Tafsut n Imaziɣen

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Ass n 20 ibrir, d amulli n tefsut imaziɣen, amulli n tefsut n tlelli. D yiwen wass i deg a nesfugel i tikkelt tis 25 tadyant n imaziɣen. Anwa-t weqbayli ur nesli neɣ ur nessin tafsut n imaziɣen ? Anwa-t umaziɣ im’ ur yiwiḍ yissel? Wa yecfa wa ala akken it-iccenu Abranis deg yiwet si tezlatin-is maca, tura, seg weqrur-nni amecṭuḥ alma d amɣar-nni acaraf, ssnen awk anamek-is uzemz-a*. Azekka daɣen, a nemyager akk d yiman-neɣ, akk d weḥric-a axatar deg umezruy azi* n Tferka n ugafa.

Mačči d asfugel iɣ-d-yeggran ass-a, ur ɣ-yeţţak wul i waya acku gran-aɣ-n yiswan wuɣur mazal werɛad nessaweḍ, yeggra-ɣ-n webrid i mazal ur ifuk ara, ggrant-aɣ-n ccfayat ur neḥriz akken iwata...teggra-yaɣ-n tutlayt tamaziɣt i yuɣalen amzun d taǧǧalt. Ggrant-aɣ-n terwiḥin n wid yeţwanɣan di tefsut taberkant. Widak-nni i d-yekkren di 1980 d widak i d-yekkren di 2001 yiwen n yiri nsen. Timesbaniyin-nni i yeḍran di tmurt n leqbayel send iḍelli, iḍelli neɣ ass-a, ţţakent-ed udem n weqbayli i yerɣan af tilelli. Ayen awk wiɣer id-nessaweḍ ass-a,123 n imeɣrasen i nɣan iserdasen d isultiyen n udabu azzayri aɛrab inselmizri akk d ibuxusen-is, yesban-aɣ-d dakken: ger yiḍelli d wass-a, ulac dacu i ibeddlen fell-aɣ. Imi mazal neqqen arrac nneɣ am yizan, teţwaḥreṣ ugar n yiḍelli. « Aman-nni yeččuren d ḥellejɣar d nutni d nutni, bedlen-asen kan acemmux » Tafsut n imaziɣen mačči kan akka i ţ-lul-ed ger yiḍ d wass: dayen wiɣer i d-nessaweḍ, dayen awk id-yekkan zdat-es i ţ-id-ismentsen.

Idim mazal tuɣ yeḥma ass mi yeţwakkes usarag n (Dda lmulud) Mulud At Mɛammer af tmedyazt taqburt n yeqbayliyen(asarag-a tuɣ teţţuhega-n i wass n 10 meɣres), yugi-ţ udabu azzayri, teţwakkes kan akka...d amnukal n ugerzu n Tizi-Wezzu s yiman-is i s-ţ-yennan i dda Lmulud. Si tal tama, di yal adrum, bdan medden ţţarran nnehtat si cayaḍ i sen-iserkeb udabu azzayri, bdan ţţiwzagen waman...aseqqi yemmar-ed akken yerɣa. Meḥyaf-nni i isik Bu-iledyen af yeqbayliyen yezzi-d af bab-is, tefɣ-ed tiɣri n wid yugin ddel d uzaglu. Dɣa tetṭerḍeq af tikkelt, temmar-ed af yiwin yidis. Krim Belqasem d yiwen seg yiḍan n “El-Moudjahed“ i s-d-itekkan i dda lmulud, s rregmat akk d useglef; ira ad yefk iɣil i wat-is: wid-nni iɣ-d-imedlen tiwwura, wid-nni iţţarrayin af wegdud. Tamesbanit tamenzut i d-yellan di Tizi-Wezzu d tin n 11 meɣres 1980, tsembiwel addad(liḥala) n timiren. D inelmaden d tinelmadin n [[Taseddawit Asif Σisi]] d Iḥesnawen i yetṭfen tuɣḍaṭ-a, ur ẓẓrin ara kan dacu i yellan yegguni-ten …

Aɣaram asdawan n wasif ɛisi, mazal-it ar ass-a i wakken a d-yesmekti wid yeţţun, akken a ten-d-yeḥku af yiḍ-nni n 19 yebrir1980 mi d-mkuben iserdasen s yeqjan. D ahmaj i hemjen deg inelmaden d tnelmadin. Acḥal iwin ar lḥebs, acḥal ɛedmen ger-asen... A nekk seg wayaki mebla ma neţţu awk imeɣnasen i s-yefkan udem azedgan i wayen i d-yeḍran. Ur ntekk ara kan akka ma yella ur d-nudir irgazen am Ɛebbuṭ, Lunawsi, Mezdad, Saɛdi, Ferḥat Mhenni, Zituni... d yawk arrac imaziɣen i iseblen iman-nsen i wakken tadyant n 20 Yebrir a ţ-aweḍ ar tal taddart di tmurt n Yeqbayliyen. Aseggas yezzi af waya, si tama n Bgayet iɣ-d-tekka taɣrit n Imaziɣen tikkelt-a...Tafsut n 1981 Ilmeẓyen d telmeẓyin n din ččan aḥlalas n udabu azzayri, awal nsen yiwen: werǧin ad teḥlelli-d tugduţ i yeqbayliyen

Seg wass-nni, Iqbayliyen fkan awal, ggulen dakken tineţţi nsen ur tnegger u s deffir-sen ḍefren-d imaziɣen s umata. Ulayɣer a nesṭuqet awal, d timuggiyin i asenfar nneɣ. Imal n yeqbayliyen atan di tmurt nsen, iẓuran-nsen ɣzan almi anda yiwen ur yessin…Imal n tutlayt nsen atan ger tarwa-s, atan di tmurt-is, deg urebbi n warraw-is. Talalit n Amussu Adelsan Amaziɣ s tumert medden ay ţ-muggren, ass-nni i yebda umennuɣ af yidles d tutlayt nneɣ yeţţali yeţnerni almi ass-a, ulac win ur nessin xas ula cwiyya n umezruy nneɣ. Tafat iɣ-d-isiɣ Umussu d ajgagal s wiyes nerfreẓ abrid deg wi’ nteddu, nerfed aqerru nneɣ ar igenwan mebla akukru. Ula ma xas ass-a, Amussu yebḍa d icḥricen seg mi kkan ikabaren nnig-es, iswi-s amenzu n win n widak icḥemlen ayla nsen, akal nsen...

Azekka d amulli n wass mi d-tefrari tagut af wid iran seg wul tugduţ d yetṭfen deg iẓuran nsen…amennuɣ simmal irennu, agdud simmal yeţţaki. Ad rnuɣ af wayaki, amennuɣ n imeɣnasen s yimru , tamedyazt d ccna.

Maɛṭub Lwennas seg imezwura i sen-yerran tajmilt i tlawin d yergazen n tefsut imaziɣen, tasfift i d-yessufeɣ kra n wayyuren kann s deffir 20 yebrir anda icennu:

Eḥzen Lwad Ɛisi Mi yebda imenɣi Yewweḍ-iten Lɛesker deg Yiḍ Tuddar slant irkwelli, suwwent ɣer Tizi Kul abrid a yeţfeggiḍ Ur telli d tisselbi, nehwaǧ tilleli, Uqbel aɣ-ḥerren ɣer lhid. Akken nella zik a nili, Ma yella imenɣi, Wi’ mmuten ad yennerni mmi-s. A wid iḥekmen ayenni, ur nelli d ulli, Tamurt iban-d lsas-is. Tamaziɣt ad tennerni …

Ferḥat Mhenni, yeccna tafsut imaziɣen:

Nnif d lḥerma dayen yeḍran Di tefsut n Tizi Wezzu Llan d ilemẓyen d tlemẓyin fɣan-d s iberdan. Nnan-d ala dayen neɛya Si lbaṭel akk d uzaglu ...

Neɣ ayen yeccna Buǧemɛa Agraw :

Timest n 54 tensa di 62 Teggra-d tirgit deg iɣed-nni Tuɣal tecɛel di 80 Tetṭef-iţ-id tideţ n lesnin Ansi i d-isuḍ ubeḥri D leqbayel i izuggiren Mazal-aɣ d imaziɣen … Ma ţţuɣ arrac nneɣ yeɣlin, Nekk mačči d aqbayli

Lwennas d dda Lmulud Mazal-aɣ d imaziɣen Ur neţr’uz ur nkennu Ur nqebbel ara azaglu Mazal-aɣ…mazal-aɣ d imaziɣen ...

Amezruy n Tefsut n Yimaziɣen : D acu yeḍran ?[beddel | edit source]

[Tafsut n 1980 deg Tmurt n Leqbayel d tin ay ikecmen deg umezruy (ttarix) n tmaziɣt d win n Ldzayer akk-n ma tella. Deg wussan-nni, ḍrant aṭas n tɣawsiwin s tghawla, d tid ay yuraren ddurh d ameqqran deg tikli i lmend n wakkaz s tmazight deg tmurt-is. Yelha ma nessawel-d ghef way-n yedhran deg Tefsut-nni akk-n ad nefhem xir tidyanin-a. Adhris-a ay d-nuwey d tukkist (extrait) seg "Weghmis n Tedyanin n Tmurt n Leqbayel" ay yura Racid Caker deg tallit-nni u yeffeɣ-d deg tesɣunt (revue) n "Les Temps Modernes" (uṭṭunen 432-433, Yunyu-Ɣuct 1982), akk d tesɣunt Tafsut.]


Ass n lḥedd, 9 Meγres 1980 : Tasdawit n Tizi Wezzu tella tesaa imir-n sin n yiseggasen d wezgen seg wasmi ay tettwaldi yernu yufa-d lḥal yagi tga tlata yisundilen (grèves) imeqranen, aneggaru deg-sen d win ay d-yellan deg gar 17 Tubeṛ d 13 Nwembeṛ 1979. Asunded-nni gan-t γef wugur n ugenses idetti (représentation authentique) n yinelmaden sdaxel n tesdawit. Akabar n Tirni n Weslelli Aγelnaw (FLN) yella la d-yeqqar dakk-n inelmaden ara yesseḥṛasen akk-n ad gen isundilen-a d "imesmaziγen" (berbéristes) neγ d imaṛksiyen imaziγen (u llan qqaren-asen "Bougiots").

Seg yimir-n, iselmaden ay llan ttwalin-ten d imarksiyen, llan ur ten-ttaznen ara ɣer Tizi Wezzu, wanag ttaznen-ten ɣer tesdawit n Sṭif. Ma d iselmaden idzayriyen ay yeghran deg Fransa llan ttqaraaen-ten u tikkwal ssagaden-ten. Yagi, deg way-n iaaddan, adtas n tikkal ur jjin ara ad d-ilint tmeskanin tidelsanin (manifestations culturelles) tidelsanin timaziɣin deg Tizi Wezzu. Ur jjin ara At Mengellat neɣ Yidir ad cnun, gedlen tamezgunt (pièce de théâtre) n "2000 n yiseggasen n Ṭradh" ay llan tturaren-tt-id s teqbaylit.

Kra n wussan uqbel ma yusa-d Mouloud Mammeri γer tesdawit n Tizi Wezzu akk-n ad d-yeg asarag-is, sneṭḍen yinelmaden inazalen (affiches) deg yiγerban akk-n ad d-xebbren γef way-a. Anemhal n tesdawit (recteur), γas ma yella ur as-yeεjib ara lḥal, yeqbel ad d-yili usarag-nni imi d aseqqamu (comité) n uγaram (cité) n Asif Aɛisi ay d-yelhan s tigin n usarag-a yernu aseqqamu-a testeεṛef yes-s tedbelt (administration). D acu kan, aṭas n yinazalen ay d-yettwasγersen. Deg yiḍ n wass n lḥedd d letniyen (γef ttnac n yiḍ), yeγra-as-d yiwen i Mouloud Mammeri, yenna-as dakk-n d netta ay d anemhal n tesdawit n Tizi Wezzu u yenna-as dakk-n asarag-nni-ines yebṭel.


Ass n letniyen 10 Meγres 1980 Azekka-nni taṣ̣ebḥit, Mouloud Mammeri yesteqsa, u d Mass Arab, anemhal (directeur) n tesdawit n Tizi Wezzu s timmad-is ay as-yennan dakk-n maci d netta ay as-d-yeγran yernu asarag-ines ur yettwamneε, ur yettuwexxer. Ɣef tizi n ttnac n wass, Mouloud Mammeri yeqleε seg Ldzayer, yedda id-s Salem Caker d yiwen n unehhaṛ iqeddcen deg CRAPE, la tteddun γer Tizi Wezzu. Mi uwḍen γer Dreε Ben Xedda, γef jjuj, yeḥbes-iten yiwen n wuggug (barrage) n yibulisen (uggug niḍen yella yegguni-ten deg Buxalfa).

Sdeffir ma walan lekwaγeḍ-is, ibulisen uwyen Mouloud Mammeri γer uwali n Tizi Wezzu, u d netta ay as-d-yennan s yimi-s dakk-n asarag-ines (conférence) γer "yisefra iqdimen n teqbaylit" yettwamneε imi ay-a "yezmer ad d-yawi ccwal", am wakk-n ay as-yenna ad yeffeγ seg Tizi Wezzu imir-nni kan. Yuγ lḥal, awali yekcef-d ula d win ay iwekkel akk-n ad as-d-iγer i Mammeri deg yiḍ-nni u ad as-yini dakk-n asarag-is yettwamneε. Wagi d Mass Merabten, d anemhal (directeur) n COUS. Akk-a, Mammeri yeqqel yeẓra dakk-n anemhal n tesdawit ula ay t-yegren deg way-nni. Yuγ lḥal, anemhal n tesdawit akk d umaru amatu (secrétaire général) qqlen nnan-as i Mammeri dakk-n ay-nni yekka-d nnig n tezmert-nsen. Γef ṛṛebεa d wezgen n tmeddit, llan ugar n 1000 n medden ara yettṛajun melmi ara yebdu usarag-nni. Mi ẓran dakk-n yettwamneε, bdan la ten-id-ttalin wurfan, yernu ssefran ad gen timlilit i uzekka-nni, 11 Meγres, γef 9 n tṣ̣ebḥit.


Ass n ttlata 11 Meγres Inelmaden gan tameskant-nsen (manifestation) tamezwarut deg yizenqan n Tizi Wezzu. Γef ttesεa n tṣ̣ebḥit ay mlalen u gar n 10:15 d 12:15, gar n 500 d 700 n yinelmaden ay yelḥan deg yizenqan n Tizi Wezzu, zzin-d sin iberdan γef yizenqan imeqranen n temdint. Tikli teḥbes sdat n Useqqamu Aγelnaw Aγerfan (CNP) n FLN, sdat n twilayt u sdat n tesnawit (lycée) n temdint, u llan refden tiḥucay ay deg d-uran "Idles amaziγ : idles aγerfan", "Awali, Aseqqamu aγelnaw aγerfan, asarag n Mammeri yettwamneε ?", "Ḥebset aqmaḍ n yedles". Uran-d daγen s tefṛensist : "Ad yeγli weqmaḍ" (répression), "Awali, Aseqqamu aγelnaw aγerfan d iqettalen". Ma s tmaziγt uran-d "Tamaziγt d tameslayt-nneγ", "Ad nerreẓ wala ad neknu", "Neεya deg lbaṭel".

Imeẓla (ssrabes) n weqmaḍ (respression) llan ḥedṛen s waṭas dinna : ibulisen, ijadeṛmiyen d yisexsayen (pompiers), d acu kan, ur d-giren ara iman-nsen. Kullec yeḥbes deg temdint yernu medden llan la d-ttḍillin seg ṭṭwaqi n yexxamen. Medden amzun ddan u fkan-asen lḥeqq i yinelmaden-nni, maca ur d-sbanen ara lebγi-nsen akk-n ad ttekkin neγ ad εawnen inelmaden. D acu, llant kra n temγarin nnant-asen d "arrac ijehlen". Deg tmeddit n wass-nni, mlalen yiselmaden idzayriyen n tesdawit n Tizi Wezzu u uran-d aḍris (texte) n yiwet n tsakbabt (pétition), aḍris-nni gan-t d tabṛat yeldin i uneγlaf (ministre) n usselmed aεlayan. Deg weḍris-nsen, iselmaden ur qbilen ara imi ay yettwamneε usarag (conférence) n umeddakel-nsen deg tesdawit, u sḥeṛsen i wakk-n ad tettuqader lḥeṛma n tesdawit (ur qbilen ara imi ara d-keccmen yibulisen γer daxel n tesdawit ...), a m wakk-n ssuttren ad tili tlelli n wawal ladγa deg way-n yerzan idles d yiles amaziγ. Tabṛat-nni zemlen-tt (stenyan-tt) ṛebεin n yiselmaden (ṛebεa yimuren γef xemsa seg yiselmaden idzayriyen yellan qeddcen deg tesdawit n Tizi Wezzu).


Ass n laṛebεa 12 Meγres 1980 Agraw amatu (assemblée générale) n yinelmaden n Tizi Wezzu yura-d yiwet n "tebṛat yeldin i Uselway n Tegduda". Tabṛat-nni ssuffγen-d seg-s luluf n tsukan (copies) u ferqen-tent deg waṭas n yimukan (Ldzayer, Bumerdas, atg.). Tabṛat-a yettwarun s yiles ur nqesseḥ ara aṭas d tin ay deg d-bedren yinelmaden ay-n d-yeqqar werkawal aγelnaw (charte nationale). Daγen, inelmaden bedren-d deg tebṛat-nsen akk ay-n yeḍran deg wussan-nni nnan-d dakk-n iles d yedles imaziγen ttalasen ad ttusnernin, am wakk-n d-ssuttren dakk-n tamaziγt ad teqqel d iles aγelnaw wis sin deg tmurt.

Deg Ldzayer tamaneγt, medden yeslan s way-n ara iḍerrun deg Tizi Wezzu, banen-d amzun ur uminen ara, bitt llan kra kra nnan-d dakk-n ay-a d lekdeb akk yernu ur uminen ara ula s Mouloud Mammeri dakk-n yella. D acu kan, llan kra n medden, qlilit, llan bγan ad gen tameskant (tamesbanit) deg wezniq !


Ass n lexmis 13 Meγres 1980 Iselmaden n Usudu n Tussniwin Tudmisin (institut des Sciences économiques) n Ldzayer tamaneγt) asmi ay ẓran s lexbar, gan tasakbabt (pétition) ay fkan i weγlif (ministère) akk-n ad d-sseknen dakk-n ur qbilen ara amnaε n usarag-nni (conférence) n Mammeri. Aḍris-a zemlen-t (stenyan-t) ṛebεin n yiselmaden, meḥsub tlata n yimuren γef ṛebεa seg yiselmaden idzayriyen (gar-asen wid iqeddcen deg PAGS [akabar amesdukli (parti communiste)] d wid iqeddcen deg tedbelt (administration)]. Deg webrid, gar Budwaw d Tizi Wezzu, amur ameqran deg yigalisen (tiplakin) akk d tseddariyin (abribus) uran deg-sent s ssbiγa : "Tugdut", "Aït Ahmed deg tmurt !", "Ḥebset assenger n yedles !", "FLN amaynut d afaci", "Akk d inmeglayen" (opposants). Tira-a uran-tent deg yiḍ n 12 d 13 Meγres. Medden walan daγen tira am tigi deg Tizi Wezzu akk d yiberdan yettalin γer tuddar deg Tmurt n Leqbayel. Adabu yeεreḍ ad yeffer akk tira-nni s tγawla s ssbiγa tamellalt neγ taweṛdit, deg wass n lexmis, 13 Meγres. Ass-nni daγen ay d-yeffeγ umagrad (article) amezwaru deg lbeṛṛani γef way-n ara iḍerrun deg Tizi Wezzu. Wa d amagrad awezlan ay d-yeffγen deg weγmis afṛensis n Libération, yeḥka-d ay-n yeḍran s tidet deg wass n 11 Meγres. (Mebla ccek, d ay-n ay yejjan akk lejnas ad d-rren lwelha-nsen γer tedyanin-a !).


Ass n ljemεa 14 Meγres 1980 Medden bdan la ttmeslayen γef tira-nni u mxallafen leṛyuy-nsen fell-asen.


Ass n ssebt 15 Meγres 1980 Terza yiwet n tfagla (délégation) n yinelmaden i tikkelt tamezwarut γer tselwit (présidence) u tejja-n dinna tabṛat yeldin i uselway. D A. Benhabyles ay ten-yemmugren, iban-d yewhem maca ur d-yesban ara taεdawt-ines. Inelmaden sseknen-as-d amek ay tettwaru tmaziγt (s tfinaγ) u yenna-d dakk-n yefka tira-nni i Uselway (?). Deg temlilit-ines tis snat akk d yinelmaden ay d-yesban addud-ines (position).


Ass n lḥedd 16 Meγres 1980 Deg Ldzayer, medden la ttmeslayen dakk-n tella yiwet n tewriqt n FFS ay yettwaferqen γef yinelmaden deg wussan-nni (yuγ lḥal, d tin ay d tawriqt tis tlata ara yefreq ukabar-a deg setta n wayyuren ineggura). Tawriqt-a tessawal-d γef tedyanin-nni n Tizi Wezzu u tenna-d dakk-n 2000 n yinelmaden ay yettekkan deg tmeskant-nni (tamesbanit) n 11 Meγres (yili ay-a ur iṣ̣eḥḥa).

Deg Tmurt n Leqbayel, ass n lḥedd 16, letniyen 17 d wass n ttlata 18 Meγres, medden gan timeskanin (timesbaniyin) deg Laṛebεa n Ayt Yiraten, deg Yiεeẓẓugen akk d Σin Lḥemmam. Deg Laṛebεa n Ayt Yiraten, medden qqimen la tteddun deg yizenqan tlata n wussan, wa sdeffir wa. Aṭas seg wid yettekkan deg tmeskanin-a d ilmeẓyen (inelmaden n tesnawiyin [lycéens], atg.), akk d kra n yigerdan d tlawin (amur ameqran deg-sent d timγarin). Ḍrant tγawsiwin yessewhamen. Deg Larebεa n At Yiraten, medden kecmen γer lkaziṛna u ḥettmen iserdasen (iεsekṛiyen) ad d-ffγen seg-s s yiceṭṭiḍen n waddal (sport) (imi ay llan la ttgen addal) i wakk-n ad ttekkin yid-sen deg tmeskant γef yiles amaziγ. Ula d amγiwan (lmir) ḥettmen-t ad d-yeffeγ, u ad yezwir i ṣ̣ṣ̣ef u ad d-yini "Ad ddren Yimaziγen".

Deg yal amkan, medden rẓan jjaj d yigalisen (tiplakin) n lbenyanat n ddula u uran fell-asen isekkilen (lḥuṛuf) n tfinaγ. Deg Yiεeẓẓugen, yiwen n ubulis yusa-d ad yennaγ medden imi ay rẓan yiwen n ugalis n FLN, dγa smaren fell-as acabcaq n ssbiγa tazewwaγt. Imsenza (ttejjaṛ) γelqen tiḥuna-nsen maca kra nnan-d dakk-n d medden ay ten-iḥettmen ad γelqen.


Ass n letniyen 17 Meγres 1980 Daniel Junqua yellan la iqeddec d anemyaru (correspondant) deg weγmis n "Le Monde", yedda γer Tizi Wezzu u yebda la yesteqsay inelmaden d yiselmaden. Yeεreḍ ad yesteqsi daγen kra n yemḍebbren, maca ur yessaweḍ ara (anemhal n tesdawit [recteur] ulac-it, atg.). Deg wass n 19 Meγres, yeffeγ-d umagrad (article) amezwaru deg Le Monde u yeḥka-d γef lumuṛ akk-n ḍrant (mebla azeyyed wala assenqes).

Deg tesdawit n Tizi Wezzu, inelmaden d yiselmaden la ssawalen γef wakk ay-n yeḍran. Llan kra bγan ad d-sseknen dakk-n ur qbilen ara ad ad d-gren iman-nsen yikabaren (partis) n tenmegla (oppisition) deg temsalt-a u ad εerḍen ad sqedcen tidyanin-a deg leṣ̣laḥ-nsen, d acu kan, rran-ten deg rrif yernu jjan ay-n akk-n llan bγan ad t-gen. Tameddit-nni, Ferhat Mhenni, acennay n terbaεt Imaziγen Imula iga abaraz (gala) deg telmessit (foyer) n yinelmaden deg Yiḥesnawen. Ḥedṛen azal n 1000 n yinelmaden, gar-asen anemhal (directeur) n COUS, Merabtene, yellan yeskeṛ yernu llan la smesxiren yes-s yinelmaden. Abaraz-nni yeqqel d timlilit ay yes d-sseknen yinelmaden dakk-n ur qbilen ara aqmaḍ (respression) n ddula. Timlilit-a teqqel mechuṛet imi ay sqerdcen yinelmaden s lejheṛ γef kra n temsal tisertiyin (politiques) am tuqqla n Aït Ahmed d Boudiaf. Arezki About yellan iqeddec deg unegmi (laboratoire) n tesdawit, yessawel-d γef yiwet n tewriqt ay n FUAA ay d-sεeddan s ddaw n tewwurt n texxamt-is.


Ass n ttlata 18 Meγres 1980 Lexbar n timeskanin (timesbaniyin) ay d-yellan deg Laṛebεa n Ayt Yiraten, Iεeẓẓugen d Σin Lḥemmam yelfa-d d tidet. Medden qqlen la ttwalin lumuṛ s leḥder (ladγa irgazen imeqranen), imi ugaden "lemmer ad yekker ṭṭrad aγarim (guerre civile)".


Ass n laṛebεa 19 Meγres 1980 Aneγlaf (lewzir) n usselmed aεlayan, Bererhi, yemlal i tikkelt tamezwarut akk d Mammeri, u yessutter seg-s ssmaḥ d ameqran s yiles "aẓidan am tamemt", maca ur iban ara γef wacu. Tikkelt niḍen, yeγra-as akk-n ad t-yenṣ̣eḥ ur yettekkay ara deg yisaragen (conférences) ay ssefran ad ten-gen yinelmaden deg uγaram (cité) n tesdawit n teqcicin deg Ben Aknoun, γef yedles aγelnaw. Nnan-asen daγen akk-a i Mass Labidi akk d Rachid Boudjedra, imi ay ugaden lemmer ad ttekkin deg yisaragen-nni. Mammeri yessutter ssmaḥ s leḥdaqa deg teqcicin ay t-iεerḍen. Kra n teqcicin n Tdukli Taγelnawt n Yelmeẓyen Idzayriyen (UNJA) εerḍent ad frunt ugur-a, maca ur ssawḍent ara.


Ass n lexmis 20 Meγres 1980 Aγmis n El Moudjahid yessuffeγ-d yiwet n tebṛat n ucemmet d rregmat yettwaxetmen s yisem n K.B. (mebla ccek d Kamel Belkacem, anemhal n tira [rédacteur en chef] n weγmis-a). Tabṛat-a tetthem Mammeri (mebla ma tebder-d isem-is) belli d axabit ixeddmen akk d temharsa (colonialisme). Tasγunt n "Révolution Africaine" tessuffeγ-d daγen tigejdit (éditorial), ur yettwafhem ara d acu ay d-yeqsed maca, deg tgara, iwet-d deg wid ay d-yessekren ccwal deg Tizi Wezzu. Ma d aγmis n Algérie Actualité yenna-d dakk-n tirzi ay iga Chadli γer Ccerq Alemmas d tin ay yessefra ad tt-yeg aṭas ay-a, yernu ccwal yekkren deg tmurt n Leqbayel ur yeqqin ara γer tirzi-a. Nnig way-a, Chadli yessefra ad yerzu γef Tizi Wezzu deg wass n 15 neγ 16 Meγres. Γef way-a ay gan kra n lecγal n ucebbeḥ n temdint s tγawla deg wussan-nni.

Deg Dreε Lmizan, inelmaden n tesnawiyin (lycées) εerḍen ad gen tamsekant (tamesbanit) i tikkelt tamezwarut deg wussan-nni n yimuras (vacances). Ttekkan azal n 200 n yinelmaden deg tmeskant-nni. Deg Tizi Wezzu, inelmaden gan timlilit iweεṛen ay deg kra ur qbilen ara imi ay d-gren iman-nsen yikabaren n tenmegla (partis d'opposition) am FFS, FUAA d PRS. Kra bedren-d ula d PAGS (akabar amesdukli [parti communiste]) yellan la yesseqdac ma ulac sin wid yellan "la d-ssenkaren" inelmaden). Deg temlilit-a, inelmaden n Tizi Wezzu fran-tt-id ad ddun γer Laṛebεa n Ayt Yiraten, Iεeẓẓugen d tmura niḍen u ad εerḍen ad ten-qennεen ur d-ttadren ara γer Tizi Wezzu akk-n ad msegrawen dinna. Tameskant-nni ay γef llan la ssawalen medden aṭas ay-a (ula deg Ldzayer) yewεeṛ akk-n ad tt-ḥebsen. Iγallen n laman llan swejden iman-nsen akk-n ad wten.


Ass n ssebt 22 Meγres 1980 Iselmaden n Tizi Wezzu la ssawalen γef tririt ara gen i umagrad-nni (article) n ucemmet d rregmat ay d-yeffγen deg El Moudjahid. Yuγ lḥal, amagrad-a iḥuza ula d iselmaden n tesdawit n Tizi Wezzu. Deg Ldzayer, kra n yiselmaden n tesdawit εerḍen ad d-gen tasakbabt (pétition) ara fken i El Moudjahid akk-n ad as-yeḍmen i Mammeri lḥeqq n uwajeb deg weγmis-a. Ciṭṭaḥ kan ay iqeblen ad zemlen (ad stenyin) tasakbabt-a. Ula d wid iqeddcen deg CRAPE (anda ay yella Mammeri iqeddec d anemhal [directeur]), maci aṭas ay tt-izemlen.


Ass n letniyen 24 Meγres 1980 Iselmaden n tesdawit n Tizi Wezzu ur msefhamen ara γef lecγal ara gen. Tabṛat yeldin ay uran i uneγlaf (lewzir) werεad ur tt-uzinen ara. Deg Usudu n Tussniwin Tudmisin (Institut des Sciences Economiques) deg Tizi Wezzu, anemhal Arab yessebded-d taseqqamut taslemdant (commission pédagogique). Iselmaden ssuttren deg tedbelt (administration) ad asen-tefru ugur n ussuffeγ n tsukan (polycopies) uqbel n 29 Meγres. Ma ur yefri ara wugur-a, ad gen asunded (grève).


Ass n ttlata 25 Meγres 1980 Asudu n Tussniwin Tudmisin (Insitut des Sciences Economiques) n Ldzayer yebda-d asunded (grève) n tlata n wussan imi aseqqamu (comité) n usudu-nsen ur testeεṛef ara yes-s tesdawit.

Aneγlaf (ministre) n Usselγu (information), Mehri, yemlal d Mammeri u yessutter seg-s ssmaḥ s leḥdaqa imi ur yezmir ara ad t-yejj ad d-yessuffeγ tiririt-ines deg weγmis n El Moudjahed. Mammeri ur yebγi ara ad ikemmel asseḥṛes-ines γef El Moudjahed, dγa yeεred ad yessutter ad d-yessuffeγ tiririt-ines deg Algérie-Actualité. Gar way-a d way-n niḍen, anemhal n Unadi ussnan (rechercher scientifique) n weγlif (ministère), Mass Benbouzid, akk d kra n medden n ONRS, nnan-d dakk-n ad qeblen lemmer ad d-gen amkan i usselmed n tmaziγt deg tesdawit u ad d-gen afurk (branche) n unadi deg wenrar-a. Aṭas n tsakbabin (pétitions) n wurfan n medden ara d-yettawḍen γer udabu.


26 Meγres 1980 Gan tameskant (tamesbanit) niḍen deg Tizi Wezzu, ay deg ttekkan azal n 1000 n yinelmaden. Ibulisen ur d-giren ara iman-nsen.


30 Meγres 1980 Deg Fṛansa, Aït Menguellet yeγra-d kra n yisefra deg tewwurt n Pantin. Aseqqamu n uḥuddu n yizerfan (droits) idelsanen iger-d tiγri akk-n ad msegrawen medden deg tsusmi sdat n tmahelt (ambassade) n Ldzayer deg Fṛansa.


6 Yebrir 1980 Inelmaden gan timlilit deg Yiḥesnawen (Tizi Wezzu) u fran-tt-id ad ṭṭfen u ad qqimen deg tzeqqa (salle) n assukken (reprographie) n tesdawit u gren-d tiγri akk-n ad gen tameskant (tamesbanit) deg wass n 7 Yebrir deg Ldzayer tamaneγt.


7 Yebrir 1980 Lεecṛa n tṣ̣ebḥit. Ldzayer tamaneγt, deg Tsenbert (place) n Umezwaru n Mayyu. 500 n yinelmaden d yiselmaden ay yemsegrawen akk-n ad d-ssuttren dakk-n idles amaziγ yettalas ad yili. Tiḥucay ay refden yura-d deg-sent "Idles aγerfan (culture populaire)", "Tilelli n wawal", "tamaziγt ur telli ara d iles adzayri ?", "tugdut tadelsant (démocratie culturelle)". Wid yettekkan deg tmeskant-a (tamesbanit) bdan la d-cennun imseγret (nnacid) n yemjuhad "Min jibalina" (Seg yidurar-nneγ ay d-tuli taγect n tlelli). Ibulisen bdan la kkaten medden akk-n kan d-tebda tikli. Wten wid yettekkan u qemḍen-ten mebla ṛṛeḥma. Azal n 200 ay ssulin deg yifurguten s tiyta n tdebbuzin. Gar wid yettekkan, llan aṭas ay yettwajerḥen, gar-asen xemsa γlin deg lkuma. Yiwen seg wid yettekkan wten-t s tdebbuzin alama ay yemmut. Deg tesdawit n Ldzayer, inelmaden deγren (bbuṭin) akk-n ad gen asunded (grève). Tasdawit n Tizi Wezzu tga asunded daγen yernu ṭṭfen-tt yinelmaden, deg-s ara ttγimin, deg-s ara gganen.

Γef leḥdac d wezgen n tṣ̣ebḥit, deg tesdawit talemmast n Ldzayer, inelmaden gan timlilit akk-n ad mciwṛen γef tikliwin niḍen ara gen sdat n teγsart talemmast n yibulisen (commissariat central) akk-n ad sbegnen dakk-n ur qbilen ara aqmaḍ (répression).

Γef tlata n tmeddit, Aseqqamu n uḥuddu n yizerfan idelsanen (Comité de défense des droits culturels) yessegrew-d azal n 1000 n yemdanen deg tsusmi sdat n tmahelt (ambassade) n Ldzayer deg Fṛansa. Wid igan amsegraw-a llan bγan ad as-fken yiwen n ussumer (motion) i wenmahal (ambassadeur). D acu kan , aneggaru-a yegguma ad ten-yemmager u yenna-d dakk-n wigi ur llin d Idzayriyen. Aseqqamu yura-d yiwet n tebṛat yeldin i uselway (ṛṛayes) u iga-d tasakbabt (pétition) ara sseddun d tebṛat-nni.

Tameddit : Inelmaden n Tizi Wezzu gan timlilit ay deg ay tt-id-fran ad gen asunded amatu (grève générale) mebla tilisa, u ad qqimen ṭṭfen tasdawit.


Ass n 8 Yebrir 1980 Deg Ldzayer tamaneγt, ugar n 1000 n yinelmaden ay d-yeffγen ad ttekkin deg tmeskant (tamesbanit) u la ttberriḥen "Ad yeγli weqmaḍ (répression)", "Ibulisen d iqettalen", "Brum-asen-d i wid yettwaṭṭfen", "Idles aγerfan (culture populaire) adzayri". Llan daγen la d-cennun imesγerten (nnacidat) n tmurt. Ibulisen dehhmen-ten s ljehd γer daxel n tesdawit. Tameskant-a teqqim ugar n snat n tsaεtin. Amur ameqran deg wid yettwaṭṭfen bran-asen-d.

Deg Tmurt n Leqbayel, d luluf n yifellaḥen seg Σin Lḥemmam d Laṛebεa n Ayt Yiraten ay iεerḍen ad ttekkin deg yiwet n tikli ay gan deg Tizi Wezzu. Igen (armée) yergel-asen iberdan u iḥettem-iten ad qqlen γer tuddar-nsen. Amur ameqran deg wid yettwaṭṭfen iḍelli-nni bran-asen-d. Inelmaden n Bumerdas gan asunded (grève). Inelmaden d yiqeddacen n tesdawit talemmast n Ldzayer gan-d assumer (motion) n uεiwen n yinelmaden n Tizi Wezzu. Nnig way-a, gan-d daγen anaru (bureau) ara yesseddun lecγal n tmeskanin (timesbaniyin) deg Ldzayer tamaneγt.


9 Yebrir 1980 Amussu (mouvement) yebda la yettimγur deg Tmurt n Leqbayel. Ilmeẓyen n Yiwaḍiyen, Ayt Yanni, Ljemεa n Ssarij, Delles, Buṛj Mnayel, Sidi Σic, atg. gan timeskanin (timesbaniyin) akk-n ad d-ssuttren ad as-yettunefk lḥeqq i yedles amaziγ ad yili. Ass-nni deg Sidi Σic, yettwamneε ubaraz (gala) n Ferhat n Imaziγen Imula. Ibulisen ṭṭfen Ferhat.


Seg 9 ar 15 Yebrir 1980 Deg tuddar n Tmurt n Leqbayel, gan-d iseqquma n uqareε d uεiwen n yinelmaden igan asunded (grève).


10 Yebrir 1980 Akabar n Terni Weslelli Aγelnaw (FLN) iga tameskant (tamesbanit) mgal n tin ay gan yinelmaden deg Tizi Wezzu.


11 Yebrir 1980 Mouloud Mammeri yuzen tiririt-ines i weγmis n El Moudjahid ay d-yessuffγen amagrad-nni (article) n ucemmet "Wid yettafken timsirin" (dduṛus). El Moudjahid yegguma ad d-yessuffeγ tiririt n Mammeri. D aγmis n Le Matin ay tt-id-yessuffγen. Inelmaden gan-as-d tisukan (copies) s Roneo u ferqen-tt γef medden ama deg Ldzayer, ama deg Fṛansa.


13 Yebrir 1980 Aneγlaf (lewzir) n usselmed aεlayan yemlal d yiwet n terbaεt n yiselmaden n Tizi Wezzu. Inelmaden n tesnawit (lycée) n Amirouche, deg Tizi Wezzu, bdan-d asunded (grève) u ṭṭfen tasnawit-nni. Iqeddacen n sbiṭar n Tizi Wezzu uznen assumer (motion) n uεiwen i yinelmaden igan asunded akk d tebṛat yeldin i uselway (ṛṛayes) Chadli ay deg ay as-ssuttren ad yeḥbes weqmaḍ (répression). Yiwet n tewriqt yettwaferqen γef medden (u nnan-d dakk-n n FFS) tger-d tiγri akk-n ad gen medden asunded amatu (grève générale) deg wass n 16 Yebrir.


15 Yebrir 1980 Aseqqamu n uḥuddu n yizerfan idelsanen deg Ldzayer (Comité de la défense des droits culturels en Algérie) iger-d tiγri akk-n ad gen tikli deg wass n 26 Yebrir sdat n tmahelt (ambassade) n Ldzayer deg Fṛansa u deg wass n Umezwaru n Mayyu seg wezniq n "Filles du Clavaire" alama d Bastille. Sbiṭar n Tizi Wezzu ṭṭfen-t yiqeddacen.


16 Yebrir 1980 Medden gan asunded (grève) ikemlen deg Tmurt n Leqbayel. Acennay Ferhat Mhenni n terbaεt n Imaziγen Imula yettwaker deg Dar El Beida [deg ccerq n Ldzayer tamaneγt] γef tizi n jjuj d wezgen n tmeddit. Aneγlaf (lewzir) n usselmed aεlayan iεeyyen-asen i yinelmaden n Tizi Wezzu akk-n ad qqlen γer tγuri deg wass 19 Yebrir. Tameddit-nni, mlalen yiqeddacen n Sonelec, Sonelgaz, Sonitex, Casoral, sbiṭar n Tizi Wezzu akk d yiselmaden n yinelmaden akk-n ad d-sseknen dakk-n ur qbilen ara aqmaḍ (répression) n ddula u sbedden-d aseqqamu aγerfan (comité populaire) i usseddu n lecγal.


18 Yebrir 1980 Iminigen msegrawen sdat n tmahelt (ambassade) n Ldzayer deg Ottawa yernu gan tikli tazamalt (symbolique) sdat n wemni (parlement) akanadi.


20 Yebrir 1980 Γef lweḥda n tṣ̣ebḥit : tebda-d temhelt (opération) n Mizrana. Iγallen n weqmaḍ (répression) kecmen γer wakk imukan ay ṭṭfen yinelmaden d yiqeddacen (tasdawit, sbiṭar, lluzinat). Inelmaden yellan ṭṭsen bdan-ten s tiyta nitni mazal-iten deg wusu. Wid ara irewwlen bran-d fell-asen iḍan. Inelmaden la d-ttneggizen seg lbaṭimat n uγaram (cité) n tesdawit mebla ma lsan iceṭṭiḍen-nsen. Iselmaden ttwarefden seg yexxamen-nsen. Akk iqeddacen n sbiṭar ttwaṭṭfen, u uwyen-d deg wemkan-nsen imejjayen (iṭbiben) n lεeskeṛ. La ittezzi wawal dakk-n mmuten 32 n medden u d timeyyatin ay ijerḥen. Imezdaγen n Tizi Wezzu gan asunded amatu (grève générale). Medden ur d-jjin ula d yiwen n ugalis (taplakt) yuran s taεṛabt deg yizenqan. Tamurt n Leqbayel tegzem γef ddunit. Yettwamneε unekcum γer-s ladγa γef yineγmasen (imesjeṛnanen).


21 Yebrir 1980 21 seg wid yettwaṭṭfen ttucaṛεen deg Leqṣ̣er [Bgayet] u yeḥkem-d fell-asen wexxam n ccṛeε ad kecmen γer lḥebs. Medden bdan la regglen iberdan deg temdint akk d teγsart n tmacint (gare). Iγallen n weqmaḍ (répression) bdan la tteddun deg yizenqan s yibeckiḍen yesεan tiferyin yernu sxerben igniren (galeries) imaynuten (ahat gan ay-a akk-n ad smentsen [provoquer] medden ?). Medden sxerben ammas n tinḍi (centre d'artisanat), taγsart (station) n lkiṛan akk d tedwirt n Kharroubi. Imezdaγen n tuddar ay d-iqerben γer Tizi Wezzu udren-d akk-n u gan tikli deg temdint-a akk-n ad d-sseknen dakk-n ur qbilen ara aqmaḍ (répression) d tmenγiwt n medden.


22 Yebrir 1980 Asunded amatu (grève générale) yuweḍ γer wass-ines wis tlata. Mazal la regglen iberdan deg Tizi Wezzu. Imeskanen (manifestants) la tteddun deg temdint s tḥucay akk-n ad d-ssuttren ad asen-d-brun i wid yettwaṭṭfen u ad ḥebsen aqmaḍ (répression). Imeskanen refden daγen tiḥucay ay deg d-uran "Imaziγen". Ibulisen (tamunin tiγelnawin n tγellist, CNS) mmγen γef yiselmaden seg sdeffir. Llan-d yimenγin imeqranen deg wakk imukan n Tizi Wezzu gar yibulisen d yimeskanen. Imesdurar qqlen-d γer temdint yernu ula d nitni bdan la regglen iberdan. Sxerben inura (lbiruwat) n APS, SAA, axxam n tinḍi, anaru (lbiru) n ukabar n FLN, asensu (hôtel) n Balwa akk d tzeqqa n ssinima Mondial. Iqeddacen n sbiṭar n Mustapha Bacha, deg Ldzayer tamaneγt, bdan-d ula d nitni asunded akk-n ad msegman d Tmurt n Leqbayel.


23 Yebrir 1980 Ass wis ṛebεa n ussunded amatu (grève générale). Ibulisen la ttaṭṭafen medden s waṭas u deg yal amkan. Imeskanen (manifestants) ay d-yusan seg Tegzirt nnuγen akk d yiγallen n weqmaḍ (répression) deg unekcum n temdint n Tizi Wezzu. Yella-d daγen yimenγi d ameqran deg Dreε Ben Xedda.


24 Yebrir 1980 Tebda la d-tteqqel "lehna" cwiṭ, cwiṭ. Tiḥuna n tuccit bdant la leddint tameddit n wass-nni. Llan-d yimenγiyen d imeqranen gar yimeskanen (manifestants) (deg Yiwaḍiyen, Laṛebεa n Ayt Yiraten d Σin Lḥemmam) d yiγallen n weqmaḍ. Igniren (galeries) imaynuten hudden seg lketṛa n sselεa.


25 Yebrir 1980 Iγallen n weqmaḍ ṭṭfen akk tamdint n Tizi Wezzu. Tilibizyu n Ldzayer tṣ̣ewwer-d imukan yettwasxerben. Γef lxemsa n tmeddit, anmahal (ambassadeur) n Ldzayer deg Fṛansa yemlal d weγlif (ministère) n tγawsiwin n beṛṛa deg Quai d'Orsay. Γef lxemsa u xemsin n ddqayeq, anebdad (préfet) n yibulisen n Paris yenna-as i Useqqamu n uḥuddu n yizerfan idelsanen deg Ldzayer dakk-n tikli-nni ay ssefran ad tt-gen i uzekka-nni tettwamneε.


26 Yebrir 1980 Anebdad (préfet) yemneε tikli-nni, d acu kan, γas ma yella Aseqqamu n uḥuddu n yizerfan idelsanen deg Ldzayer llan zemren ad t-ttehmen, yessγer aqerru u iger-d tiγri deg weγmis (ajeṛnan) d ṛṛadyu akk-n ad d-asen ttekkin medden deg tikli-nni. 500 n yemdanen ay yettekkan. 400 seg-sen ṭṭfen-ten yibulisen u uwyen-ten γer Vincennes anda ay ten-qellben, weṣ̣ṣ̣fen-ten yernu gan-asen tisenta (fiches). Tadukli (Amicale) n Yidzayriyen deg Fṛansa tessegrew-d 200 n yemdanen akk-n ad smentsen (provoquer) wid ara yettekkin deg tikli-nni, usan-d deg lkiṛan γer Paris yernu llan ttuxellaṣ̣en s wass.


29 Yebrir 1980 Aseqqamu n uḥuddu n yizerfan idelsanen deg Ldzayer yessefra ad yeg tikli tasusamt deg wass n 1 Mayyu, d acu kan, anebdad n Paris yemneε tikli-nni imi "ay tezmer ad d-teglu s ccwal".


10 Mayyu 1980 Matoub Lounes iga abaraz (gala) deg Olympia (deg Paris). Medden gan ddqiqa n tsusmi akk-n ad msegman d umussu aγerfan (mouvement populaire) deg Ldzayer.


12 Mayyu 1980 Tasdawit n Ldzayer tga asunded (grève).


16 Mayyu 1980 El Moudjahid yessuffeγ-d umuγ (liste) n 24 n yimeḥbas u yenna-d dakk-n wigi ad εeddin deg ccṛeε n laman n ddula deg Lemdeyya.


18 Mayyu 1980 Deg Tizi Wezzu gan asunded amatu (grève générale), medden akk ttekkan deg-s (ala igniren [galeries] imaynuten n Ldzayer.


19 Mayyu 1980 Deg Ldzayer gan tameskant (manifestation) mgal n weqmaḍ (répression).


24 Mayyu 1980 Inelmaden gan timlilit deg tesdawit talemmast n Ldzayer, maca mmγen fell-asen wid ay yessexdam udabu.


25 Mayyu 1980 Aseqqamu n uḥuddu n yizerfan idelsanen deg Ldzayer yessuffeγ-d "Tabṛat yeldin i Chadli" sdeffir ma yessegrew-d 3522 n tekbabin (signatures).


3 Yunyu 1980 Aseqqamu agraγlan n uεiwen n teγtas n weqmaḍ deg Ldzayer (Comité international de soutien aux victimes de la répression en Algérie) yessuffeγ-d tasakbabt-ines (pétition). Aseqqamu n uḥuddu n yizerfan idelsanen deg Ldzayer sbedden-t-id s tidet u yessegrew-d 140 n tekbabin (signatures) sγur yemdanen yettwassnen deg tesdawiyin d tẓuri (art).


21 Yunyu 1980 Γef jjuj n tmeddit, Aseqqamu n uḥuddu n yizerfan idelsanen deg Ldzayer (CDDCA) akk d Useqqamu agraγlan mgal aqmaḍ (répression) gan timlilit sdat n Taggazt n Leqdic (Bourse de travail) deg Paris. Gar yiberriḥen (slogans) ay d-nnan medden : "Ḥebsem aqmaḍ", "Brum-asen-d i yimeḥbas akk mebla ccuruṭ", "ilsawen iγerfanen (populaires) (taεṛabt n Ldzayer d tmaziγt d ilsawen iγelnawen". Akk tuddsiwin (organisations) d yemdanen idzayriyen d yefṛensisen yettwassnen ttwaεerḍen-d γer temlilit-a. Ttekkan deg-s akk wid ay yesteεṛfen s yimenzayen-a (principes). CDDCA, ASEP, UNEF, LCR, FEN, FO, OCI, FFS. Ma Djamel Allam akk d terbaεt n Djurdjura gguman ad ttekkin deg temlilit-a. Ferhat d Aït Menguellet llan ttwaṭṭfen deg Ldzayer.


25 Yunyu 1980 Deg Tizi Wezzu, medden gan ass n webdad i lmend n yimeḥbas. Γef tmanya n tmeddit, Tanegga n Tγamsa Tadzayrit (APS) tenna-d dakk-n 24-nni n yimeḥbas n Berrouaghia ad asen-fken tilelli takudant (liberté provisoire) i uzekka-nni.


26 Yunyu 1980 Teqleε yiwet n terbaεt, deg-s aṭas n tkeṛwas, seg Tizi Wezzu, akk-n ad d-awyen imeḥbas-nni umi d-bran. Wigi, mi ten-id-ssawḍen γer Tizi Wezzu, gan-asen tameγra.


Umuγ n 24-nni n yimeḥbas n Berrouaghia :


  1. ABBUT Arezki
  2. CEMIM Meqqran
  3. AGGUN Aḥmed
  4. ḤALET Racid
  5. AḤMED ZAYED Yidir
  6. XELLIL Saεid
  7. At Wakli Racid
  8. LAMARI Idriss
  9. AIT LARBI Arezki
  10. LUNAWSI Mulud
  11. ALI CCIX Ubraham
  12. NAYET ABDELLAH Muḥemmed
  13. BACA Mustafa
  14. RACIDI Muḥemmed
  15. BEN AMUN Kamal
  16. SAADI Mulud
  17. BELƔEZLI Acur
  18. SAΣDI Saɛid
  19. BERDUS Mammar
  20. STIET Muḥamed
  21. BURRIF Salaḥ
  22. TARI Laziz
  23. BRAHIMI Ali
  24. ZENATI ǧamal


Racid Caker yemmut deg wass n 5 Ɣuct 1980 deg yiwet n twaγit n webrid ay deg mmuten ula d tameṭṭut-is, memmi-s d yemma-s. Yella d aselmad amalal (assistant) n tdamsa (économie) deg tesdawit n Tizi Wezzu. Yettekka deg umussu (mouvement) n Tefsut n 1980 deg umazday (collectif) "mgal n weqmaḍ" (anti-répression) deg tesdawit.

Tiγbula: http://membres.lycos.fr/cicbgayet/ch20avril80.html

Tasuqilt sγur Omar MOUFFOK

1980 : Abeddel ameqran[beddel | edit source]

"Tafsut n Yimaziγen" n 1980 d yiwet seg tedyanin tisertiyin (politiques) timeqranin akk deg Ldzayer timziregt (indépendante).

Uqbel, tamsalt n tmaziγt tella tenkeṛ-itt ddula yernu imassanen (savants) llan qqnen fell-as allen, neγ ur ttwalin-tt d tamsalt ur nesεi azal meγγren, d tin yeqqnen s afulkluṛ. D acu kan, asmi ay d-ḍrant tedyanin n 1980, tamsalt-a deg yiwen webrid kan tban-d u yegget fell-as wawal.

Timeskanin (timesbaniyin) akk d yimenγiyen ay d-yellan gar medden d yiγallen n ddula deg wakk timiwa n Tmurt n Leqbayel akk d Ldzayer tamaneγt gar Meγres n 1980 d Mayyu n 1981 sseknen-d dakk-n wid yessutturen tamaziγt ur llin d aggagen (intellectuels) imeεzulen, wanag d ay-n yerzan u bγan-tt akk wid yessawalen tamaziγt deg Ldzayer.

"Tafsut n Yimaziγen" d tin ay d-yemlan dakk-n medden ukin-d u bdan la ttxemmimen ad d-neṭqen, ad d-ssiwlen i yiman-nsen γef way-n bγan deg yiwet n tmurt anda ddula tella tebγa ad d-tessken dakk-n kullec deg-s yeddukkel. Uqbel, tasertit (politique), tasnakta (idéologie) d yedles llan s ddaw n umunupul n ddula yernu d tamenḍawt (consitution) ay as-iḍemnen ay-a. U deg way-n yerzan iles, ulac kra n tlelli deg tmurt imi seg wasmi ay tuwey Ldzayer azarug-ines (indépendance), akk timenḍawin n tmurt qqarent-d dakk-n d "taεṛabt ay d iles aγelnaw unṣ̣ib (national et officiel) n tmurt".

Iḍrisen n llsas (textes fondamentaux) n tmurt d nitni sskanayen-d s lejheṛ dakk-n d ddula kan ay yettalasen ad teṭṭef asselγu (information) u ad t-tesseddu s yiles ay as-yehwan. Tiγawsiwin banent ugar mi ara nγer tizzwariyin (préambules) ay d-uran i tmenḍawin (constitutions), d tid-nni umi qqaren "irkawalen iγelnawen" (chartes nationales).

D acu kan, seg wasmi ay tεedda Tefsut n 1980, lejyal n yelmeẓyen bdan la d-sskanayen dakk-n ugin ineḍfaren-nni (dogmes) ay yettwaḥettmen fell-asen.

D ljil s lekmal-is n yelmeẓyen, d imezdaγen akk n Tmurt n Leqbayel ay d-yekkren u ssuttren "asteεṛef s yiles amaziγ" d u ad asen-tettunefk "tlelli n wawal".

D tadyant yesεan iẓuran lqayit

Assutter n tmaziγt yesεa iẓuran ijehden deg wegdud, d ay-n ara idumen yernu ur yezmir ad yettussusem. Amnaε n usarag (conférence) n Mouloud Mammeri deg wass n 10 Meγres 1980 d ifeṭṭiwej ay d-yessaγen urfan yellan ffren seg zik-nni. Yagi, deg Tmurt n Leqbayel, medden llan wwan u rran urfan-nsen γer daxel seg tezwara n yiseggasen n 1970.

Tasdawit n Tizi Wezzu, yettwaldin deg 1979, tejbed-d aṭas n waggagen, teqqel d amkan anda ay ttemlilin akk wid yeγran deg Tmurt n Leqbayel. Ay-a yurar dduṛ deg ussenker n tmeskanin-nni (timesbaniyin). Maca γas ma yella d tasdawit n Tizi Wezzu ay yeqqimen acḥal n ledwaṛ la tessedday deg tmeskanin-nni, ay-n ay d-yesnekren medden ur yeqqin ara kan γer temsal taggagin (intellectuelles). Amur ameqran deg yimezdaγen n Tmurt n Leqbayel ḥulfan dakk-n terza-ten temsalt n ussutter n tmaziγt yernu ttekkan deg tedyanin-nni. Yuγ lḥal, seg wasmi ay tuwey Ldzayer azarug-is (indépendance), ula d yiwen wass ur d-llint tmeskanin (timesbaniyin) timeqranin am tid ay d-yellan deg wussan-nni n tefsut. Ama deg Tizi Wezzu, ama deg Bgayet, d ledwaṛ ay qqimen medden la ttgen timeskanin (timesbaniyin). Ula deg temdinin timecṭuḥin, ffγen-d medden akk-n ad d-sseknen dakk-n ur qbilen ara tikli n ddula (Σin Lḥemmam, Laṛebεa n Ayt Yiraten, Dreε Lmizan, Buγni, Iεeẓẓugen, Amiẓur, Sidi Σic, Aqbu, atg.), ula deg tuddar.

Γas ma yella kra n yimanayen (observateurs) ifṛensisen nnan dakk-n ala deg Tizi Wezzu d tama-ines ay d-llant tedyanin, Tamurt n Leqbayel akk tewlawel, s "tmeqrant", s "tmecṭuḥt". Bitt, tikkwal, kra seg yimenγiyen ay d-yellan deg "tmecṭuḥt" (Bgayet d yeγzer n Ṣṣ̣umam) ugaren wid ay d-yellan deg Tizi Wezzu. Aqmaḍ (répression) ur yezgil ula d yiwet n tama. Tubiret d Bgayet, γas ma llan kra ay yettwalin dakk-n txuṣ̣ṣ̣ timmuzγa-nsent, uγent tiytiwin ijehden ugar n tid ay tuγ Tizi Wezzu. Akk-n yebγu yili, γas ma yella kulci yebda-d seg Tizi Wezzu, ddula ur twit ara medden deg-s akk-n ay ten-twet anda niḍen yernu seg 1980 d asawen, teqqel tettḥadar tamdint-a d tmura ay d-iqerben γer-s.

Tamsalt n tmaziγt dindin kan tefreq u tennul aṭas n tmiwa n tmurt n Ldzayer. Yernu d ilmeẓyen s umata ay tt-yettnaγen fell-as, dγa d ay-n ay aγ-yejjan ad d-nini dakk-n amussu-a (mouvement) d win ara idumen u ad yesεu azal meγγren deg uzekka n tmurt. Ddula teεreḍ ad tesseddu awal dakk-n wid ay d-yesnekren tamsalt n tmaziγt d kra n yemdanen ur nemεin, ur nesεi azal yernu "jjmen tallit n Fṛansa", maca ay-a ur yelli d tidet, wanag wid yennuγen γef temsalt n tmaziγt ggten u meẓẓiyit.

Amur ameqran deg wid irefden tamsalt-a dima llan sεan s ddaw n 25 n yiseggasen deg leεmeṛ-nsen. Wid yerγan fell-as aṭas, amur meγγren deg-sen d inelmaden n tesnawit (lycée), yernu ur ttεeddin ara i εecrin n yiseggasen deg leεmeṛ. Akk-a ay yella lḥal ama deg tmeskanin (timesbaniyin) n 1980, ama deg wakk tid ay tent-id-iḍefren. Akk-a daγen ay yella lḥal deg tmeskanin-nni ay d-yellan deg Nwembeṛ n 1985 : ixxamen n ccṛeε n Tmurt n Leqbayel ḥekmen s lḥebs γef wazal n meyya n yelmeẓyen γef ljal n "ccwal" ay snekren deg yiberdan, akk-n ma llan d inelmaden n tesnawit (lycée). Ljil-a n yelmeẓyen d Ldzayer ay ten-yesseγren akk yernu ur ssinen ara Fṛansa ... Γas ma yella nga-as dakk-n wid ay d-yesnekren timeskanin-a (timesbaniyin) d imdanen yeγran s tefṛensist yernu ahat jjmen kra n zzman iεeddan, amek ara d-nessefhem dakk-n ilmeẓyen n Tmurt n Leqbayel ay tessγer ddula n Ldzayer ad ddun d wid yebγan ad rren Ldzayer γer deffir ?

Yuγ lḥal, tasertit-nni (politique) n usseεṛeb ur tessaweḍ ara ad d-teqleε "ay-n ay d-yeqqimen" seg temsalt n tmaziγt seg Tmurt n Leqbayel wanag d assejhed ay tt-tessejhed. Takti (lfekra) n tmaziγt tuγ akk timiwa n Tmurt n Leqbayel deg lweqt ay deg ddula tella tugi-tt u la tt-tettḥaṛab seg lqaεa. D ti ay d tiγawsiwin ay wuγur yessefk ad d-rren lwelha-nsen wid yesseddayen lumuṛ n ddula.

Amussu (mouvement) n tmaziγt ur yelli ara daγen yezmer ad yettwarnu, imi ay d-yenker deg yiwet n tallit ay t-iεawnen γef way-nni, d tallit ay deg ikabaren (partis) uffiren (gar-asen FFS n Aït Ahmed d kra n trebbaε timecṭuḥin n uzelmaḍ) gren-d iman-nsen, d acu kan, medden maci d ikabaren-nni ay ḍefren wanag ay-n ay ten-yessewlawlen yugar ay-a. Yuγ lḥal, ikabaren n tenmegla (opposition) deg Ldzayer qqimen d uffiren alama ay d tagara n 1988, yernu ula d yiwen wass ur ssawḍen ad rṣ̣un iman-nsen deg wegdud u ad yaγ uẓar-nsen deg-s u ad idum, yernu ula d yiwen wass ur gin kra n tigawt (action) ara idumen akk-n ad qablen tasertit (politique) n ddula.

Akk iγallen isertiyen (politiques) ay temneε ddula llan d uffiren, ur zmiren ara ad gen kra ara d-yawin lfayda ibanen, ur llin ara sεan isenfaren (projects) ibanen, llan ttwaqemḍen (réprimer) dima neγ sya γer da, dγa ula d yiwet seg trebbaε-a ur tessaweḍ ad d-tban, ad tif tiyaḍ neγ ad temneε seg uqareε d weqmaḍ (répression) n yibulisen.

Amussu (mouvement) adelsan amaziγ yefhem seg tazwara dakk-n ur yessefk ara ad d-yeγli deg snat n tfexxtin : tamezwaurt, ur yessefk ara ad yeqqel d uffir, tis snat, ur yessefk ara ad yeqqim s ddaw tecḍaḍt n yikabaren (partis). Dγa, wid ay t-id-yesnekren deg yiseggasen n 1980, ssawlen-d s lejheṛ, ẓran-ten medden. Yuγ lḥal, mi ara nwali γer ussirem-nsen, γer tmuγliwin d uxemmem-nsen, ad nẓer dakk-n wid yennuγen γef tmaziγt glan-d s ubeddel ameqran deg tmurt n Ldzayer, snekren-d tagrawla (révolution) n tidet : medden qqlen zemren ad ssiwlen s lejheṛ, deg webrid, yernu yettwakcef-d weqmaḍ-nni (répression) ay tqemmeḍ ddula n Ldzayer s kra n win ara d-yessiwlen. D ay-a ay yejjan ad d-yekker yiwen n ljil n yimeγnasen (militants) ur nettagad, d wid iwejden ad nnaγen akk d weqmaḍ n ddula u ad bedden γef wawal-nsen alama d ṭṭerf. Zik, akk-n ad tessens urfan n medden, ddula tella tettaṭṭaf wid ay d-yessenkaren timeskanin (timesbaniyin) neγ tḥebbes medden yettekkan deg trebbaε ur nelli, neγ deg trebbaε, seg wasmi ay tent-id-sbedden llan yagi deg-sent yemdanen iqeddcen d yiγallen n laman, maca, asmi ay d-yekker ljil-a amaynut n yelmeẓyen, tiγawsiwin qqlent ur la tteddunt ara am wakk-a. Tiεeqqayin n tmaziγt γlint u mγint-d deg yal tama, d ay-n ay d-yesnekren aṭas n medden, mi tensa tmes da, ad d-tekker anda niḍen. Yeqqel yimenγi iban, yettili-d s lejheṛ, d imenγi s ljehd n yiγil ay yekksen tugdi akk d tsusmi seg wulawen n medden. Yekkes lweḥc-nni izedγen medden zik-nni, deg tallit n Boumediene, asmi ay llan ttxemmimen dakk-n iγallen n ddula llan deg yal amkan.

D acu kan, yessefk daγen ad nẓer dakk-n deg 1980, ddula n Ldzayer tella la tettbeddil : tamettant (lmut) n Boumediene tessewlawel akk ddula d werkad ay tella terked-it zik-nni, yernu adabu (autorité) n Chadli Bendjedid ur yejhid ara akk. D ay-a ay yejjan ddula amzun temmehmeh, ur teẓri ara d acu n tikli ara d-tawi akk d tmeskanin-nni (timesbaniyin) n 1980, ladγa imi ula d yiwen wass ur d-llint tedyanin timeqranin am tid-nni yernu tella ddula ur tebni ara fell-asent ad d-ilint. Tlata n wayyuren ay teqqim ddula εerqent-as, tikkelt ad tesseqdec iγil (dγa tiyita ijehden akk d tin n 20 Yebrir, asmi ay mmγen yibulisen γef tesdawit n Tizi Wezzu), tikkelt, tεerreḍ ad tessens times, am wasmi ay d-bran i 24-nni n warrac "ay d-yesnekren ccwal" sdeffir ma εeddan deg ccṛeε n laman n ddula). Taggara, ddula tefren ad teqbel tamsalt n tmaziγt, ad tt-teddem u ad d-telhu id-s akk-n ad tezmer ad tt-teḥkem, yili uqbel tella teffeγ-as akk afus. D acu kan, deg tallit-nni n ukukru n ddula, wid ay d-yesnekren amussu (mouvement) amaziγ ssawḍen ad d-sseknen dakk-n tamsalt n tmaziγt tesεa iẓuran lqayen deg wegdud : medden gan sin n yisudiden imuta (grèves générales), llant-d aṭas n tmeskanin, llan-d aṭas n yimenγiyen u qqlen yimenγiyen-nni weεṛen u meγγrit ugar sdeffir n 20 Yebrir. Seg wasmi ay tuwey Ldzayer azarug-ines (indépendance), d tikkelt tamezwarut ay deg ara d-kkren yimezdaγen n yiwet n tama s lekmal-is u ssawḍen ad bedden acḥal n ledwaṛ deg wudem n ddula.

S way-a, d imeγnasen (militants) n yedles, amur ameqran deg-sen meẓẓiyit, yernu deg tallit-nni tella texḍa-ten tsertit (politique) neγ akk-n kan ay bdan keccmen deg-s, ssawḍen ad gen ay-n ur igi ula d yiwen n ukabar aserti (parti politique) n menwala ar imir-n : bedden s lejheṛ deg wudem n ddula yernu idum webdad-nsen alama ay ḥettmen ddula ad testeεṛef s temsalt-nsen yernu ad tessenqes seg teqseḥ n weqmaḍ-ines (répression).

1980 : Tadukli n waggagen* d wegdud

  • intellectuels

"Tafsut n Yimaziγen" n 1980 tella-d deg yiwet n tallit ay tt-iεawnen akk-n ad d-tili : imeγnasen (militants) n tmaziγt qqimen la qeddcen azal xmesṭac n yiseggasen deg yedles, γas s tuffra, imeγnasen yerγan aṭas γef temsal-a bdan la keccmen tasertit (politique) yernu tebda la tettwabnay cwiṭ, cwiṭ yiwen n uẓeḍḍa (réseau) n "yimeγnasen imesmaziγen" (amazighistes). Gar way-a d way-n niḍen, Tizi Wezzu tella la tettnerni s tγawla, dγa, sdeffir ma tella d tamdint yeqquren, teqqel d tamdint meγγren deg tama-nni. Deg 1979, tettwaldi tesdawit n Tizi Wezzu, dγa d nettat ay d ssebba ay yejjan Tafsut n 1980 ad d-taγ. Γas ma yella timeskanin (timesbaniyin) n 1980 maci d aggagen (intellectuels) d yesdawanen (universitaires) kan i yiman-nsen ay tent-igan, maca tildin n tesdawit deg Tizi Wezzu d ay-n yuraren dduṛ meγγren deg tmeskanin-a yernu d nettat ay yejjan amussu (mouvement) ad yimγur.

Amussu (mouvement) amaziγ, asmi ay d-yeṭṭerḍeq, yelfa-d d ameqran, xelḍen deg-s akk medden yernu ur iṣ̣eggem ara aṣ̣eggem ay ijehden, dγa d tasdawit ay yuraren dduṛ deg usseqεed d usseddu n lecγal n umussu-nni.

Γef way-a, maci deg lbaṭel ara tεerreḍ ddula n Ldzayer ad tessenqes seg ljehd n tesdawit n Tizi Wezzu (imi ur tezmir ara ad tt-tekkes) : akk isenfaren (projets) n wesnerni n tesdawit-a llan ttuwexxaren, sneqsen seg-s inelmaden alama ay d ay-n kan, ttwakksen seg-s yinurar n usselmed s lekmal-nsen yernu iban dakk-n ddula tebγa ad terr tasdawit-a d tarbaεt kan n yiγerbazen (llakulat) n yisuda (insituts) n usselmed aεlayan, ay deg ur ttilin ara waṭas n yinelmaden u ad ifsusen i weḥkam.

Tafsut n 1980 tessken-d daγen dakk-n tella-d tdukli gar waggagen imeγnasen (intellectuels militants) d wegdud deg Tmurt n Leqbayel. Ay-a yesskanay-d ay-n gant trebbaε deg lγerba seg 1965 alama ay d imir-n d ay-n yeddan d way-n yebγa wegdud, yernu leqdic-nsen yegla-d s lateṛ d ameqran deg tmetti (société) n Tmurt n Leqbayel.

Werjin yewlawel wegdud deg Tmurt n Leqbayel u deg Ldzayer akk akk-n yewlawel asmi ay sdukklen waggagen (intellectuels) iγallen-nsen akk d wegdud, u d ay-a ay yejjan amussu (mouvement) amaziγ ad d-iban s lejheṛ u ad yimγur akk-n ad yaγ akk Tamurt n Leqbayel akk d Ldzayer tamaneγt u ad yeqqim akk-n ugar n useggas (seg 10 Meγres 1980 ar 19 Meγres 1981).

1980 : d tiyita ay d-yejjan lateṛ

Deg yiseggasen ay d-iḍefren tafsut n 1980, nezmer ad nger tamawt dakk-n amussu (mouvement) amaziγ yekka γef snat n talliyin yemgerraden (yemxallafen). Talliyin-a mgerradent ama deg tegnit ay deg d-llant, ama deg tsudist-nsent (stratégie).

Tallit n Meγres 1980 ar Ctembeṛ 1981, nezmer ad as-nsemmi "tallit yeḥman", d tin ay deg yella waṭas n leqdic akk d tmeskanin (timesbaniyin) timeqranin deg webrid (ama deg Tmurt n Leqbayel neγ deg Ldzayer tamaneγt), timliliyin, inejmuyaε yemgerraden, timsirin (dduṛus) n tmaziγt (ama deg Ldzayer neγ deg Tmurt). Yuγ lḥal, imir-n, wid ay d-yesnekren u sseddan amussu (mouvement) amaziγ dindin kan ukin dakk-n timsal n tmagit (identité) tamaziγt d tid wuγur d-rran medden lwelha-nsen yernu aṭas n medden ay yewlawlen fell-asent. Akukru n ddula akk d beddu n weskasi (débat) γef yedles deg tmurt n Ldzayer d ay-n ay yejjan imeγnasen (militants) ad faṛsen tagnit u ad sdumen lḥeṛs γef ddula. Yuγ lḥal, imeγnasen ssarmen ad teg ddula kra n tγawsa ibanen i tmaziγt, ad teldi tiwwura u lxerṣ̣um ad teqbel ad tettusselmed tmaziγt u ad yili unadi fell-as deg tesdawiyin n Tizi Wezzu akk d Ldzayer tamaneγt. D ay-a ay yes d-yewεed uneγlaf (lewzir) n usselmed aεlayan n tallit-nni, A. Bererhi.

D acu kan, dindin kan teqqel ddula γer weqmaḍ-ines. Tebda la tferren wid ara teṭṭef u ad ten-tawey γer lḥebs (maci d imeγnasen n menwala) i wakk-n ad tesseεreq tikli i umussu (mouvement) amaziγ.

Asmi ay ifuk useqqamu alemmas n FLN askasi-ines (débat) γef yedles aγelnaw ay d-yellan gar Yunyu d Yunyuz n 1981, iga-d timeγtusin (résolutions) γef yedles, dγa tebda tikli n ddula la d-tettban. Ddula tεawed yefren ad tkemmel deg timuγliwin-ines tiquranin imi askasi-a yefra-tt-id dakk-n tamagit (identité) tadzayrit d taεṛabt-tineslemt. Llan kra n yemdanen seg wid yettekkan deg weskasi-nni, nnan-d dakk-n mazal zemrent ad ilint lemcawṛat γef temsalt-a (γas ma yella timuγliwin n yemdanen-a llant beεdent s waṭas γef tid n yimeγnasen [militants] imaziγen), d acu kan, d wid yettnaγen γef tesnakta (idéologie) taεṛabt ay yernan deg weskasi-a. Yagi, aṭas n yiseggasen seg wasmi ay bdan yemsaεṛaben (arabistes) d yemsaεṛaben-isenselmen (arabo-islamistes) la keccmen u la ttaṭṭafen akk tisuda (institutions) n tesnakta n ddula, ladγa deg yedles, deg usselmed u deg ukabar (parti) n FLN.

Imeγnasen (militants) n tmaziγt εerḍen tikkelt taneggarut "ad ḥeṛsen ddula swadda", dγa gren-d tiγri i medden, deg wass n 26 Ctembeṛ, akk-n ad gen asunded amatu (grève générale) u ad γanzun (boycotter) aγerbaz (llakul), d acu kan, tikkelt-nni, medden ur ten-ḍfiren ara akk-n yessefk acku, mebla ccek, ur yeffiγ ara fell-asen way-nni deg tegnit-nni. Dγa, iban-asen-d i yimeγnasen n tmaziγt dakk-n ulac d acu ara asen-d-tefk ddula, wanag taneggarut-a la tqeddec akk-n ad yeqqim kullec akk-n yella zik, bitt, tebda la tqeddec akk-n ad tessejhed asseεṛeb. Ay-a iban-d deg tuqqla (rentrée) γer tesdawit deg 1981, imi ay teεzem ddula ad tesseεṛeb akk ifurkawen (branches) n tussniwin talsanin (sciences humaines) deg tesdawit. Dγa iban dakk-n ddula tebγa d nettat kan ara iḥekmen tasnakta (idéologie) sdaxel n tesdawit.

Seg yimir-nni, imeγnasen (militants) n tmaziγt εawden ṣ̣eggmen iman-nsen akk-n ad d-awin tikli ara idumen, yernu d ay-n kan ara yeffγen fell-asen. Dγa bdan la d-ssuffuγen tisufaγ (publications), γas sεint ara ttesriḥ, maca ddula ur tgi acemma akk-n ad teḥbes afraq-nsent, yernu tisufaγ-a llant d ttawil ay yes sseddan yimeγnasen isalan (lexbarat) ilelliyen akk d weskasi-nsen (débat) γef tekta (lfekrat) deg Tmurt n Leqbayel. Daγen, sbedden-d yimeγnasen tirebbaε n leqdic γef yinurar yerzan iles d yedles : dγa bdant trebbaε-a la qeddcent γef usseqεed n yiles amaziγ (la d-bennun awalen itekniyen [techniques]), u ssawḍen ad d-ssuffγen iqeddicen yemmuzzgen (spécialisés), werjin ttwagan-d uqbel deg tmaziγt, am "Tmawalt n Tusnakt" (Léxique de mathématiques). Daγen, bdan yimeγnasen la ttgen timsirin (dduṛus) i usselmed n (tira) tmaziγt s tuffra. S way-a, qqlen yimeγnasen ur la ttnadin ara ad asen-d-tefk ddula kra, wanag llan la qeddcen yal ass akk-n ad d-bnun amussu (mouvement) ijehden ugar yernu d win ur nezmir ad yens : d idles amaziγ ay izemren i yiman-is yernu yettuwehha γer yimal (avenir). D ay-a ay yejjan imeγnasen ad d-sbedden tasγunt (revue) Tafsut, ay yettwagan i lmend n tezrawin d weskasi (études et débats). Tafsut teqqel d ttawil ay deg aggagen (intellectuels) imaziγen qqlen la d-ttarun ay-n ttxemmimen γef temsal n yedles.

Daγen, yella mazal la d-yettili wembaddel gar waggagen (intellectuels) d wegdud deg Tmurt n Leqbayel; llant aṭas n tegnatin ay deg ttemlilin am yibarazen (galas) d leqdicat ay d-yettilin ladγa deg tesdawit n Tizi Wezzu. Yuγ lḥal, deg yiseggasen ay d-iḍefren tafsut n 1980, tkemmel teddert tdukli-nni yellan gar waggagen d yegdud, u ay-a yettban-d s tmeskanin-nni (timesbaniyin) ay d-yellan deg yiseggasen n 1980, u ay deg tikkwal llan-d yimenγiyen meγγren gar yelmeẓyen d yibulisen deg wakk timiwa n Tmurt n Leqbayel. Γef umedya (lemtel), asmi ay ttwaṭṭfen sebεa n yimeγnasen (militants) n tmaziγt deg Fuṛaṛ n 1985, dindin kan kkren-d akk medden n Tmurt n Leqbayel (llant-d tmeskanin deg Tizi Wezzu, deg Bgayet, deg Yiεeẓẓugen, ...). Deg umezwaru n Nwembeṛ, ttwaṭṭfen medden deg temsalt-nni n Temγunt tadzayrit n yizerfan n wemdan (Ligue algérienne des droits de l'homme), yili tamγunt-a llan la ttekkan deg-s yimeγnasen n tmaziγt s waṭas. D ay-n ay yessekren ccwal d ameqran u deg tgara, ixxamen n ccṛeε n tmiwa ay deg tekker ḥekmen-d lḥebs i wazal n meyya n medden γef ljal n ccwal.

Seg 1980 [γer 1990], nezmer ad d-nini dakk-n azal n 300 n medden ay yettucaṛεen yernu yettwaḥkem fell-asen lḥebs γef ljal n yimenγi γef tmaziγt ama deg Tmurt n Leqbayel, ama deg Ldzayer tamaneγt (attekki deg tmeskanin [timesbaniyin], afraq n tewriqin, attekki deg leqdicat d lecγal yeqqnen γer ussutter n tmaziγt). Ma d wid ay yettwaṭṭfen sakk-in bran-asen-d mebla ma εeddan deg ccṛeε, wid yettwaṭṭfen deg yexxamen n yibulisen, wid yettwaḥebsen tallit γezzifen mebla ssebba, wid ay d-γerrqen seg yiγerbazen (llakulat), wid umi kksen ipaspuṛen-nsen u menεen-ten ad ffγen seg tmurt, wigi akk ur nezmir ad ten-id-neḥseb : tiγawsiwin-a llant ḍerrunt-d yal ass, qqlent d tarutint ay nnummen akk yimeγnasen (militants) n tmaziγt. Dγa, ay-a akk yessnakay-aγ-d amek ay tefka temsalt n tmaziγt iẓuran deg wegdud deg Tmurt n Leqbayel, medden qqlen sskanayen-d s lejheṛ tamagit-nsen (identité) tamaziγt deg Tmurt n Leqbayel. Γas ma tessukk ddula acḥal n yiseggasen n lḥeṛs d weqmaḍ γef wegdud, maca ay-a ur yessaweḍ ara ad yeqḍeε ay-n izedγen deg wulawen n medden. Ccwal yekkren deg 1985-1986 deg Tmurt n Leqbayel yella d win iweεṛen ugar n win n 1980, u yessken-d dakk-n medden ukin-d deg tama-a, yernu amussu (mouvement) amaziγ yessaweḍ ad d-yessuffeγ urfan n medden γer lejheṛ u qqlen medden, ama deg tmurt n Ldzayer, ama deg umaḍal (ddunit) slan s temsalt-a n tmaziγt u ttḍafaren-tt.

Lejnas steεṛfen s ljehd n umussu* amaziγ

  • mouvement

D ay-n ibanen dakk-n amussu (mouvement) amaziγ εawnen-t-id s waṭas yiminigen (iγriben) imaziγen. Iminigen-a yekkan acḥal n yiseggasen deg lbeṛṛani yernu sεan ttejṛiba deg temsal n tsertit, d nitni ay iεawnen amussu ay yekkren deg tmurt n Leqbayel akk-n ad yemmager u ad yeṣ̣ber i weqmaḍ (répression) n ddula. Amussu amaziγ yeqqel yesεa ineṭṭaqen (porte-paroles) deg lγerba, d wid ay yellan la ttxebbiren lejnas γef way-n la iḍerrun deg Tmurt n Leqbayel : seg 1980 d asawen, teqqel tγamsa (presse) la d-tessawaḍ isalan (lexbarat) n way-n iḍerrun deg Tmurt n Leqbayel ugar n zik. D ay-a ay yejjan ddula ur tesseqdac ara aqmaḍ (répression) ameqran deg Tmurt n Leqbayel u tuwey-d tikli ay deg tḥuder imezdaγen n tama-a. D ay-a daγen ay yejjan medden ad qqlen ad ttarun neγ ad ssawalen mebla akukru, mebla ma sneqsen ay-n ay ugaden ur as-iεejjeb ara i ddula, u d ay-a ay d-ikecfen aqmaḍ n ddula, u teqqel tneggarut-a ur tezmir ara ad teqmeḍ medden s tsusmi, ur isell yiwen, am zik-nni. Azal n εecrin n yiseggasen ay teqqim ddula, yinabaḍen-ines (lḥukumat) yemxallafen, la tqemmeḍ, la tettakel γef yizerfan (lḥuquq) d tellyin, u tuweḍ alama ay d asseqdec n uεetteb d tmenγiwt ! Akk-n ad tefk lḥeqq i yiman-is u ad teg lecγal-a akk, ddula tettḥaṛab akk wid ay d-yekkren γer-s s yisem n Tegrawla (Révolution) yessuffγen Fṛansa u s yisem n yimenγi mgal (contre) n temnukda (imprérialisme). Deg tallit-nni, llan medden yettwakren, ttwaṭṭfen mebla lqanun, ttuεettben mebla ma yewlawel yiwen u mebla ma faqent trebbaε tibeṛṛaniyin yettnaγen γef yizerfan (lḥuquq) n wemdan u ad d-lhunt s temsal-a.

Seg 1980 d asawen, ttuwehhant akk teftilin γef Ldzayer, ladγa γef Tmurt n Leqbayel : ay-n yebγu teg-it ddula akk-n ad teḥbes tikli n yisalan (lexbarat), ur tessaweḍ ara, medden akk ẓran. Seg yimir-n, ddula teqqel teẓra dakk-n ur tezmir ara ad tkemmel aqmaḍ (répression) s tuffra.

Deg lweqt ay deg llant la d-ḍerrunt tedyanin deg tmurt, deg lγerba, imeγnasen bdan-d leqdic n wesḥulfu (sensibilisation) d ussaki n medden, alama ay yeqqel umussu (mouvement) amaziγ la d-ijebbed u la yettqenniε Idzayriyen yellan deg lγerba ugar n Tdukli n Yidzayriyen deg Tuṛuft (Amicale des Algériens en Europe), yellan, deg tidet, d tarbaεt itebεen γer FLN deg lbeṛṛani.

Daγen, deg tallit-nni, bdan wid yessawalen tamaziγt deg lγerba s timmad-nsen la d-ttarun idlisen ussnanen (scientifiques) γef tmaziγt, dγa d ay-a ay yekkan ibeṛṛaniyen ad d-rren ugar lwelha-nsen γer way-n iḍerrun deg Tmurt n Leqbayel. Asmi ay bdan Yimazγanen (Maghrébins) la d-lehhun nitni s timmad-nsen s tezrawin (études) γef tmaziγt, tebda la tettebεad takti-nni (lfekra) dakk-n d timura « listiεmeṛ » ara ijebbden lexyuḍ. Ay-n d-ttinin neγ ttarun-t-id yimassanen-a (savants) imazγanen d ay-n zemren ad t-amnen medden, d nitni ara d-yessawalen γef yiman-nsen, maci d wiyaḍ ara d-ineṭṭqen deg umur-nsen. Imi ay d-lhan id-s yimazγanen (maghrébins) n tmura yemgerraden n Tefriqt n Ugafa, tebda « tmesmaziγt » (berbérisme) la tetteqqel d amussu (mouvement) n uxemmem iḥuzan akk tama-a, ur yeqqim ara kan deg yiwet n tmurt.


Timmuzγa* akk d tugdut

  • amazighité

Γas ma yella imussa isnaktanen (mouvement idéologiques) deg tmura n Tmazγa (Maghreb) mgerraden, maca tella yiwet n tγawsa ay ten-yesdukklen : Tamazγa d taεṛabt yernu s kra n leqdic ara yettwagan γef yedles, yessefk ad yeqqim kan deg tlisa-a. Ma d timmuzγa (amazighité), ya tettwankeṛ maḍi, ya tettwaḥqer alama ay d ay-n kan. Win yessawalen tamaziγt, imi ay yettwankeṛ am wakk-a, ur yessefk ara ad newhem mi ara t-nwali yettsuγu-d : « Ala ! Lliγ yernu mazal bγiγ ad iliγ azekka ! ». D ay-n ibanen ad d-yini ay-a, d lḥeqq-is.

D ay-n ibanen dakk-n ankaṛ akk d tririt-agi deg rrif d ay-n ara iḍurren Amaziγ s timmad-is, maca ay-a yezmer ad yili daγen d amihi (danger) i tmetti (société) s lekmal-is, imi, mi ara tessers ddula tilisa am tigi i yedles, ad teqqel tmuγli n yedles d tamuγli tuḥṛist, d tin ur nettaẓ γer sdat, d tin ur nqebbel wiyaḍ, d tin wesdukkel n bessif n wakk medden s ddaw n yiwet n tecḍaḍt, d tin ay deg ay-n ur tebγi ara ddula ad t-tekkes, γas yella deg yedles, u d tin ay deg ttin ledwaṛ gar ddula d wegdud : deg lweqt ay deg idles d agdud ay t-id-yettgen, ad teqqel d ddula d nettat ara t-id-yettgen i wegdud. Skud ur werεad ur steεṛfen ara yimezdaγen n Tmazγa (Maghreb) s wakk ay-n yellan deg tgemmi-nsen (patrimoine), werjin ad d-ffγen seg ḍḍeεfan d tiggunẓit tadelsant (sous-développement culturel). Ur yezmir ad d-yili wesnulfu wala tudert tadelsant n tidet mi ara tqeddec ddula akk-n ad ttun medden amezruy (ttarix) d yedles-nsen, mi ara d-tḥettem fell-asen (u γef yiman-is) lḥeqq d umezruy n tkellax, mi ara tbennu azekka n tmetti (société) γef tmucuha werjin nelli deg lweqt ay deg tejja ay-n yellan.

Ḍḍeεfan ay yeḍεef yedles deg tmura n Tmazγa (Maghreb) u ladγa deg Ldzayer d ay-n ay d-yurew wemnaε ay ttwamenεent waṭas n tγawsiwin seg seg wasmi ay uwyent tmura-a izurag-nsent (indépendances) : tamaziγt teqqel deg rrif, maca daγen, tettuḥaṛeb tefṛensist yellan, ama nebγa neγ negguma, d ttawil yuγen aẓar deg Tmazγa u d yiwen seg yilsawen igan leqran i yedles d ccfawat-nneγ. Ay-a yerra idles n tmura n Tmazγa d igellil, yernu qrib ulac akk tudert taggagt (intellectuelle) deg yimukan ay teṭṭef ddula. Axemmem yeddren, idles yeqqnen γer tidet ttafen kan iman-nsen beṛṛa i tsuda (institutions) n ddula, ttilin-d kan deg yimukan idergen i wallen n ddula, ladγa deg lbeṛṛani. Yagi, maci deg lbaṭel ara naf dakk-n amur ameqran deg way-n d-itteffγen deg yedles d tudert taggagt (intellectuelle), itteffeγ-d s tmaziγt neγ s tefṛensist. Ay-a ur yebγi ara ad d-yini dakk-n taεṛabt ur tezmir ara ad tesseddu idles amuddir, wanag ssebba nettat iles-a, deg tegnit ay deg nella, ata-n gar yifassen n d wid yeṭṭfen tasertit (politique) d tesnakta (idéologie) n ddula.

Akk Imazγanen (Maghrébins), ama d wid yessawalen s tmaziγt neγ d wid yessawalen s taεṛabt, ala d rrbeḥ kan ara rebḥen lemmer ad ḥesben timmuzγa d aḥric seg wayla-nsen. Asmi ara mṣ̣alaḥen Yimazγanen wagar-asen u ad qeblen tikkersit (complexité) d tenḍa (diversité) n tmagit (identité) d yedles-nsen, ass-nni, tezmer ad teqqel Tmazγa d tamurt n wesnulfu d unnerni. Tukci n wazal i tmaziγt d ay-n ara yesqeεden assaγen (relations) gar uγerman (citoyen) d ddula ay t-iḥekmen. Amussu (mouvement) n tmaziγt d win ay d-yeglan yid-s s ussutter n tuggta (pluralisme), n weqbal n wiyaḍ, n tenḍa (diversité) akk d tlelli (liberté), ama d tin n wemdan, ama d tin n terbaεt. Amussu-a yugi ad ttuḥettmen medden ad ddren s ddaw n yiwet kan n tecḍaḍt, tin ara tḥettem fell-asen ddula u d tin ay izemren ad tγurr kra akk-n ad sbedden leḥkem amesbaṭli. Tabṛat n umussu-a tban, ladγa deg Tmurt n Leqbayel : maci d ddula ara d-yesnulfun neγ ara d-yebnun « idles » i wegdud, yernu ay-nni ur yelli d idles wanag d timucuha tunṣ̣ibin (officielles) ara qebleγ mebla ma nniγ-d acemma. S yisem-iw d aγerman ilelli, ttalaseγ ad d-iniγ d acu ay lliγ, d acu ay bγiγ ad qqleγ u ad bnuγ ay-a. Tamagit-inu (identité), idles-inu ur llin ara, akk-n ay d-yenna Kateb Yacine, d akaram (dossier) n lekwaγeḍ ay d-tga ddula, d win ay tettbeddil akk-n ay as-yehwa, ma d nekk ad qebleγ ay-n s tsusmi. Idles d ay-n ay d-tesnulfuy yal ass tmetti (société) tilellit.

Γef way-a, amussu (mouvement) amaziγ ur yelli d win ay yes bγan Yimaziγen ad γelqen γef yiman-nsen, d amussu uḥṛis yerzan kan kra n wegdud, neγ d taγelnaẓri (nationalisme) tamaynut am tid-n akk yekkan : wanag, assutter amaziγ d win ay d-yuwyen taγawsa tamaynut, d tin ay yugaren iεeddan i tlisa n tmaziγt-nni s timmad-is, d assirem i lebni n tmetti (société) ay deg tella tenḍa (diversité), ay deg medden mṣ̣alaḥen wagar-asen yernu maci d amnaε, aḥqar d wenkaṛ ara yesseddayen tiγawsiwin n tmurt. Ad tili tlelli tadelsant (culturelle) d tlelli i yiles amaziγ, maca daγen ad tili tlelli i wakk medden, acku wid yessawalen tamaziγt fehmen dakk-n ur zmiren ara ad ttwaḍemnen yizerfan-nsen (lḥuquq) s tidet u ad dumen deg yiwet tmetti (société) ala ma yella d aγerman (citoyen) ara yeṭṭfen leḥkem yernu amdan ur itteqqel ara ittedder u itteddu akk-n ay as-yehwa i ddula neγ i kra n terbaεt yerran leḥkem d ayla-s.

Yettwakkes-d seg « Imazighen ass-a », n Salem Chaker (tiẓrigin Bouchène, Ldzayer, 1990).

Tasuqilt sγur Omar MOUFFOK

Tamselyut[beddel | edit source]

Sɣur Amnay http://www.imyura.net

Amezruy n Tefsut n Yimaziγen yessuqqel-it-id Omar MOUFFOK - Tiddukla Tadelsant Imedyazen, [1]

http://membres.lycos.fr/cicbgayet/ch20avril80.html

  • Imazighen ass-a, n Salem Caker (tiẓrigin Bouchène, Lezzayer, 1990).