Mezweɣ

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Mezweɣ Mars symbol (fixed width).svg
OSIRIS Mars true color.jpg
Commons-logo.svg
Annay
Amaccaq ɣer tegnit 54 600 000 km d 401 000 000 km
Azal amaskad −2,94 d 1,86
Itezzi ɣef Iṭij
Yettusemma ɣef Meɣres d Aris
Timezzit
Aceffalu 249 232 432 km
Afafuk 206 655 215 km
Agellus azen-gejdan n tmezzit 227 936 637 km
1,523679 AU
Annfal amezzay 0,0933941
Tallit tamezzayt 668,5991 ass
Tallit tanmugrit 779,94 ass
Annuz amezzay 1,84969142 °
5,65 °
1,67 °
Addud n tyersi tamalayt 49,55953892 °
Afakul n ufafuk 336,05637041 °
Tasengama
Aqqaṛ 3 389,5 km
Tigni 0,00589
Tajumma 144 798 500 km²
Ableɣ 163 180 000 000 km³
Takura 641,71 Yg
Taneẓẓi 3 933 g/cm³
Taẓɣelt tasemdayt −63 °C
−143 °C
35 °C
Asafet (Albidu) 0,17
0,25
Azemz n ubeddi d unulfu 4 540 million years BCE

Mezweɣ neɣ Imzuyeɣ (Azamul-is: ) d amtiweg wis 4 deg wuggug (lbeɛdan) ɣef tfukt deg unagraw anafuk, mezweɣ iga d anarag uffiɣ n deffir n tegnit, akken i yettusesmel d amtiweg anamur yettemcabin i tegnit[1]. Isem-is deg tutlayin tmaziɣin yekka-d seg tezweɣ acku yettbin-d d azeggaɣ deg igenni s usrag (s ssebba) n wakal-is d tegnewt-is, ma d yisem-is Alatin (Mars) d isem n yellu n umsenɣi ɣer iṛumaniyen, akken i yettwassen daɣen s yisem n umtiweg azeggaɣ deg tlemmast n imusnawen acku ini n umtiweg-a d azwawaɣ imalen ɣer tezweɣ s usrag n ugedṛur n ukṛuksid n wuzzal yellan s tuget deg tiggi-ines d tignewt-is.[2]

OSIRIS Mars true color.jpg

Akdu-ines yettawaṭ ɣer wazal n 6792 km, ayen yegdan azgen n ukdu n tegnit, akken iga d amtiweg ameẓyan wis sin deg wudus anafuk send n uziweɣ, anda tajumma-ines tla (tesɛa) azal n wezgen n tjumma n tegnit.

Mezweɣ itezzi ɣef tfukt deg tmezzit yaggugen (ibeɛden) fell-as s wazal n 228 km (1,5 n tikkal n westum gar n tegnit d tfukt). Amda agafan deg ugafa n tsegla iteddel azal n 40% n umtiweg, ayen i d-igellun s usemdu meqqren fell-as.[3][4] Mezweɣ ila (yesɛa) sin n wayyuren, amezwar isem-is Dimus (anamek-is d arameɣ s tutlayt Tagrikt) ma d wis sin d Fubyus (anamek-is d Tugdi), isin-nsen meẓẓiy-it ur mgadan ara deg talɣa akken izemren ad ilin d izunyuren i d-ildey[5][6] am 5261 Eureka[7], igan d atṛuyan amazwaɣ.[8]

Taẓɣelt tajummant tafellayt deg umtiweg-a d tin yettawaṭen alamma d 27° ma d taẓɣelt taddayt -133°, ma d tignut-is d tin igebren seg usinuksid n ukaṛbun d unitrujin d wergun d yirragen n waman d kracn igazen niden. Azamul-is asnallun d .

Ussan d tsemhuyin n useggas deg mezweɣ d wid yemrawasen i wayen yellan deg tegnit acku tallit n tuzzya d umili n tedɣert n tuzzya d tid yettemcabin s waṭas, Dɣa imusnawen ttɣilen d akken amtiweg n mezweɣ yella yeččur d aman send n 3,8 n imelyaṛen n iseggasen ayen i d-ten-iǧǧan ad brun i teẓri n tilit n tudert deg-s ɣas ma zik-nni, akken illant deg-s idurar yugaren wid yellan deg tegnit yakk d isafen yeqquren. Akken i tella deg-s teẓrumest tameqqṛant yakk deg wudus anafuk isem-is Olympus Mons yeddmen isem-a seg wedrar n ulimpus,Akken ig yella deg-s wasif n Marineris igan d yiwen seg tiɣa meqqren yakk deg wudus anafuk.

Asekkud n Mezweɣ s wallen d ayen yefraren (isehlen) s waṭas, Azal-is amaskad yettawaṭ ɣer -2.94, dɣa azal amaskad n Yebter d tatrit d wayyur d tafukt ugaren agla n Mezweɣ[9].

S unect n tezrawt n sin n imusnawen n Marikan, Mezweɣ yezmer ad yili d amtiweg ur yesmid ara (ur ikemmel ara) gemmu-ines seld mi ig slek seg waṭas n imickaṭen yakk d yesmilen d iseffuden d tfekkiwin tigennawin niden i d-illan seg wass mi i d-innulfa wudus anafuk (ayen i d-iglan s temɣer n yimtiwgen akken ma llan), Anecta yessegzaw-d temẓi n ubleɣ n mezweɣ s wassaɣ ɣer tegnit d tatrit, Dɣa sin n imusnawen-a ffɣen-d s ugemmud-a seld n tezrawt taminigt i ifuras n werjan imezzerzen deg iseffuden.

Iylanen n umtiwen n mezweɣ[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Yiwet seg tiwlafin timezwura n mezweɣ s tkamra n HiRISE.

Tajumma mezweɣ d tin yugaren amacemma akuẓ n tjumma n tegnit (28,4% n tjumma n Tagnit),[10] yerna tineẓẓi n mezweɣ de tin yemgaraden ɣef tneẓẓi n tegnit, anda ableɣ-is isgensis-d azal n 15% n ubleɣ n tegnit. Ma d takura-ines tegda amraw (1/10) neɣ 11% n tkura n tegnit, ma d taldayt tajummant n mezweɣ tegda 38% s umerwes ɣer teldayt n tegnit, adad agennaw deg tjumma n mezweɣ 0,75% n wadad agennaw deg tegnit.

Udem azeggaɣ/ačinay n tjumma n mezweɣ yegla-d yis [[uksyd n wuzzal (III) yakk d ubṛac (ṣṣdid) [11][12], ma d initen imezdiyen nniden deg tjumma-ines gan d aras, azegza d urɣan (s ugani ɣef telmas n yimɣuzen yellan.[12]

Azwu n mezweɣ yegber seg 95% n usinuksid n ukaṛbun, 3% uẓut, 1,6% argun [13] d kra n wuksujin d waman.[14] dɣa deg useggas n 2000 kra n imusnawen ssawṭen ɣer igemmuden i d-iqqaren s tilin n tudert deg mezweɣ deg yizri seld n tmuɣli n tgezmiwin n yiwen n useffud ufant deg Antraktika yekka-d seg mezweɣ, maca tiẓri ayi mači d tin deg wacu i d-yella usentem ummid.[15]

Mezweɣ yettumeggez d amtiwen anamur, u tuget n tjumma-ines zeggaɣ-t anagar kra n icamiṭen imsullsen s usrag n wakal-is d yiẓra-ines. Ma d tineẓẓi n adad-is agennaw d tamidrust, tegber s talɣa tagejdant seg usinuksid n ukaṛbun d kra seg yirragen n waman. Anezwu n mezweɣ semmeṭ ugar n tegnit ma d aseggas degs 687 seg wussan n tegnit.[16]

amerwes gar n ubleɣ n tegnit d mezweɣ
Tiskanin tigejdanin n mezweɣ
Tagezzumt tesskanay-d 3 n tmezziyin yeṭṭafaren NASA amek i d-gucclent Tagertilt n teldayt n mezweɣ

Tafelwit i d-immalen imgaraden n iylanen ger n mezweɣ d tegnit:

Iylanen Mezweɣ Tagnit Amgarad
Aggad anafuk 3 396.2 ± 0.1  km 6 378.1  km 53.3 %
Tizgelt taraklant 3376.2 ± 0.1 km 6356.8 km 53.1 %
Isig n waqqaṛ 3389.5 km 6371.0  km 53.2 %
Tajumma 144798500 km² 510072000 km² 28.4 %
Ableɣ 1.6318×1011 km³ 1.083207 3×1012 km² 15.1 %
Takura 6.4185 ×10²³ kg 5.9736 ×10²⁴ kg 10.7 %
Tineẓẓi 3933.5 ± 0.4 kg/m³ 5515 kg/m³ 71.3 %
Taldayt n tjumma 3.711  9.780327 m/t² 37.9 %
Tazzla n teslullit 5027 m/t 11186  m/t 44.9 %
Tallit n tuzya 75 1.025956 wussan 88642.663 tsinin 86164.098903691 tsinin 102.9 %
Annuz agellusan 25.19° 23.439281°
Asafet n Bond 0.25 0.29
Asafet anzeggan 0.15 0.367
Aqqaṛ ameqran d umeẓyan 227939100 km 149597887.5 km 152.4 %
Annfal amezzay 0.093315 0.016710219 558.4 %
Tallit tamezzayt 686.971 wussan 365.256366  wussan 188.1 %
Aceffalu 249209300 km 152097701 km 163.8 %
Isig n teẓɣelt −63  C 210  K 14  C 287  K
Taseddart tafellayt −3  C 270   Kelvin 58  C 334   Kelvin
Taseddart taddayt −133  C 140   Kelvin −89  C 184   Kelvin

Tasuddest tagensawt[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Yeṭra i mezweɣ ayen yetran i tegnit seg tmagarda tamtiwgant, tamagarda dagi d tamhelt i d-ittfarasen amgirred deg tneẓẓi d isegran n yal tissi n tiddiwin n umtiweg, anda ul n umtiweg yettili tneẓẓi-ines teflal ma d ayen i d-izgan dennig-s tineẓẓi-ines tettili ddaw n tneẓẓi n wul.[17]

Tignut tamtiwgant[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Tugna n tegnut tamtigwant n Mezweɣ.

Mezweɣ yeẓli-as (iṛuḥ-as) wadad-is adekran send n 4 n imelyaṛen n iseggasen,[18] ahat s usrag n imickaḍen i imeknen amtiweg-a,[19] ihi, d ayen i yettaǧǧan aḍu anafuk yessikkic srid yakked A-ionosfir n Mezweɣ, dɣa anecta igellu-d s usedres n tneẓẓi n tegnut tamtigwant s tukksa n tissi tuffiɣt i yibelkimen. Mars Express yesnarem-d tizelɣiwin n tegnut tamtigwant tA-ionosfirant i d-ittmaren ɣer tallunt akin i mezweɣ,[20][21] akken i d-tettili tezrawt-nsent sɣur n tsenqadt n MAVEN. Ass-a, addad agennan n mezweɣ yegda seg 30 paskal (0,030 k/p) deg wedrar n Ulimpus alamma d 1,155 paskal di Hellas Planetia, ma d isig alemanas n wadad deg tiggi yegda 600 paskal (0,60 k/p).[22]

Taneẓẓi tafellayt yakk deg mezweɣ tegda tin yellan deg teflel n 35 km di tegnit.[23] ma d isig n wadad id ittwagemḍen iga kan 0,6% seg wadad n tegnit (101,3 k/p).

Tugna tagennant i tiggi n mezweɣ.

Teflel n tegnut tamtiwgant tga azal n 10,8 km[24], dɣa tugar agla n tegnit i yeflalen s 6 km, acku taldayt n mezweɣ ur tugar ara 38% seg tin n tegnit, ihi asemdu-ayi tettmagar-it-id tudra deg teẓɣelt d 50% n yisig yeflalen seg wazuk axeclawan i tegnut tamtiwgant n mezweɣ.
Tignut tamtiwgant n mezweɣ tegber seg wazal n 96% n usinuksid n ukaṛbun, 1,9% n waṛgun, 1,89% n nitrujin yakk d ufimiḍi meẓẓiyen n waman d wuksijin.[25][26] tignut tamtiwgant n mezweɣ d tagedṛurant s waṭas, tegber seg txeclawin aqqaṛ-nsent iga 1,5 mikṛumiter, dɣa tixeclawin-a i d-ittaken ini amsekkef i tegnawt n mezweɣ mi ara ad yettwaskad seg tiggi.[27] Isalan imezwura ɣef tegnawt n mezweɣ llan-d s tezrart n yinigen n Mariner 3 d Mariner 4, anda i d-yella usentem (uwekked) d akken amtiweg-a ila tignut tamtiwgant sdiden (rqiqen) yegda 0,01 seg tignut tamtiwgant n tegnit. Tignut-a sdiden tegber seg CO2 di tuget-is anda i yettaweḍ ufimiḍi-ines ɣer 95% seg yisegran-is.[28] sin akin tella-d tesladṭ n yisegran n tegnawt sɣur n Viking 1 i wakken ad tessufeɣ tagrayt ɣef tsuddest n tegnawt akken i tella di tfelwit-a:

Tanga Afimiḍi  %
CO2 95.3
N2 2.7
Ar 1.6
O2 0.3
CO 0.07
H2O 0.03

Seg tfelwit, nettwali d akken afimiḍi n yirragen n waman deg tegnawt n mezweɣ d win idrusen s waṭas, ayen yettaǧǧan tignewt-is d taɣurart. Maca s usrag n usemmiḍ imsullsen, afimiḍi-ayi idrusen n yirragen n waman keffun-d i wakken ad t-sseṛwun.

Anezwu[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Gar n yimtiwgen n wudus anafuk yakk, d tisemhuyin n mezweɣ i yettemcabin s waṭas i tsemhuyin n tegnit, s usrag n wannuz yemgadan n ugellus n tuzzya n sin n imtiwegen-a. Tanzagt n tsemhuyin n mezweɣ gdant snat n tikkal n tenzagt n tsemhuyin n tegnit acku amaccaq n mezweɣ ɣer tfukt yugar amaccaq n tegnit ɣer tfukt (yiwet n tuzzya n tegnit ɣef tfukt, tettqabal-itt snat n tuzzyiwin n mezweɣ ɣef tfukt). Dɣa taẓɣelt deg mezweɣ temgarad seg izaduren anda tettili -143 C (-225 F) deg tegrest tasafaylut[29] alamma d yiswiren anda tettawaṭ ɣer 35 C (95 F) deg unebdu asbegsan.[30]

Amgarad hrawen deg tezɣelt yettuɣal usrag-is (sebba-ines) ɣer wadad agennaw usdid ur nezmir ara ad iffren aṭas seg teẓɣelt n tfukt d waẓaẓ drusen n wakal n mezweɣ.[31] mezweɣ yaggug (yebɛed) 1,52 n tikkal ɣef tfukt seg wala tagnit, ayen i s-d-itfarasen 43% kan n tesmekta n tafat n tfukt.[32]

Awah tmezzit yecban agla n tegnit i mezweɣ, tili tisemhuyin-is ad ilint am wagla n tegnit acku annuz-is agellusan yemmug am tmezzit n tegnit.

Llan deg mezweɣ iluɣluɣen (aṭu n wakal) imeqqren yakk deg wudus anafuk, anda tettawaṭ tazzla-ines ar ugar n 160 km/t. Zemren ad mgaraden seg iluɣluɣen deg tjumma meẓẓiyen alamma d iluɣluɣen icafcalen i zemren ad ffren amtiweg s timmad-is. iluɣluɣen-a ttmagen-d aladɣa mi ara ad yades (ad iqerreb) ɣer tfukt .[33]

mezweɣ (seld / send) n uluɣluɣ deg yulyu 2018)
Tiziwa n ugedṛur deg mezweɣ
18 wamber 2012
25 wamber 2012
6 yunyu 2018[34]

Timezzit n mezweɣ d tuzzya-ines[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Tudert deg mezweɣ[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Ayyuren n mezweɣ[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Asnirem n mezweɣ[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Tamawin timazrayin[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Mezweɣ deg yidles[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Tiwlafin[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Ẓeṛ daɣen[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Imniren[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

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  34. Empty citation (help)