif (ministère), Mass Benbouzid, akk d kra n medden n ONRS, nnan-d dakk-n ad qeblen lemmer ad d-gen amkan i usselmed n tmaziɣt deg tesdawit u ad d-gen afurk (branche) n unadi deg wenrar-a. Aṭas n tsakbabin (pétitions) n wurfan n medden ara d-yettawḍen ɣer udabu.


26 Meɣres 1980 Gan tameskant (tamesbanit) niḍen deg Tizi Wezzu, ay deg ttekkan azal n 1000 n yinelmaden. Ibulisen ur d-giren ara iman-nsen.


30 Meɣres 1980 Deg Fṛansa, Aït Menguellet yeɣra-d kra n yisefra deg tewwurt n Pantin. Aseqqamu n uḥuddu n yizerfan (droits) idelsanen iger-d tiɣri akk-n ad msegrawen medden deg tsusmi sdat n tmahelt (ambassade) n Ldzayer deg Fṛansa.


6 Yebrir 1980 Inelmaden gan timlilit deg Yiḥesnawen (Tizi Wezzu) u fran-tt-id ad ṭṭfen u ad qqimen deg tzeqqa (salle) n assukken (reprographie) n tesdawit u gren-d tiɣri akk-n ad gen tameskant (tamesbanit) deg wass n 7 Yebrir deg Ldzayer tamaneɣt.


7 Yebrir 1980 Lɛecṛa n tṣ̣ebḥit. Ldzayer tamaneɣt, deg Tsenbert (place) n Umezwaru n Mayyu. 500 n yinelmaden d yiselmaden ay yemsegrawen akk-n ad d-ssuttren dakk-n idles amaziɣ yettalas ad yili. Tiḥucay ay refden yura-d deg-sent "Idles aɣerfan (culture populaire)", "Tilelli n wawal", "tamaziɣt ur telli ara d iles adzayri ?", "tugdut tadelsant (démocratie culturelle)". Wid yettekkan deg tmeskant-a (tamesbanit) bdan la d-cennun imseɣret (nnacid) n yemjuhad "Min jibalina" (Seg yidurar-nneɣ ay d-tuli taɣect n tlelli). Ibulisen bdan la kkaten medden akk-n kan d-tebda tikli. Wten wid yettekkan u qemḍen-ten mebla ṛṛeḥma. Azal n 200 ay ssulin deg yifurguten s tiyta n tdebbuzin. Gar wid yettekkan, llan aṭas ay yettwajerḥen, gar-asen xemsa ɣlin deg lkuma. Yiwen seg wid yettekkan wten-t s tdebbuzin alama ay yemmut. Deg tesdawit n Ldzayer, inelmaden deɣren (bbuṭin) akk-n ad gen asunded (grève). Tasdawit n Tizi Wezzu tga asunded daɣen yernu ṭṭfen-tt yinelmaden, deg-s ara ttɣimin, deg-s ara gganen.

ɣef leḥdac d wezgen n tṣ̣ebḥit, deg tesdawit talemmast n Ldzayer, inelmaden gan timlilit akk-n ad mciwṛen ɣef tikliwin niḍen ara gen sdat n teɣsart talemmast n yibulisen (commissariat central) akk-n ad sbegnen dakk-n ur qbilen ara aqmaḍ (répression).

ɣef tlata n tmeddit, Aseqqamu n uḥuddu n yizerfan idelsanen (Comité de défense des droits culturels) yessegrew-d azal n 1000 n yemdanen deg tsusmi sdat n tmahelt (ambassade) n Ldzayer deg Fṛansa. Wid igan amsegraw-a llan bɣan ad as-fken yiwen n ussumer (motion) i wenmahal (ambassadeur). D acu kan , aneggaru-a yegguma ad ten-yemmager u yenna-d dakk-n wigi ur llin d Idzayriyen. Aseqqamu yura-d yiwet n tebṛat yeldin i uselway (ṛṛayes) u iga-d tasakbabt (pétition) ara sseddun d tebṛat-nni.

Tameddit : Inelmaden n Tizi Wezzu gan timlilit ay deg ay tt-id-fran ad gen asunded amatu (grève générale) mebla tilisa, u ad qqimen ṭṭfen tasdawit.


Ass n 8 Yebrir 1980 Deg Ldzayer tamaneɣt, ugar n 1000 n yinelmaden ay d-yeffɣen ad ttekkin deg tmeskant (tamesbanit) u la ttberriḥen "Ad yeɣli weqmaḍ (répression)", "Ibulisen d iqettalen", "Brum-asen-d i wid yettwaṭṭfen", "Idles aɣerfan (culture populaire) adzayri". Llan daɣen la d-cennun imesɣerten (nnacidat) n tmurt. Ibulisen dehhmen-ten s ljehd ɣer daxel n tesdawit. Tameskant-a teqqim ugar n snat n tsaɛtin. Amur ameqran deg wid yettwaṭṭfen bran-asen-d.

Deg Tmurt n Leqbayel, d luluf n yifellaḥen seg Ɛin Lḥemmam d Laṛebɛa n Ayt Yiraten ay iɛerḍen ad ttekkin deg yiwet n tikli ay gan deg Tizi Wezzu. Igen (armée) yergel-asen iberdan u iḥettem-iten ad qqlen ɣer tuddar-nsen. Amur ameqran deg wid yettwaṭṭfen iḍelli-nni bran-asen-d. Inelmaden n Bumerdas gan asunded (grève). Inelmaden d yiqeddacen n tesdawit talemmast n Ldzayer gan-d assumer (motion) n uɛiwen n yinelmaden n Tizi Wezzu. Nnig way-a, gan-d daɣen anaru (bureau) ara yesseddun lecɣal n tmeskanin (timesbaniyin) deg Ldzayer tamaneɣt.


9 Yebrir 1980 Amussu (mouvement) yebda la yettimɣur deg Tmurt n Leqbayel. Ilmeẓyen n Yiwaḍiyen, Ayt Yanni, Ljemɛa n Ssarij, Delles, Buṛj Mnayel, Sidi Ɛic, atg. gan timeskanin (timesbaniyin) akk-n ad d-ssuttren ad as-yettunefk lḥeqq i yedles amaziɣ ad yili. Ass-nni deg Sidi Ɛic, yettwamneɛ ubaraz (gala) n Ferhat n Imaziɣen Imula. Ibulisen ṭṭfen Ferhat.


Seg 9 ar 15 Yebrir 1980 Deg tuddar n Tmurt n Leqbayel, gan-d iseqquma n uqareɛ d uɛiwen n yinelmaden igan asunded (grève).


10 Yebrir 1980 Akabar n Terni Weslelli Aɣelnaw (FLN) iga tameskant (tamesbanit) mgal n tin ay gan yinelmaden deg Tizi Wezzu.


11 Yebrir 1980 Mouloud Mammeri yuzen tiririt-ines i weɣmis n El Moudjahid ay d-yessuffɣen amagrad-nni (article) n ucemmet "Wid yettafken timsirin" (dduṛus). El Moudjahid yegguma ad d-yessuffeɣ tiririt n Mammeri. D aɣmis n Le Matin ay tt-id-yessuffɣen. Inelmaden gan-as-d tisukan (copies) s Roneo u ferqen-tt ɣef medden ama deg Ldzayer, ama deg Fṛansa.


13 Yebrir 1980 Aneɣlaf (lewzir) n usselmed aɛlayan yemlal d yiwet n terbaɛt n yiselmaden n Tizi Wezzu. Inelmaden n tesnawit (lycée) n Amirouche, deg Tizi Wezzu, bdan-d asunded (grève) u ṭṭfen tasnawit-nni. Iqeddacen n sbiṭar n Tizi Wezzu uznen assumer (motion) n uɛiwen i yinelmaden igan asunded akk d tebṛat yeldin i uselway (ṛṛayes) Chadli ay deg ay as-ssuttren ad yeḥbes weqmaḍ (répression). Yiwet n tewriqt yettwaferqen ɣef medden (u nnan-d dakk-n n FFS) tger-d tiɣri akk-n ad gen medden asunded amatu (grève générale) deg wass n 16 Yebrir.


15 Yebrir 1980 Aseqqamu n uḥuddu n yizerfan idelsanen deg Ldzayer (Comité de la défense des droits culturels en Algérie) iger-d tiɣri akk-n ad gen tikli deg wass n 26 Yebrir sdat n tmahelt (ambassade) n Ldzayer deg Fṛansa u deg wass n Umezwaru n Mayyu seg wezniq n "Filles du Clavaire" alama d Bastille. Sbiṭar n Tizi Wezzu ṭṭfen-t yiqeddacen.


16 Yebrir 1980 Medden gan asunded (grève) ikemlen deg Tmurt n Leqbayel. Acennay Ferhat Mhenni n terbaɛt n Imaziɣen Imula yettwaker deg Dar El Beida [deg ccerq n Ldzayer tamaneɣt] ɣef tizi n jjuj d wezgen n tmeddit. Aneɣlaf (lewzir) n usselmed aɛlayan iɛeyyen-asen i yinelmaden n Tizi Wezzu akk-n ad qqlen ɣer tɣuri deg wass 19 Yebrir. Tameddit-nni, mlalen yiqeddacen n Sonelec, Sonelgaz, Sonitex, Casoral, sbiṭar n Tizi Wezzu akk d yiselmaden n yinelmaden akk-n ad d-sseknen dakk-n ur qbilen ara aqmaḍ (répression) n ddula u sbedden-d aseqqamu aɣerfan (comité populaire) i usseddu n lecɣal.


18 Yebrir 1980 Iminigen msegrawen sdat n tmahelt (ambassade) n Ldzayer deg Ottawa yernu gan tikli tazamalt (symbolique) sdat n wemni (parlement) akanadi.


20 Yebrir 1980 ɣef lweḥda n tṣ̣ebḥit : tebda-d temhelt (opération) n Mizrana. Iɣallen n weqmaḍ (répression) kecmen ɣer wakk imukan ay ṭṭfen yinelmaden d yiqeddacen (tasdawit, sbiṭar, lluzinat). Inelmaden yellan ṭṭsen bdan-ten s tiyta nitni mazal-iten deg wusu. Wid ara irewwlen bran-d fell-asen iḍan. Inelmaden la d-ttneggizen seg lbaṭimat n uɣaram (cité) n tesdawit mebla ma lsan iceṭṭiḍen-nsen. Iselmaden ttwarefden seg yexxamen-nsen. Akk iqeddacen n sbiṭar ttwaṭṭfen, u uwyen-d deg wemkan-nsen imejjayen (iṭbiben) n lɛeskeṛ. La ittezzi wawal dakk-n mmuten 32 n medden u d timeyyatin ay ijerḥen. Imezdaɣen n Tizi Wezzu gan asunded amatu (grève générale). Medden ur d-jjin ula d yiwen n ugalis (taplakt) yuran s taɛṛabt deg yizenqan. Tamurt n Leqbayel tegzem ɣef ddunit. Yettwamneɛ unekcum ɣer-s ladɣa ɣef yineɣmasen (imesjeṛnanen).


21 Yebrir 1980 21 seg wid yettwaṭṭfen ttucaṛɛen deg Leqṣ̣er [Bgayet] u yeḥkem-d fell-asen wexxam n ccṛeɛ ad kecmen ɣer lḥebs. Medden bdan la regglen iberdan deg temdint akk d teɣsart n tmacint (gare). Iɣallen n weqmaḍ (répression) bdan la tteddun deg yizenqan s yibeckiḍen yesɛan tiferyin yernu sxerben igniren (galeries) imaynuten (ahat gan ay-a akk-n ad smentsen [provoquer] medden ?). Medden sxerben ammas n tinḍi (centre d'artisanat), taɣsart (station) n lkiṛan akk d tedwirt n Kharroubi. Imezdaɣen n tuddar ay d-iqerben ɣer Tizi Wezzu udren-d akk-n u gan tikli deg temdint-a akk-n ad d-sseknen dakk-n ur qbilen ara aqmaḍ (répression) d tmenɣiwt n medden.


22 Yebrir 1980 Asunded amatu (grève générale) yuweḍ ɣer wass-ines wis tlata. Mazal la regglen iberdan deg Tizi Wezzu. Imeskanen (manifestants) la tteddun deg temdint s tḥucay akk-n ad d-ssuttren ad asen-d-brun i wid yettwaṭṭfen u ad ḥebsen aqmaḍ (répression). Imeskanen refden daɣen tiḥucay ay deg d-uran "Imaziɣen". Ibulisen (tamunin tiɣelnawin n tɣellist, CNS) mmɣen ɣef yiselmaden seg sdeffir. Llan-d yimenɣin imeqranen deg wakk imukan n Tizi Wezzu gar yibulisen d yimeskanen. Imesdurar qqlen-d ɣer temdint yernu ula d nitni bdan la regglen iberdan. Sxerben inura (lbiruwat) n APS, SAA, axxam n tinḍi, anaru (lbiru) n ukabar n FLN, asensu (hôtel) n Balwa akk d tzeqqa n ssinima Mondial. Iqeddacen n sbiṭar n Mustapha Bacha, deg Ldzayer tamaneɣt, bdan-d ula d nitni asunded akk-n ad msegman d Tmurt n Leqbayel.


23 Yebrir 1980 Ass wis ṛebɛa n ussunded amatu (grève générale). Ibulisen la ttaṭṭafen medden s waṭas u deg yal amkan. Imeskanen (manifestants) ay d-yusan seg Tegzirt nnuɣen akk d yiɣallen n weqmaḍ (répression) deg unekcum n temdint n Tizi Wezzu. Yella-d daɣen yimenɣi d ameqran deg Dreɛ Ben Xedda.


24 Yebrir 1980 Tebda la d-tteqqel "lehna" cwiṭ, cwiṭ. Tiḥuna n tuccit bdant la leddint tameddit n wass-nni. Llan-d yimenɣiyen d imeqranen gar yimeskanen (manifestants) (deg Yiwaḍiyen, Laṛebɛa n Ayt Yiraten d Ɛin Lḥemmam) d yiɣallen n weqmaḍ. Igniren (galeries) imaynuten hudden seg lketṛa n sselɛa.


25 Yebrir 1980 Iɣallen n weqmaḍ ṭṭfen akk tamdint n Tizi Wezzu. Tilibizyu n Ldzayer tṣ̣ewwer-d imukan yettwasxerben. ɣef lxemsa n tmeddit, anmahal (ambassadeur) n Ldzayer deg Fṛansa yemlal d weɣlif (ministère) n tɣawsiwin n beṛṛa deg Quai d'Orsay. ɣef lxemsa u xemsin n ddqayeq, anebdad (préfet) n yibulisen n Paris yenna-as i Useqqamu n uḥuddu n yizerfan idelsanen deg Ldzayer dakk-n tikli-nni ay ssefran ad tt-gen i uzekka-nni tettwamneɛ.


26 Yebrir 1980 Anebdad (préfet) yemneɛ tikli-nni, d acu kan, ɣas ma yella Aseqqamu n uḥuddu n yizerfan idelsanen deg Ldzayer llan zemren ad t-ttehmen, yessɣer aqerru u iger-d tiɣri deg weɣmis (ajeṛnan) d ṛṛadyu akk-n ad d-asen ttekkin medden deg tikli-nni. 500 n yemdanen ay yettekkan. 400 seg-sen ṭṭfen-ten yibulisen u uwyen-ten ɣer Vincennes anda ay ten-qellben, weṣ̣ṣ̣fen-ten yernu gan-asen tisenta (fiches). Tadukli (Amicale) n Yidzayriyen deg Fṛansa tessegrew-d 200 n yemdanen akk-n ad smentsen (provoquer) wid ara yettekkin deg tikli-nni, usan-d deg lkiṛan ɣer Paris yernu llan ttuxellaṣ̣en s wass.


29 Yebrir 1980 Aseqqamu n uḥuddu n yizerfan idelsanen deg Ldzayer yessefra ad yeg tikli tasusamt deg wass n 1 Mayyu, d acu kan, anebdad n Paris yemneɛ tikli-nni imi "ay tezmer ad d-teglu s ccwal".


10 Mayyu 1980 Matoub Lounes iga abaraz (gala) deg Olympia (deg Paris). Medden gan ddqiqa n tsusmi akk-n ad msegman d umussu aɣerfan (mouvement populaire) deg Ldzayer.


12 Mayyu 1980 Tasdawit n Ldzayer tga asunded (grève).


16 Mayyu 1980 El Moudjahid yessuffeɣ-d umuɣ (liste) n 24 n yimeḥbas u yenna-d dakk-n wigi ad ɛeddin deg ccṛeɛ n laman n ddula deg Lemdeyya.


18 Mayyu 1980 Deg Tizi Wezzu gan asunded amatu (grève générale), medden akk ttekkan deg-s (ala igniren [galeries] imaynuten n Ldzayer.


19 Mayyu 1980 Deg Ldzayer gan tameskant (manifestation) mgal n weqmaḍ (répression).


24 Mayyu 1980 Inelmaden gan timlilit deg tesdawit talemmast n Ldzayer, maca mmɣen fell-asen wid ay yessexdam udabu.


25 Mayyu 1980 Aseqqamu n uḥuddu n yizerfan idelsanen deg Ldzayer yessuffeɣ-d "Tabṛat yeldin i Chadli" sdeffir ma yessegrew-d 3522 n tekbabin (signatures).


3 Yunyu 1980 Aseqqamu agraɣlan n uɛiwen n teɣtas n weqmaḍ deg Ldzayer (Comité international de soutien aux victimes de la répression en Algérie) yessuffeɣ-d tasakbabt-ines (pétition). Aseqqamu n uḥuddu n yizerfan idelsanen deg Ldzayer sbedden-t-id s tidet u yessegrew-d 140 n tekbabin (signatures) sɣur yemdanen yettwassnen deg tesdawiyin d tẓuri (art).


21 Yunyu 1980 ɣef jjuj n tmeddit, Aseqqamu n uḥuddu n yizerfan idelsanen deg Ldzayer (CDDCA) akk d Useqqamu agraɣlan mgal aqmaḍ (répression) gan timlilit sdat n Taggazt n Leqdic (Bourse de travail) deg Paris. Gar yiberriḥen (slogans) ay d-nnan medden : "Ḥebsem aqmaḍ", "Brum-asen-d i yimeḥbas akk mebla ccuruṭ", "ilsawen iɣerfanen (populaires) (taɛṛabt n Ldzayer d tmaziɣt d ilsawen iɣelnawen". Akk tuddsiwin (organisations) d yemdanen idzayriyen d yefṛensisen yettwassnen ttwaɛerḍen-d ɣer temlilit-a. Ttekkan deg-s akk wid ay yesteɛṛfen s yimenzayen-a (principes). CDDCA, ASEP, UNEF, LCR, FEN, FO, OCI, FFS. Ma Djamel Allam akk d terbaɛt n Djurdjura gguman ad ttekkin deg temlilit-a. Ferhat d Aït Menguellet llan ttwaṭṭfen deg Ldzayer.


25 Yunyu 1980 Deg Tizi Wezzu, medden gan ass n webdad i lmend n yimeḥbas. ɣef tmanya n tmeddit, Tanegga n Tɣamsa Tadzayrit (APS) tenna-d dakk-n 24-nni n yimeḥbas n Berrouaghia ad asen-fken tilelli takudant (liberté provisoire) i uzekka-nni.


26 Yunyu 1980 Teqleɛ yiwet n terbaɛt, deg-s aṭas n tkeṛwas, seg Tizi Wezzu, akk-n ad d-awyen imeḥbas-nni umi d-bran. Wigi, mi ten-id-ssawḍen ɣer Tizi Wezzu, gan-asen tameɣra.


Umuɣ n 24-nni n yimeḥbas n Berrouaghia :


  1. ABBUT Arezki
  2. CEMIM Meqqran
  3. AGGUN Aḥmed
  4. ḤALET Racid
  5. AḤMED ZAYED Yidir
  6. XELLIL Saɛid
  7. At Wakli Racid
  8. LAMARI Idriss
  9. AIT LARBI Arezki
  10. LUNAWSI Mulud
  11. ALI CCIX Ubraham
  12. NAYET ABDELLAH Muḥemmed
  13. BACA Mustafa
  14. RACIDI Muḥemmed
  15. BEN AMUN Kamal
  16. SAADI Mulud
  17. BELƔEZLI Acur
  18. SAƐDI Saɛid
  19. BERDUS Mammar
  20. STIET Muḥamed
  21. BURRIF Salaḥ
  22. TARI Laziz
  23. BRAHIMI Ali
  24. ZENATI ǧamal


Racid Caker yemmut deg wass n 5 Ɣuct 1980 deg yiwet n twaɣit n webrid ay deg mmuten ula d tameṭṭut-is, memmi-s d yemma-s. Yella d aselmad amalal (assistant) n tdamsa (économie) deg tesdawit n Tizi Wezzu. Yettekka deg umussu (mouvement) n Tefsut n 1980 deg umazday (collectif) "mgal n weqmaḍ" (anti-répression) deg tesdawit.

Tiɣbula: http://membres.lycos.fr/cicbgayet/ch20avril80.html

Tasuqilt sɣur Omar MOUFFOK

1980 : Abeddel ameqran[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

"Tafsut n Yimaziɣen" n 1980 d yiwet seg tedyanin tisertiyin (politiques) timeqranin akk deg Ldzayer timziregt (indépendante).

Uqbel, tamsalt n tmaziɣt tella tenkeṛ-itt ddula yernu imassanen (savants) llan qqnen fell-as allen, neɣ ur ttwalin-tt d tamsalt ur nesɛi azal meɣɣren, d tin yeqqnen s afulkluṛ. D acu kan, asmi ay d-ḍrant tedyanin n 1980, tamsalt-a deg yiwen webrid kan tban-d u yegget fell-as wawal.

Timeskanin (timesbaniyin) akk d yimenɣiyen ay d-yellan gar medden d yiɣallen n ddula deg wakk timiwa n Tmurt n Leqbayel akk d Ldzayer tamaneɣt gar Meɣres n 1980 d Mayyu n 1981 sseknen-d dakk-n wid yessutturen tamaziɣt ur llin d aggagen (intellectuels) imeɛzulen, wanag d ay-n yerzan u bɣan-tt akk wid yessawalen tamaziɣt deg Ldzayer.

"Tafsut n Yimaziɣen" d tin ay d-yemlan dakk-n medden ukin-d u bdan la ttxemmimen ad d-neṭqen, ad d-ssiwlen i yiman-nsen ɣef way-n bɣan deg yiwet n tmurt anda ddula tella tebɣa ad d-tessken dakk-n kullec deg-s yeddukkel. Uqbel, tasertit (politique), tasnakta (idéologie) d yedles llan s ddaw n umunupul n ddula yernu d tamenḍawt (consitution) ay as-iḍemnen ay-a. U deg way-n yerzan iles, ulac kra n tlelli deg tmurt imi seg wasmi ay tuwey Ldzayer azarug-ines (indépendance), akk timenḍawin n tmurt qqarent-d dakk-n d "taɛṛabt ay d iles aɣelnaw unṣ̣ib (national et officiel) n tmurt".

Iḍrisen n llsas (textes fondamentaux) n tmurt d nitni sskanayen-d s lejheṛ dakk-n d ddula kan ay yettalasen ad teṭṭef asselɣu (information) u ad t-tesseddu s yiles ay as-yehwan. Tiɣawsiwin banent ugar mi ara nɣer tizzwariyin (préambules) ay d-uran i tmenḍawin (constitutions), d tid-nni umi qqaren "irkawalen iɣelnawen" (chartes nationales).

D acu kan, seg wasmi ay tɛedda Tefsut n 1980, lejyal n yelmeẓyen bdan la d-sskanayen dakk-n ugin ineḍfaren-nni (dogmes) ay yettwaḥettmen fell-asen.

D ljil s lekmal-is n yelmeẓyen, d imezdaɣen akk n Tmurt n Leqbayel ay d-yekkren u ssuttren "asteɛṛef s yiles amaziɣ" d u ad asen-tettunefk "tlelli n wawal".

D tadyant yesɛan iẓuran lqayit

Assutter n tmaziɣt yesɛa iẓuran ijehden deg wegdud, d ay-n ara idumen yernu ur yezmir ad yettussusem. Amnaɛ n usarag (conférence) n Mouloud Mammeri deg wass n 10 Meɣres 1980 d ifeṭṭiwej ay d-yessaɣen urfan yellan ffren seg zik-nni. Yagi, deg Tmurt n Leqbayel, medden llan wwan u rran urfan-nsen ɣer daxel seg tezwara n yiseggasen n 1970.

Tasdawit n Tizi Wezzu, yettwaldin deg 1979, tejbed-d aṭas n waggagen, teqqel d amkan anda ay ttemlilin akk wid yeɣran deg Tmurt n Leqbayel. Ay-a yurar dduṛ deg ussenker n tmeskanin-nni (timesbaniyin). Maca ɣas ma yella d tasdawit n Tizi Wezzu ay yeqqimen acḥal n ledwaṛ la tessedday deg tmeskanin-nni, ay-n ay d-yesnekren medden ur yeqqin ara kan ɣer temsal taggagin (intellectuelles). Amur ameqran deg yimezdaɣen n Tmurt n Leqbayel ḥulfan dakk-n terza-ten temsalt n ussutter n tmaziɣt yernu ttekkan deg tedyanin-nni. Yuɣ lḥal, seg wasmi ay tuwey Ldzayer azarug-is (indépendance), ula d yiwen wass ur d-llint tmeskanin (timesbaniyin) timeqranin am tid ay d-yellan deg wussan-nni n tefsut. Ama deg Tizi Wezzu, ama deg Bgayet, d ledwaṛ ay qqimen medden la ttgen timeskanin (timesbaniyin). Ula deg temdinin timecṭuḥin, ffɣen-d medden akk-n ad d-sseknen dakk-n ur qbilen ara tikli n ddula (Ɛin Lḥemmam, Laṛebɛa n Ayt Yiraten, Dreɛ Lmizan, Buɣni, Iɛeẓẓugen, Amiẓur, Sidi Ɛic, Aqbu, atg.), ula deg tuddar.

ɣas ma yella kra n yimanayen (observateurs) ifṛensisen nnan dakk-n ala deg Tizi Wezzu d tama-ines ay d-llant tedyanin, Tamurt n Leqbayel akk tewlawel, s "tmeqrant", s "tmecṭuḥt". Bitt, tikkwal, kra seg yimenɣiyen ay d-yellan deg "tmecṭuḥt" (Bgayet d yeɣzer n Ṣṣ̣umam) ugaren wid ay d-yellan deg Tizi Wezzu. Aqmaḍ (répression) ur yezgil ula d yiwet n tama. Tubiret d Bgayet, ɣas ma llan kra ay yettwalin dakk-n txuṣ̣ṣ̣ timmuzɣa-nsent, uɣent tiytiwin ijehden ugar n tid ay tuɣ Tizi Wezzu. Akk-n yebɣu yili, ɣas ma yella kulci yebda-d seg Tizi Wezzu, ddula ur twit ara medden deg-s akk-n ay ten-twet anda niḍen yernu seg 1980 d asawen, teqqel tettḥadar tamdint-a d tmura ay d-iqerben ɣer-s.

Tamsalt n tmaziɣt dindin kan tefreq u tennul aṭas n tmiwa n tmurt n Ldzayer. Yernu d ilmeẓyen s umata ay tt-yettnaɣen fell-as, dɣa d ay-n ay aɣ-yejjan ad d-nini dakk-n amussu-a (mouvement) d win ara idumen u ad yesɛu azal meɣɣren deg uzekka n tmurt. Ddula teɛreḍ ad tesseddu awal dakk-n wid ay d-yesnekren tamsalt n tmaziɣt d kra n yemdanen ur nemɛin, ur nesɛi azal yernu "jjmen tallit n Fṛansa", maca ay-a ur yelli d tidet, wanag wid yennuɣen ɣef temsalt n tmaziɣt ggten u meẓẓiyit.

Amur ameqran deg wid irefden tamsalt-a dima llan sɛan s ddaw n 25 n yiseggasen deg leɛmeṛ-nsen. Wid yerɣan fell-as aṭas, amur meɣɣren deg-sen d inelmaden n tesnawit (lycée), yernu ur ttɛeddin ara i ɛecrin n yiseggasen deg leɛmeṛ. Akk-a ay yella lḥal ama deg tmeskanin (timesbaniyin) n 1980, ama deg wakk tid ay tent-id-iḍefren. Akk-a daɣen ay yella lḥal deg tmeskanin-nni ay d-yellan deg Nwembeṛ n 1985 : ixxamen n ccṛeɛ n Tmurt n Leqbayel ḥekmen s lḥebs ɣef wazal n meyya n yelmeẓyen ɣef ljal n "ccwal" ay snekren deg yiberdan, akk-n ma llan d inelmaden n tesnawit (lycée). Ljil-a n yelmeẓyen d Ldzayer ay ten-yesseɣren akk yernu ur ssinen ara Fṛansa ... ɣas ma yella nga-as dakk-n wid ay d-yesnekren timeskanin-a (timesbaniyin) d imdanen yeɣran s tefṛensist yernu ahat jjmen kra n zzman iɛeddan, amek ara d-nessefhem dakk-n ilmeẓyen n Tmurt n Leqbayel ay tessɣer ddula n Ldzayer ad ddun d wid yebɣan ad rren Ldzayer ɣer deffir ?

Yuɣ lḥal, tasertit-nni (politique) n usseɛṛeb ur tessaweḍ ara ad d-teqleɛ "ay-n ay d-yeqqimen" seg temsalt n tmaziɣt seg Tmurt n Leqbayel wanag d assejhed ay tt-tessejhed. Takti (lfekra) n tmaziɣt tuɣ akk timiwa n Tmurt n Leqbayel deg lweqt ay deg ddula tella tugi-tt u la tt-tettḥaṛab seg lqaɛa. D ti ay d tiɣawsiwin ay wuɣur yessefk ad d-rren lwelha-nsen wid yesseddayen lumuṛ n ddula.

Amussu (mouvement) n tmaziɣt ur yelli ara daɣen yezmer ad yettwarnu, imi ay d-yenker deg yiwet n tallit ay t-iɛawnen ɣef way-nni, d tallit ay deg ikabaren (partis) uffiren (gar-asen FFS n Aït Ahmed d kra n trebbaɛ timecṭuḥin n uzelmaḍ) gren-d iman-nsen, d acu kan, medden maci d ikabaren-nni ay ḍefren wanag ay-n ay ten-yessewlawlen yugar ay-a. Yuɣ lḥal, ikabaren n tenmegla (opposition) deg Ldzayer qqimen d uffiren alama ay d tagara n 1988, yernu ula d yiwen wass ur ssawḍen ad rṣ̣un iman-nsen deg wegdud u ad yaɣ uẓar-nsen deg-s u ad idum, yernu ula d yiwen wass ur gin kra n tigawt (action) ara idumen akk-n ad qablen tasertit (politique) n ddula.

Akk iɣallen isertiyen (politiques) ay temneɛ ddula llan d uffiren, ur zmiren ara ad gen kra ara d-yawin lfayda ibanen, ur llin ara sɛan isenfaren (projects) ibanen, llan ttwaqemḍen (réprimer) dima neɣ sya ɣer da, dɣa ula d yiwet seg trebbaɛ-a ur tessaweḍ ad d-tban, ad tif tiyaḍ neɣ ad temneɛ seg uqareɛ d weqmaḍ (répression) n yibulisen.

Amussu (mouvement) adelsan amaziɣ yefhem seg tazwara dakk-n ur yessefk ara ad d-yeɣli deg snat n tfexxtin : tamezwaurt, ur yessefk ara ad yeqqel d uffir, tis snat, ur yessefk ara ad yeqqim s ddaw tecḍaḍt n yikabaren (partis). Dɣa, wid ay t-id-yesnekren deg yiseggasen n 1980, ssawlen-d s lejheṛ, ẓran-ten medden. Yuɣ lḥal, mi ara nwali ɣer ussirem-nsen, ɣer tmuɣliwin d uxemmem-nsen, ad nẓer dakk-n wid yennuɣen ɣef tmaziɣt glan-d s ubeddel ameqran deg tmurt n Ldzayer, snekren-d tagrawla (révolution) n tidet : medden qqlen zemren ad ssiwlen s lejheṛ, deg webrid, yernu yettwakcef-d weqmaḍ-nni (répression) ay tqemmeḍ ddula n Ldzayer s kra n win ara d-yessiwlen. D ay-a ay yejjan ad d-yekker yiwen n ljil n yimeɣnasen (militants) ur nettagad, d wid iwejden ad nnaɣen akk d weqmaḍ n ddula u ad bedden ɣef wawal-nsen alama d ṭṭerf. Zik, akk-n ad tessens urfan n medden, ddula tella tettaṭṭaf wid ay d-yessenkaren timeskanin (timesbaniyin) neɣ tḥebbes medden yettekkan deg trebbaɛ ur nelli, neɣ deg trebbaɛ, seg wasmi ay tent-id-sbedden llan yagi deg-sent yemdanen iqeddcen d yiɣallen n laman, maca, asmi ay d-yekker ljil-a amaynut n yelmeẓyen, tiɣawsiwin qqlent ur la tteddunt ara am wakk-a. Tiɛeqqayin n tmaziɣt ɣlint u mɣint-d deg yal tama, d ay-n ay d-yesnekren aṭas n medden, mi tensa tmes da, ad d-tekker anda niḍen. Yeqqel yimenɣi iban, yettili-d s lejheṛ, d imenɣi s ljehd n yiɣil ay yekksen tugdi akk d tsusmi seg wulawen n medden. Yekkes lweḥc-nni izedɣen medden zik-nni, deg tallit n Boumediene, asmi ay llan ttxemmimen dakk-n iɣallen n ddula llan deg yal amkan.

D acu kan, yessefk daɣen ad nẓer dakk-n deg 1980, ddula n Ldzayer tella la tettbeddil : tamettant (lmut) n Boumediene tessewlawel akk ddula d werkad ay tella terked-it zik-nni, yernu adabu (autorité) n Chadli Bendjedid ur yejhid ara akk. D ay-a ay yejjan ddula amzun temmehmeh, ur teẓri ara d acu n tikli ara d-tawi akk d tmeskanin-nni (timesbaniyin) n 1980, ladɣa imi ula d yiwen wass ur d-llint tedyanin timeqranin am tid-nni yernu tella ddula ur tebni ara fell-asent ad d-ilint. Tlata n wayyuren ay teqqim ddula ɛerqent-as, tikkelt ad tesseqdec iɣil (dɣa tiyita ijehden akk d tin n 20 Yebrir, asmi ay mmɣen yibulisen ɣef tesdawit n Tizi Wezzu), tikkelt, tɛerreḍ ad tessens times, am wasmi ay d-bran i 24-nni n warrac "ay d-yesnekren ccwal" sdeffir ma ɛeddan deg ccṛeɛ n laman n ddula). Taggara, ddula tefren ad teqbel tamsalt n tmaziɣt, ad tt-teddem u ad d-telhu id-s akk-n ad tezmer ad tt-teḥkem, yili uqbel tella teffeɣ-as akk afus. D acu kan, deg tallit-nni n ukukru n ddula, wid ay d-yesnekren amussu (mouvement) amaziɣ ssawḍen ad d-sseknen dakk-n tamsalt n tmaziɣt tesɛa iẓuran lqayen deg wegdud : medden gan sin n yisudiden imuta (grèves générales), llant-d aṭas n tmeskanin, llan-d aṭas n yimenɣiyen u qqlen yimenɣiyen-nni weɛṛen u meɣɣrit ugar sdeffir n 20 Yebrir. Seg wasmi ay tuwey Ldzayer azarug-ines (indépendance), d tikkelt tamezwarut ay deg ara d-kkren yimezdaɣen n yiwet n tama s lekmal-is u ssawḍen ad bedden acḥal n ledwaṛ deg wudem n ddula.

S way-a, d imeɣnasen (militants) n yedles, amur ameqran deg-sen meẓẓiyit, yernu deg tallit-nni tella texḍa-ten tsertit (politique) neɣ akk-n kan ay bdan keccmen deg-s, ssawḍen ad gen ay-n ur igi ula d yiwen n ukabar aserti (parti politique) n menwala ar imir-n : bedden s lejheṛ deg wudem n ddula yernu idum webdad-nsen alama ay ḥettmen ddula ad testeɛṛef s temsalt-nsen yernu ad tessenqes seg teqseḥ n weqmaḍ-ines (répression).

1980 : Tadukli n waggagen* d wegdud

  • intellectuels

"Tafsut n Yimaziɣen" n 1980 tella-d deg yiwet n tallit ay tt-iɛawnen akk-n ad d-tili : imeɣnasen (militants) n tmaziɣt qqimen la qeddcen azal xmesṭac n yiseggasen deg yedles, ɣas s tuffra, imeɣnasen yerɣan aṭas ɣef temsal-a bdan la keccmen tasertit (politique) yernu tebda la tettwabnay cwiṭ, cwiṭ yiwen n uẓeḍḍa (réseau) n "yimeɣnasen imesmaziɣen" (amazighistes). Gar way-a d way-n niḍen, Tizi Wezzu tella la tettnerni s tɣawla, dɣa, sdeffir ma tella d tamdint yeqquren, teqqel d tamdint meɣɣren deg tama-nni. Deg 1979, tettwaldi tesdawit n Tizi Wezzu, dɣa d nettat ay d ssebba ay yejjan Tafsut n 1980 ad d-taɣ. ɣas ma yella timeskanin (timesbaniyin) n 1980 maci d aggagen (intellectuels) d yesdawanen (universitaires) kan i yiman-nsen ay tent-igan, maca tildin n tesdawit deg Tizi Wezzu d ay-n yuraren dduṛ meɣɣren deg tmeskanin-a yernu d nettat ay yejjan amussu (mouvement) ad yimɣur.

Amussu (mouvement) amaziɣ, asmi ay d-yeṭṭerḍeq, yelfa-d d ameqran, xelḍen deg-s akk medden yernu ur iṣ̣eggem ara aṣ̣eggem ay ijehden, dɣa d tasdawit ay yuraren dduṛ deg usseqɛed d usseddu n lecɣal n umussu-nni.

ɣef way-a, maci deg lbaṭel ara tɛerreḍ ddula n Ldzayer ad tessenqes seg ljehd n tesdawit n Tizi Wezzu (imi ur tezmir ara ad tt-tekkes) : akk isenfaren (projets) n wesnerni n tesdawit-a llan ttuwexxaren, sneqsen seg-s inelmaden alama ay d ay-n kan, ttwakksen seg-s yinurar n usselmed s lekmal-nsen yernu iban dakk-n ddula tebɣa ad terr tasdawit-a d tarbaɛt kan n yiɣerbazen (llakulat) n yisuda (insituts) n usselmed aɛlayan, ay deg ur ttilin ara waṭas n yinelmaden u ad ifsusen i weḥkam.

Tafsut n 1980 tessken-d daɣen dakk-n tella-d tdukli gar waggagen imeɣnasen (intellectuels militants) d wegdud deg Tmurt n Leqbayel. Ay-a yesskanay-d ay-n gant trebbaɛ deg lɣerba seg 1965 alama ay d imir-n d ay-n yeddan d way-n yebɣa wegdud, yernu leqdic-nsen yegla-d s lateṛ d ameqran deg tmetti (société) n Tmurt n Leqbayel.

Werjin yewlawel wegdud deg Tmurt n Leqbayel u deg Ldzayer akk akk-n yewlawel asmi ay sdukklen waggagen (intellectuels) iɣallen-nsen akk d wegdud, u d ay-a ay yejjan amussu (mouvement) amaziɣ ad d-iban s lejheṛ u ad yimɣur akk-n ad yaɣ akk Tamurt n Leqbayel akk d Ldzayer tamaneɣt u ad yeqqim akk-n ugar n useggas (seg 10 Meɣres 1980 ar 19 Meɣres 1981).

1980 : d tiyita ay d-yejjan lateṛ

Deg yiseggasen ay d-iḍefren tafsut n 1980, nezmer ad nger tamawt dakk-n amussu (mouvement) amaziɣ yekka ɣef snat n talliyin yemgerraden (yemxallafen). Talliyin-a mgerradent ama deg tegnit ay deg d-llant, ama deg tsudist-nsent (stratégie).

Tallit n Meɣres 1980 ar Ctembeṛ 1981, nezmer ad as-nsemmi "tallit yeḥman", d tin ay deg yella waṭas n leqdic akk d tmeskanin (timesbaniyin) timeqranin deg webrid (ama deg Tmurt n Leqbayel neɣ deg Ldzayer tamaneɣt), timliliyin, inejmuyaɛ yemgerraden, timsirin (dduṛus) n tmaziɣt (ama deg Ldzayer neɣ deg Tmurt). Yuɣ lḥal, imir-n, wid ay d-yesnekren u sseddan amussu (mouvement) amaziɣ dindin kan ukin dakk-n timsal n tmagit (identité) tamaziɣt d tid wuɣur d-rran medden lwelha-nsen yernu aṭas n medden ay yewlawlen fell-asent. Akukru n ddula akk d beddu n weskasi (débat) ɣef yedles deg tmurt n Ldzayer d ay-n ay yejjan imeɣnasen (militants) ad faṛsen tagnit u ad sdumen lḥeṛs ɣef ddula. Yuɣ lḥal, imeɣnasen ssarmen ad teg ddula kra n tɣawsa ibanen i tmaziɣt, ad teldi tiwwura u lxerṣ̣um ad teqbel ad tettusselmed tmaziɣt u ad yili unadi fell-as deg tesdawiyin n Tizi Wezzu akk d Ldzayer tamaneɣt. D ay-a ay yes d-yewɛed uneɣlaf (lewzir) n usselmed aɛlayan n tallit-nni, A. Bererhi.

D acu kan, dindin kan teqqel ddula ɣer weqmaḍ-ines. Tebda la tferren wid ara teṭṭef u ad ten-tawey ɣer lḥebs (maci d imeɣnasen n menwala) i wakk-n ad tesseɛreq tikli i umussu (mouvement) amaziɣ.

Asmi ay ifuk useqqamu alemmas n FLN askasi-ines (débat) ɣef yedles aɣelnaw ay d-yellan gar Yunyu d Yunyuz n 1981, iga-d timeɣtusin (résolutions) ɣef yedles, dɣa tebda tikli n ddula la d-tettban. Ddula tɛawed yefren ad tkemmel deg timuɣliwin-ines tiquranin imi askasi-a yefra-tt-id dakk-n tamagit (identité) tadzayrit d taɛṛabt-tineslemt. Llan kra n yemdanen seg wid yettekkan deg weskasi-nni, nnan-d dakk-n mazal zemrent ad ilint lemcawṛat ɣef temsalt-a (ɣas ma yella timuɣliwin n yemdanen-a llant beɛdent s waṭas ɣef tid n yimeɣnasen [militants] imaziɣen), d acu kan, d wid yettnaɣen ɣef tesnakta (idéologie) taɛṛabt ay yernan deg weskasi-a. Yagi, aṭas n yiseggasen seg wasmi ay bdan yemsaɛṛaben (arabistes) d yemsaɛṛaben-isenselmen (arabo-islamistes) la keccmen u la ttaṭṭafen akk tisuda (institutions) n tesnakta n ddula, ladɣa deg yedles, deg usselmed u deg ukabar (parti) n FLN.

Imeɣnasen (militants) n tmaziɣt ɛerḍen tikkelt taneggarut "ad ḥeṛsen ddula swadda", dɣa gren-d tiɣri i medden, deg wass n 26 Ctembeṛ, akk-n ad gen asunded amatu (grève générale) u ad ɣanzun (boycotter) aɣerbaz (llakul), d acu kan, tikkelt-nni, medden ur ten-ḍfiren ara akk-n yessefk acku, mebla ccek, ur yeffiɣ ara fell-asen way-nni deg tegnit-nni. Dɣa, iban-asen-d i yimeɣnasen n tmaziɣt dakk-n ulac d acu ara asen-d-tefk ddula, wanag taneggarut-a la tqeddec akk-n ad yeqqim kullec akk-n yella zik, bitt, tebda la tqeddec akk-n ad tessejhed asseɛṛeb. Ay-a iban-d deg tuqqla (rentrée) ɣer tesdawit deg 1981, imi ay teɛzem ddula ad tesseɛṛeb akk ifurkawen (branches) n tussniwin talsanin (sciences humaines) deg tesdawit. Dɣa iban dakk-n ddula tebɣa d nettat kan ara iḥekmen tasnakta (idéologie) sdaxel n tesdawit.

Seg yimir-nni, imeɣnasen (militants) n tmaziɣt ɛawden ṣ̣eggmen iman-nsen akk-n ad d-awin tikli ara idumen, yernu d ay-n kan ara yeffɣen fell-asen. Dɣa bdan la d-ssuffuɣen tisufaɣ (publications), ɣas sɛint ara ttesriḥ, maca ddula ur tgi acemma akk-n ad teḥbes afraq-nsent, yernu tisufaɣ-a llant d ttawil ay yes sseddan yimeɣnasen isalan (lexbarat) ilelliyen akk d weskasi-nsen (débat) ɣef tekta (lfekrat) deg Tmurt n Leqbayel. Daɣen, sbedden-d yimeɣnasen tirebbaɛ n leqdic ɣef yinurar yerzan iles d yedles : dɣa bdant trebbaɛ-a la qeddcent ɣef usseqɛed n yiles amaziɣ (la d-bennun awalen itekniyen [techniques]), u ssawḍen ad d-ssuffɣen iqeddicen yemmuzzgen (spécialisés), werjin ttwagan-d uqbel deg tmaziɣt, am "Tmawalt n Tusnakt" (Léxique de mathématiques). Daɣen, bdan yimeɣnasen la ttgen timsirin (dduṛus) i usselmed n (tira) tmaziɣt s tuffra. S way-a, qqlen yimeɣnasen ur la ttnadin ara ad asen-d-tefk ddula kra, wanag llan la qeddcen yal ass akk-n ad d-bnun amussu (mouvement) ijehden ugar yernu d win ur nezmir ad yens : d idles amaziɣ ay izemren i yiman-is yernu yettuwehha ɣer yimal (avenir). D ay-a ay yejjan imeɣnasen ad d-sbedden tasɣunt (revue) Tafsut, ay yettwagan i lmend n tezrawin d weskasi (études et débats). Tafsut teqqel d ttawil ay deg aggagen (intellectuels) imaziɣen qqlen la d-ttarun ay-n ttxemmimen ɣef temsal n yedles.

Daɣen, yella mazal la d-yettili wembaddel gar waggagen (intellectuels) d wegdud deg Tmurt n Leqbayel; llant aṭas n tegnatin ay deg ttemlilin am yibarazen (galas) d leqdicat ay d-yettilin ladɣa deg tesdawit n Tizi Wezzu. Yuɣ lḥal, deg yiseggasen ay d-iḍefren tafsut n 1980, tkemmel teddert tdukli-nni yellan gar waggagen d yegdud, u ay-a yettban-d s tmeskanin-nni (timesbaniyin) ay d-yellan deg yiseggasen n 1980, u ay deg tikkwal llan-d yimenɣiyen meɣɣren gar yelmeẓyen d yibulisen deg wakk timiwa n Tmurt n Leqbayel. ɣef umedya (lemtel), asmi ay ttwaṭṭfen sebɛa n yimeɣnasen (militants) n tmaziɣt deg Fuṛaṛ n 1985, dindin kan kkren-d akk medden n Tmurt n Leqbayel (llant-d tmeskanin deg Tizi Wezzu, deg Bgayet, deg Yiɛeẓẓugen, ...). Deg umezwaru n Nwembeṛ, ttwaṭṭfen medden deg temsalt-nni n Temɣunt tadzayrit n yizerfan n wemdan (Ligue algérienne des droits de l'homme), yili tamɣunt-a llan la ttekkan deg-s yimeɣnasen n tmaziɣt s waṭas. D ay-n ay yessekren ccwal d ameqran u deg tgara, ixxamen n ccṛeɛ n tmiwa ay deg tekker ḥekmen-d lḥebs i wazal n meyya n medden ɣef ljal n ccwal.

Seg 1980 [ɣer 1990], nezmer ad d-nini dakk-n azal n 300 n medden ay yettucaṛɛen yernu yettwaḥkem fell-asen lḥebs ɣef ljal n yimenɣi ɣef tmaziɣt ama deg Tmurt n Leqbayel, ama deg Ldzayer tamaneɣt (attekki deg tmeskanin [timesbaniyin], afraq n tewriqin, attekki deg leqdicat d lecɣal yeqqnen ɣer ussutter n tmaziɣt). Ma d wid ay yettwaṭṭfen sakk-in bran-asen-d mebla ma ɛeddan deg ccṛeɛ, wid yettwaṭṭfen deg yexxamen n yibulisen, wid yettwaḥebsen tallit ɣezzifen mebla ssebba, wid ay d-ɣerrqen seg yiɣerbazen (llakulat), wid umi kksen ipaspuṛen-nsen u menɛen-ten ad ffɣen seg tmurt, wigi akk ur nezmir ad ten-id-neḥseb : tiɣawsiwin-a llant ḍerrunt-d yal ass, qqlent d tarutint ay nnummen akk yimeɣnasen (militants) n tmaziɣt. Dɣa, ay-a akk yessnakay-aɣ-d amek ay tefka temsalt n tmaziɣt iẓuran deg wegdud deg Tmurt n Leqbayel, medden qqlen sskanayen-d s lejheṛ tamagit-nsen (identité) tamaziɣt deg Tmurt n Leqbayel. ɣas ma tessukk ddula acḥal n yiseggasen n lḥeṛs d weqmaḍ ɣef wegdud, maca ay-a ur yessaweḍ ara ad yeqḍeɛ ay-n izedɣen deg wulawen n medden. Ccwal yekkren deg 1985-1986 deg Tmurt n Leqbayel yella d win iweɛṛen ugar n win n 1980, u yessken-d dakk-n medden ukin-d deg tama-a, yernu amussu (mouvement) amaziɣ yessaweḍ ad d-yessuffeɣ urfan n medden ɣer lejheṛ u qqlen medden, ama deg tmurt n Ldzayer, ama deg umaḍal (ddunit) slan s temsalt-a n tmaziɣt u ttḍafaren-tt.

Lejnas steɛṛfen s ljehd n umussu* amaziɣ

  • mouvement

D ay-n ibanen dakk-n amussu (mouvement) amaziɣ ɛawnen-t-id s waṭas yiminigen (iɣriben) imaziɣen. Iminigen-a yekkan acḥal n yiseggasen deg lbeṛṛani yernu sɛan ttejṛiba deg temsal n tsertit, d nitni ay iɛawnen amussu ay yekkren deg tmurt n Leqbayel akk-n ad yemmager u ad yeṣ̣ber i weqmaḍ (répression) n ddula. Amussu amaziɣ yeqqel yesɛa ineṭṭaqen (porte-paroles) deg lɣerba, d wid ay yellan la ttxebbiren lejnas ɣef way-n la iḍerrun deg Tmurt n Leqbayel : seg 1980 d asawen, teqqel tɣamsa (presse) la d-tessawaḍ isalan (lexbarat) n way-n iḍerrun deg Tmurt n Leqbayel ugar n zik. D ay-a ay yejjan ddula ur tesseqdac ara aqmaḍ (répression) ameqran deg Tmurt n Leqbayel u tuwey-d tikli ay deg tḥuder imezdaɣen n tama-a. D ay-a daɣen ay yejjan medden ad qqlen ad ttarun neɣ ad ssawalen mebla akukru, mebla ma sneqsen ay-n ay ugaden ur as-iɛejjeb ara i ddula, u d ay-a ay d-ikecfen aqmaḍ n ddula, u teqqel tneggarut-a ur tezmir ara ad teqmeḍ medden s tsusmi, ur isell yiwen, am zik-nni. Azal n ɛecrin n yiseggasen ay teqqim ddula, yinabaḍen-ines (lḥukumat) yemxallafen, la tqemmeḍ, la tettakel ɣef yizerfan (lḥuquq) d tellyin, u tuweḍ alama ay d asseqdec n uɛetteb d tmenɣiwt ! Akk-n ad tefk lḥeqq i yiman-is u ad teg lecɣal-a akk, ddula tettḥaṛab akk wid ay d-yekkren ɣer-s s yisem n Tegrawla (Révolution) yessuffɣen Fṛansa u s yisem n yimenɣi mgal (contre) n temnukda (imprérialisme). Deg tallit-nni, llan medden yettwakren, ttwaṭṭfen mebla lqanun, ttuɛettben mebla ma yewlawel yiwen u mebla ma faqent trebbaɛ tibeṛṛaniyin yettnaɣen ɣef yizerfan (lḥuquq) n wemdan u ad d-lhunt s temsal-a.

Seg 1980 d asawen, ttuwehhant akk teftilin ɣef Ldzayer, ladɣa ɣef Tmurt n Leqbayel : ay-n yebɣu teg-it ddula akk-n ad teḥbes tikli n yisalan (lexbarat), ur tessaweḍ ara, medden akk ẓran. Seg yimir-n, ddula teqqel teẓra dakk-n ur tezmir ara ad tkemmel aqmaḍ (répression) s tuffra.

Deg lweqt ay deg llant la d-ḍerrunt tedyanin deg tmurt, deg lɣerba, imeɣnasen bdan-d leqdic n wesḥulfu (sensibilisation) d ussaki n medden, alama ay yeqqel umussu (mouvement) amaziɣ la d-ijebbed u la yettqenniɛ Idzayriyen yellan deg lɣerba ugar n Tdukli n Yidzayriyen deg Tuṛuft (Amicale des Algériens en Europe), yellan, deg tidet, d tarbaɛt itebɛen ɣer FLN deg lbeṛṛani.

Daɣen, deg tallit-nni, bdan wid yessawalen tamaziɣt deg lɣerba s timmad-nsen la d-ttarun idlisen ussnanen (scientifiques) ɣef tmaziɣt, dɣa d ay-a ay yekkan ibeṛṛaniyen ad d-rren ugar lwelha-nsen ɣer way-n iḍerrun deg Tmurt n Leqbayel. Asmi ay bdan Yimazɣanen (Maghrébins) la d-lehhun nitni s timmad-nsen s tezrawin (études) ɣef tmaziɣt, tebda la tettebɛad takti-nni (lfekra) dakk-n d timura « listiɛmeṛ » ara ijebbden lexyuḍ. Ay-n d-ttinin neɣ ttarun-t-id yimassanen-a (savants) imazɣanen d ay-n zemren ad t-amnen medden, d nitni ara d-yessawalen ɣef yiman-nsen, maci d wiyaḍ ara d-ineṭṭqen deg umur-nsen. Imi ay d-lhan id-s yimazɣanen (maghrébins) n tmura yemgerraden n Tefriqt n Ugafa, tebda « tmesmaziɣt » (berbérisme) la tetteqqel d amussu (mouvement) n uxemmem iḥuzan akk tama-a, ur yeqqim ara kan deg yiwet n tmurt.


Timmuzɣa* akk d tugdut

  • amazighité

ɣas ma yella imussa isnaktanen (mouvement idéologiques) deg tmura n Tmazɣa (Maghreb) mgerraden, maca tella yiwet n tɣawsa ay ten-yesdukklen : Tamazɣa d taɛṛabt yernu s kra n leqdic ara yettwagan ɣef yedles, yessefk ad yeqqim kan deg tlisa-a. Ma d timmuzɣa (amazighité), ya tettwankeṛ maḍi, ya tettwaḥqer alama ay d ay-n kan. Win yessawalen tamaziɣt, imi ay yettwankeṛ am wakk-a, ur yessefk ara ad newhem mi ara t-nwali yettsuɣu-d : « Ala ! Lliɣ yernu mazal bɣiɣ ad iliɣ azekka ! ». D ay-n ibanen ad d-yini ay-a, d lḥeqq-is.

D ay-n ibanen dakk-n ankaṛ akk d tririt-agi deg rrif d ay-n ara iḍurren Amaziɣ s timmad-is, maca ay-a yezmer ad yili daɣen d amihi (danger) i tmetti (société) s lekmal-is, imi, mi ara tessers ddula tilisa am tigi i yedles, ad teqqel tmuɣli n yedles d tamuɣli tuḥṛist, d tin ur nettaẓ ɣer sdat, d tin ur nqebbel wiyaḍ, d tin wesdukkel n bessif n wakk medden s ddaw n yiwet n tecḍaḍt, d tin ay deg ay-n ur tebɣi ara ddula ad t-tekkes, ɣas yella deg yedles, u d tin ay deg ttin ledwaṛ gar ddula d wegdud : deg lweqt ay deg idles d agdud ay t-id-yettgen, ad teqqel d ddula d nettat ara t-id-yettgen i wegdud. Skud ur werɛad ur steɛṛfen ara yimezdaɣen n Tmazɣa (Maghreb) s wakk ay-n yellan deg tgemmi-nsen (patrimoine), werjin ad d-ffɣen seg ḍḍeɛfan d tiggunẓit tadelsant (sous-développement culturel). Ur yezmir ad d-yili wesnulfu wala tudert tadelsant n tidet mi ara tqeddec ddula akk-n ad ttun medden amezruy (ttarix) d yedles-nsen, mi ara d-tḥettem fell-asen (u ɣef yiman-is) lḥeqq d umezruy n tkellax, mi ara tbennu azekka n tmetti (société) ɣef tmucuha werjin nelli deg lweqt ay deg tejja ay-n yellan.

Ḍḍeɛfan ay yeḍɛef yedles deg tmura n Tmazɣa (Maghreb) u ladɣa deg Ldzayer d ay-n ay d-yurew wemnaɛ ay ttwamenɛent waṭas n tɣawsiwin seg seg wasmi ay uwyent tmura-a izurag-nsent (indépendances) : tamaziɣt teqqel deg rrif, maca daɣen, tettuḥaṛeb tefṛensist yellan, ama nebɣa neɣ negguma, d ttawil yuɣen aẓar deg Tmazɣa u d yiwen seg yilsawen igan leqran i yedles d ccfawat-nneɣ. Ay-a yerra idles n tmura n Tmazɣa d igellil, yernu qrib ulac akk tudert taggagt (intellectuelle) deg yimukan ay teṭṭef ddula. Axemmem yeddren, idles yeqqnen ɣer tidet ttafen kan iman-nsen beṛṛa i tsuda (institutions) n ddula, ttilin-d kan deg yimukan idergen i wallen n ddula, ladɣa deg lbeṛṛani. Yagi, maci deg lbaṭel ara naf dakk-n amur ameqran deg way-n d-itteffɣen deg yedles d tudert taggagt (intellectuelle), itteffeɣ-d s tmaziɣt neɣ s tefṛensist. Ay-a ur yebɣi ara ad d-yini dakk-n taɛṛabt ur tezmir ara ad tesseddu idles amuddir, wanag ssebba nettat iles-a, deg tegnit ay deg nella, ata-n gar yifassen n d wid yeṭṭfen tasertit (politique) d tesnakta (idéologie) n ddula.

Akk Imazɣanen (Maghrébins), ama d wid yessawalen s tmaziɣt neɣ d wid yessawalen s taɛṛabt, ala d rrbeḥ kan ara rebḥen lemmer ad ḥesben timmuzɣa d aḥric seg wayla-nsen. Asmi ara mṣ̣alaḥen Yimazɣanen wagar-asen u ad qeblen tikkersit (complexité) d tenḍa (diversité) n tmagit (identité) d yedles-nsen, ass-nni, tezmer ad teqqel Tmazɣa d tamurt n wesnulfu d unnerni. Tukci n wazal i tmaziɣt d ay-n ara yesqeɛden assaɣen (relations) gar uɣerman (citoyen) d ddula ay t-iḥekmen. Amussu (mouvement) n tmaziɣt d win ay d-yeglan yid-s s ussutter n tuggta (pluralisme), n weqbal n wiyaḍ, n tenḍa (diversité) akk d tlelli (liberté), ama d tin n wemdan, ama d tin n terbaɛt. Amussu-a yugi ad ttuḥettmen medden ad ddren s ddaw n yiwet kan n tecḍaḍt, tin ara tḥettem fell-asen ddula u d tin ay izemren ad tɣurr kra akk-n ad sbedden leḥkem amesbaṭli. Tabṛat n umussu-a tban, ladɣa deg Tmurt n Leqbayel : maci d ddula ara d-yesnulfun neɣ ara d-yebnun « idles » i wegdud, yernu ay-nni ur yelli d idles wanag d timucuha tunṣ̣ibin (officielles) ara qebleɣ mebla ma nniɣ-d acemma. S yisem-iw d aɣerman ilelli, ttalaseɣ ad d-iniɣ d acu ay lliɣ, d acu ay bɣiɣ ad qqleɣ u ad bnuɣ ay-a. Tamagit-inu (identité), idles-inu ur llin ara, akk-n ay d-yenna Kateb Yacine, d akaram (dossier) n lekwaɣeḍ ay d-tga ddula, d win ay tettbeddil akk-n ay as-yehwa, ma d nekk ad qebleɣ ay-n s tsusmi. Idles d ay-n ay d-tesnulfuy yal ass tmetti (société) tilellit.

ɣef way-a, amussu (mouvement) amaziɣ ur yelli d win ay yes bɣan Yimaziɣen ad ɣelqen ɣef yiman-nsen, d amussu uḥṛis yerzan kan kra n wegdud, neɣ d taɣelnaẓri (nationalisme) tamaynut am tid-n akk yekkan : wanag, assutter amaziɣ d win ay d-yuwyen taɣawsa tamaynut, d tin ay yugaren iɛeddan i tlisa n tmaziɣt-nni s timmad-is, d assirem i lebni n tmetti (société) ay deg tella tenḍa (diversité), ay deg medden mṣ̣alaḥen wagar-asen yernu maci d amnaɛ, aḥqar d wenkaṛ ara yesseddayen tiɣawsiwin n tmurt. Ad tili tlelli tadelsant (culturelle) d tlelli i yiles amaziɣ, maca daɣen ad tili tlelli i wakk medden, acku wid yessawalen tamaziɣt fehmen dakk-n ur zmiren ara ad ttwaḍemnen yizerfan-nsen (lḥuquq) s tidet u ad dumen deg yiwet tmetti (société) ala ma yella d aɣerman (citoyen) ara yeṭṭfen leḥkem yernu amdan ur itteqqel ara ittedder u itteddu akk-n ay as-yehwa i ddula neɣ i kra n terbaɛt yerran leḥkem d ayla-s.

Yettwakkes-d seg « Imazighen ass-a », n Salem Chaker (tiẓrigin Bouchène, Ldzayer, 1990).

Tasuqilt sɣur Omar MOUFFOK

Tamselyut[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Sɣur Amnay http://www.imyura.net

Amezruy n Tefsut n Yimaziɣen yessuqqel-it-id Omar MOUFFOK - Tiddukla Tadelsant Imedyazen, [1]

http://membres.lycos.fr/cicbgayet/ch20avril80.html

  • Imazighen ass-a, n Salem Caker (tiẓrigin Bouchène, Lezzayer, 1990).