Iḍarren iberkanen

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iḍarren iberkanen
Pieds-noirs
Cérémonie de communion solennelle de pieds-noirs à Sidi-Bel-Abbès, début du XXe siècle.tiff
snat n tulawin timasiḥiyin tifransisin xeddment taẓallit-nsent deg temnadt n Sidi Belɛebbas ass-a
Leḥsab
3,200,000 imelyan ( seg warraw-nsen) / 1,000,000 ass n timunnent
Timnaḍin akked amur ameqqran n yimezdaɣen
Turuft
Tutlayin
Tafrensist, [[Talsasit], Taɛrabt tazzayrit, Tutlayt taspenyult, takatalant, tutlayt talmant, taglizit, tantala n yiḍarren iberkanen, talurinit, takursit, taṭelyanit, tamalṭit, taflamanit
Ddin
tudayt, Tamasiḥit s yixefan-is : akatuliki, d ubrutistanti .

Isem n "yiḍarren iberkanen" yemmal-d, irumyen id-wwi Fransa ɣer tmura n Tefriqt n ugafa si Turuft Kamel mi tent-tekcem ur ffiɣen seg-sent armi d-wwint timunnent-nsent deg meɣres 1956 seg Tunes d Lmerruk, neɣ di yulyu 1962 seg tmurt n Lezzayer, ciṭ deg-sen ugin ad fɣen maca amur ameqqran uɣalen ɣer Fransa .

Timetti[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Irumyen n Lezzayer d uneẓruf (1830-1962)[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Ifransisen iberraniyen d warraw n Turuft.[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Asaru mebla imesli ixedmen yinaẓuen imarikaniyen ɣer temdint n Lezzayer tamanaɣt deg useggas n 1936.

Lezzayer tella tesɛa deg wass n timunnent-is azal n umelyun n yiḍarren iberkanen i yellan ttidiren deg-s Irumyen yellan dinna imiren llan kkan-d seg waṭas n tmura seg Turuft, iban llan yifransisen gar-asen, yernu amur ameqqran seg-sen unagen-d seg temnaḍin yettḍillinɣef yilel agrakal, maca usan-d ula s yigezdan n daxel n Fransa akka am win n Alzas d win n Luran (gara-asen wid i tessufeɣ Lalman seg yixxamen-nsen imi xessren nnfaq n 1870 dɣa unagen-d ɣer Lezzayer), usan-d daɣen seg tmurt n Kursika, mačči d arraw n Fransa id-yusan ɣer Lezzayer, usan-d daɣen yisbenyuliyen, imalṭiyen yellan s ddaw n tmurt n Legliz imi tella tenbeḍ-iten imiren), arraw n Ṭṭelyan, n Swis, Lalman, d Legliz (wugi usan-d seg tegzirt n Legliz srid mačči akka am yimalṭiyen ur nelli ara d inegliziyen iḥeqqaniyen, d acengu kan i ten-yeṭṭfen kan) .

Yiwen seg yinembaḍen irumyen iwumi qqaren Jules Ferry yenna-d belli :"Iherraseen id-ikecmen ur llin ara kan d ifransisen kan, maca llan gar-asen yibeṛṛaniyen, ladɣa walmaniyen, wid yesɛan tafekka i yǧehden d tezmert n lɛali, Imalṭiyen d Yimahuniyen (arraw n lmersa n Mahun deg Sbenyul ), ur nettwaḍleb ara aṭas, maca ttaɣen tanummi s lemɣawla ɣef tmurt. Ma deg talɣenin id-yeggran d anqas n lemùḥadra a yilin ma yella iban-d uxtiri n tɣara di tallit ideg neḥwaǧ amḍan".

Timetti tamezzwarut akk i ysersen iḍarren-is ɣef tmurt n Lezzayer mi teɣli kan llan d isbenyuliyen n tegzirin n lbelyar (gar-asent tella Palma). Aɛrur n terbaɛt n unadi n Fransa llzan deg temnaḍt n Mahun deg Sbenyul. Ihi d imezdaɣ n Mahun i yellan d imezzwura i yrekben tiflukin tifransiyin ɣer Lezzayer mi akken kan teɣli deg 1830. Imahuniyen-agi mi wwḍ)en kan tneṣlen deg temnaḍt n Lezzayer tamanaɣt, uɣalen kecmen amḍiq n tiẓẓin n yigumma.

Unag agi d netta akk i ymeqqren deg wakud gart 1830 d 1845, tneṣlen akter s unekcum ɣer uxeddim n yiserdasen (lɛersker) d uselmed

Ma yella umuir ameqqran seg yiherrasenn si Fransa id-usan, iberraniyen llan sɛan amḍan d ameqqran wwḍen armi d 49 % di 1886, maca mi ssɛeddan lqanun n tifkin n talɣent(anamek-is belli yall agrud i ylulen deg Lezzayer tafransist i sin n yimawlan ibeṛṛaniyen, ad yesɛu talɣent srid kan mebla tarelkint) yuɣal isubb umḍan-nsen s temɣawla meqqren, mi teɣli tmurt kan aṭas n yirgazen n tsertit ugin tikti-agi n uneṣṣel n yiḍarren iberkanen kra llan ttmeslayen ɣef "umhi aberrani" imi assaɣ gar Fransa d tmura nniḍen, n Turuft yezmer ad xesrent di yal akud imi ur rrisent ara; wagi seg yiwen wadis, serg wayeḍ assaɣen gar yirumyen d udayen ur llin ara dɣa d wid n lɛali ula d nutni tezmer ad texṣer di yal akud ayen i tt-yesɛeddan d snat n tɣawsiwin-agi :

Taflukt yesɛan iminigen deg lmersa n Lezzayer tamanaɣt, 1899.
  • Adabu afransi, yella yugad ad fsin yifgransisen sdat n yiminigen iberraniyen, gemnen ad fken talɣen i yal aqcic imawlan-is d iberraniyen maca neztta ilul yɣef wakal azzayri (lqanun n 1886 d 1893) daɣen ad asen-fken talɣen i wudayen izzayriyen i yesteɛrfen yis-sen am yinembaḍen seg useggas n 1830, ḥesben-ten am wid i asen-d-iwin tilelli; yernu uɣalen ṭṭafaren idles n Fransa (akken id-yenna lqanun n Krimyu 1870) .
  • Karuh d tuggdi seg tmetti taɣelnawt d tnaṣlit n yinselmen izzayriyen i yellan dinna .

Anemgal n liḥalat agi i yɛeddan, leɛmer i yeɛreḍ udabu afransis ad yessemlil irumyen d yizzayriyen i yeṭṭafaren ajjed d yidles ineslem, iwumi qqaren "inselmen ifransisen", imi adabu n Fransa yella yebɣa tamurt, ssufɣen-d lqanun i asen-yekksen aṭas n uzref-nsen aḥeqqi, mačči akka am udayen; akken ad yesɛu uzzayri ineslem talɣent ilaq di tazzwara ad isemmeḥ deg wajjed-ines d ayen i ugin yizzayriyen, ula ma qeblen ad semmḥen deg wajjed d yidles-nsen ciṭ kan i wumi taqbel Fransa ad asen-tefk talɣent, d ayen id-yemmalen belli inselmen izzayriyen llan nḥafen aṭas .

Kraḍ n yiherrasen seg yiḍarren iberkanen s daxel n tcariḍt i ynehher uɣyul.

Imasiḥiyen ibrutistantiyen n Lezzayer[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Deg useggas n 1960 llan 8000 n yimasiḥiyedn ibrutistantiyen i yettabaɛen ugar n 21 n yixfan d tmezdayin, amur ameqqran deg-sen d arraw n yiminigen id-yuisan si tmura ideg llant waṭas n tmezdayin tibrutistantiyin akka am Hullunda d Lalman (aḥric abrutistanti), llan daɣen yimitudiyen i ytebɛen tamezdayt tamitudit s unekcum mačči s uwrat imi tḥuza-ten tmezdayt-agi n Marikan deg wulawen-nsen teǧǧa-d deg-sen later.

Udayen isafaradiyen[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Fransa tefka talɣen i udayen n Lezzayer anda ma llan s lqanun n Krimyu, Lezzayer llan deg-s sin n yiḥricen n udayen d Tucabim (itucabiyen) i yellan seg wussan n umenkud abizenṭi d isafaradiyen: udayen id-irewllen seg Sbenyul deg taggara n tasut tis xv, wigi beddlen idles-nsen uɣalen ttmeslayen, ttlussun, ttwasemman, ttidiren akka am yirumyen di kullec, ttekkan ula deg nnfaq n 1914-1918 d win n 1939-1945 .

Irumyen n Tunes (1881-1956)[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Tamdint n Tunes (tamaneɣt) di tallit n Fransa
argaz atunsi udayt d tmeṭṭut-is deg yiseggasen n 1900

Deg 1ru n Furar 1956, tella Tunes tessaweḍ azal n 3 783 169 n yimezdaɣ, gar-asen 255 324 d iherrasen irumyen (180 440 si tmurt n Fransa ma d 66 910 si Ṭṭelyan). 10 ɣer 12 % seg yimezdaɣ n yifransisen i yellan di Tunes llan d ifellaḥen, ma d 80 % nni id-yeggren ṭṭfen yal ccɣel yezmer ad yettwaṭṭef : lebni, aselmed, lɛesker, asenzi, tanmehla . ...atg .

Irumyen di lmerruk (1912-1956)[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Iḍarren iberkanen d warraw-nsen assa[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

QQaren-d belli iḍarren iberkanen d wid-id yusan seg-sen anamek-is win yesɛan xerṣum baba-s d aḍar aberkan neɣ jeddi-s d aḍar aberkan, yuweḍ umḍan-nsen ɣer 3,2 n yimelyan deg useggas n 2012 .

Amezruy[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Ɣelluy n Lezzayer deg ufus n Fransa (1830-1845)[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Seg Lezzayer tafransist ɣer tegrawla n timunnent (1848-1954)[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Seg yiseggasezn n 1830, tella Fransa tḥetteb iherrasen am ugdufd n temdint ma d izzayriyen inselmen d imesdudrar yettidiren deg tuddar, ad qqimen deg Lezzayer armi d 1962, deg wakud agi amur ameqqran deg-sen ad yidir deg temdinin yettḍillin ɣef yilel agrakal ( Lezzayer tamanaɣt, Wehran, Ɛennaba, Mtiǧa..) , dɣa Wehran d Lezzayer, d irumyen i yeṭṭuqten derg-s ddren ɣer tama n yizzayriyen iɣelnawen mebla ma mxalaḍen . Adabu n Fransa yella yebɣa ad yeččar Lezzayer s yiherrasen n Turuft n ugafa ladɣa si Lalman, maca imi Lezzayer teqreb ɣer tmura n yiulel agrakal rewlen-d ɣer yimalṭiyen d yimahuniyen seg laẓ yellan ɣur-sen, tebɛen-ten-id yisbenyuliyedn d yiṭelyaniyen d yikursikiyen d wid i yxeddmen ccrab . Deg 1881, imezdaɣ irumyen, deg Lezzayer llan akka : 195 418 d arraw n Fransa (wid id-yunagen s yinna d udayen n lezzayer i yewwin talɣent), 114 320 si Sbenyul, 33 693 d iṭelyaniyen, 15 402 d imalṭiyen d  26 529 si tmura nniḍen akka am Lalman, Swis, .... Ma yella umalu d temnaḍt n Wehran tecčur d isbenyuliyen , ataram n Ɛennaba d Qsenṭina teččur d iṭelyaniyen d imalṭiyen, ma d talemmast n Lezzayer tamanaɣt  tella amur ameqqran d irumyen maca llant talɣenin nniḍen .

Maca wigi akk ad uɣalen akk d ifransisen kan, imi mi iteddu wakud ttezwaǧen gar-asen bdan seɛɛun-d arrac, tlul-d tsuta tamaynut d tinn n yifransisen n Lezzayer, ara yettwassnen umbeɛd s yisem n yiḍarren iberkanen. Yebda-d ysexleḍ gar-akk nagduden agi n yiherrasen n Lezzayer s tlalait n Lqanun n Krimyu deg 24 tuber 1870, i yerran udayen izzayriyen i yellan d imezdaɣ iɣelnawen imi ddren di tmurt uqbel ad tesseɣli Fransa, tefka-asen talɣent imi ddan yid-s yernu beddlen idles-nsen. Maca ayen ara ibeddlen amezruy n yiherrasen irumyen di Lezzayer d lqanun n tmurt ara d-yeffɣen deg wass n 26 yunyu 1889, i yefkan talɣent i akk iberraniyen i ylulen deg Lezzayer, d ayen id-yefkan 150,000 n yifransisen deg Lezzayer di ddaw n 30 n yiseggasen kan, amḍan n talɣenin nniḍen isubb aṭas akka am tin n Sbenyul tsubb-d seg 54 % ar 36 % gar yiseggasen n 1876 d 1901.

Armi d taggara n tasut tis xix i faqen belli uɣalen yirumyen mxalaḍen akk akka, ladɣa imi amḍan n wid i ylulen deg Lezzayer yugar i ubrid amezzwaru win n id-yunagen ɣur-s. Di tallit-a ggan yimdanen agi id-yekkan si Turuft isem n "yizzayriyen". ARmi d tagrawla n timunnent i bdan sexdamen aṭas isem-agi n yiḍarren iberkanen, imi izzayriyen n sseḥ rran-d isem-nsen .Ma d ikulunen i yessawḍen azal n 10 % seg yiherrasen llan d ifellazḥen yenḥafen, amur ameqqran deg-sen d ccrab i d-ssufuɣen .

Tagrawla n Lezzayer (1954-1962)[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Tallit n ugdud d tikti n beṭṭu n Lezzayer[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Deg 1959, yuweḍ umḍan n yiherrasen azal n 1 025 000, ayen id-yefkan 10,4 % seg yimezdaɣ yellan deg akk tamurt, nnesba-nsen tettimẓi seg 1926 ideg ssawḍen 15,2 %, yeḍra-d wannecta imi izzayriyen ineslmen yuli nezzeh umḍan-nsen. Xas akken timnaḍin akk tinesbaɣurin, d iḍarren iberkanen itent-yeččuren, di Ɛennaba,Lezzayer tamanaɣt, d WEhran. Ladɣa taneggarut-a ideg uwḍen yimezdaɣ irumyen deg-s ɣer 49,3 % seg wid akk imezdaɣ-ines deg 1959.

Seg umgarad-agi deg yimḍanen id-kkant taktiwin n ufraq n Lezzayer tafransist ɣer waṭas n yiḥricen, tiktiyin-agi yedda yid-sent uneɣlaf amezzwaru n Israyel David Ben Gourion (Dawud ben Guryun), d nnayeb deg UNR (taddukli i tagduda tamaynut) Alain Peyrefitte.

Lḥid n Berlin i yferqen tamdint ɣef sin, d wagi i bɣan ad d-awin ɣer Lezzayer.


« Ad nejmeɛ gar Wehran d Lezzayer akk wid yesɛan aẓar afransis, d yakk inselmen i yeddan yid-neɣ yernu sarmen ad qimen yid-neɣ.

Deg taggara n Lezzayer, ad nefreq akk inselmen i yebɣan ad idiren di Lezzayer yellan s ddaw n ufus n (unyir n tlelli taɣelnawt) FLN [...]

Nezmer ad nefreq tamdint n Lezzayer akka am Berlin d Uṛacalim (lquds) : Lqeṣba si tama, Bab Lwad si tayeḍ, aṣrid n ufraq di tlemmats.  »

Maca tikti agi yugi-tt Deg Gaulle.

Tagrawla[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Deg wass n 1ru n unbir 1954 tekker tegrawla tazzayrit mgal ucengu afra,sis, ass i ḥesben yirumyen d ass n tfaska n wass n yigerramen, imi dayen ur zmiren ara i tmuḥqranit i ddren s ddaw Fransa, ladɣa imi nuɣen ɣer tama-s deg umsenɣi amaḍlan wis sin, tqubel-ite,-id Fransa di taggara s tmenɣiyin ladɣa deg utaram n temnaḍt taqsenṭinit (Sṭif, Xerraṭa, Galma) . Di tazzwara tagrawla ur d-uwi ara aṭas ar ɣur-s, armi d tidyanijn n ugafa aqsenṭini deg 20 ɣuct 1955 i tuɣal tjbed-d aṭas n yizayriyen ɣer-s, imir i bdan yiḍarren iberkanen : irumyen neɣ udayen ttaɣen tiytiwin qessiḥen. Si daxel n Fransa, llan ttwalin annecta am tedyanin n yimenɣi n daxel, imi llan yiḥerkiyen itekkan ɣer yizzayriyen inselmen ddan d Fransa ttnaɣen d watmaten-nsen, yerna wawal-agi aṭas seg 1960 mi d-lul Tuddsa Yettwasellḥen Tuffirt (OAS).

« Fehmeɣ-ken-id ! »[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

ASiwel n De Gaulles i ugdud afransis 29 yennayer 1960
Aḍris n tferkit n uxetyar n wurmir n ugdud azzayri

Aṭas n yiḍarren iberkanen ḥussen iman-nsen ttwaxedɛen sɣur ujiniral De Gaulles i yellan zik yettwassen s tenfaliyin is akka am  « Je vous ai compris »/ « Fehmeɣ-ken-id » id-iusedda deg uḍris-is id-yeɣra deg ufurum n Lezzayer tamanɣt deg wass n 4 di yunyu 1958, sdat yirumyen yessawalen i ɣelluy n tegrawla, ladɣa tidak n  « Vive l'Algérie française ! »/ « Ad tidir Lezzayer tafransist ! » akked « La France est ici, avec sa vocation. Elle est ici pour toujours »/« Fransa atta dagi, s yizen-ines. Ad teqqim dagi i lebda ». I d-yeɣra deg Mestɣanem d Wehran ass n 06 di yunyu, d waṭas n tenfaliyin nniḍen iten-ixedɛen imi ɣilen belli d De Gaulles ara ten-id-isellken . Yernu yessuɣ-asen tannumi seg 1943 ass mi id-wwi Lubnan timunnent-ines belli Lezzayer d tafransist, maca seg 1958 yuɣal yessebgan-d iman-is am win yeddan d lḥeqq n ugdud azzayri ad yixtir anembaḍ-is, ad iqerrer urmir-ines, yessexdem wid akk yessawalen ɣer uɣimi n Fransa di Lezzayer azkken ad tessalin deg uneqlab n 1958, daɣen yessedem inselmen iḥerkiyen yeddan yid-s. Iḍarren iberkanen, ḥussen ttwaxeddɛen aṭas akter mi akken kksen azref n utekki deg tefranin ara yesɛeddin imetwayen n Evian i yigezdan izzayriyren n berra i wumi qqaren les DOM .

Gar uḥbas n yimenɣi d timunnent (Meɣres-Yulyu 1962)[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Kra n yiḍarren iberkanen gemnen ad hudden ayen akk id-ǧǧan ma d akal ad t-sserɣen lma d axxam ad t-hudden ma d tasunayt ad-tt-sxesren, akken ur isɛɛu ara uzzayri ayla-nsen yernu ur yesfayday ara, maca amur ameqqran ǧǧan amur-nsen akken yella, ama d timqebrin, neɣ d ixxamen neɣ ayen nniḍen imi llan ɣilen belli zemren ad d-uɣalen ɣer tmurt n Lezzayer deg kra n yiseggasen s deffir n timunnent akken i d-asen yenna u dabu afransis umi netta s timmad-is yeǧǧa kullec i unyir n tilelli taɣelnawt FLN akken ad xedmen kullec, ikellex-asen .

Nnulfan-d yiserdasen s deffir yimetwayen agi akken ad ḥerzen talwit gar-asen, imǧuhad n FLn ur qbilen belli arumi i yekksen tamurt d uḥerki i tt-ixedɛen ad ɛeddin kan akka akken tella tebɣa Fransa, ɣef way*-a gemnen ad ten-sufɣen neɣ ad d-rren ttaṛ-nsen s yifassen-nsen seg win i asen-yekksen tamurt.

Igiṭunen n yiminigen[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Gar yulyu d Ɣuct 1962, yuɣal d ayen iɣef nuɣ tanummi ad ilin ugar n mraw n yiman n yirumyen ṭṭsen deg yigiṭunen di Lmerṣa ttraǧun taflukt ara ten-yerren ɣer tmurt iten-id yuwin ɣer Lezzayer, di Wehran yennuulfa-d ugiṭun n yiminigen isem-is " ammas n userḥeb " .

Tigin n tuffɣa[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Di kra n wayyuren, gar tefsut d ctumber n useggas n 1962, ffɣen wazal n 800000 n yifransisen, irumyen d wudayen seg tmurt n Lezzayer uɣalen ɣer Fransa, tamurt iten-id-yuwin ɣer da uqbel 100 n yisseggasen seg 1962. Faqen yiḍarren iberkanen belli Lezzayer ulac tuɣaltin ɣer-s. Aseggas uqbel , teffeɣ-d l'OAS teqqar-asrn belli d nettat i d tuddsa ara ten-iḥdden yernu ad asent-ḍmen iɣimi di tmurt maca tuɣal d tarbaεt n yirebraben texdem aṭas n twaɣiyin ama si daxel n Fransa neɣ di Lezzayer, tikwal iswi-ines yettili d irumyen ula d nutni, yernu di taggara ur sleḥqen ara ad ǧǧen ifransisen deg Lezzayer .

akka ufan-d yiḍarren iberkanen iman-nsen terra-ten tmara ad ǧǧen Lezzayer, di kra n yiseggasen hubben-d yimezdaɣ irumyen d udayen ɣer Fransa akken ad idiren deg-s : Rewlen di tazzwara 150000 n yirumyen si Lezzayer ɣer Fransa, rnan ɣur-sen uqbel timunnent daɣen azal n 650000 nniḍen ɣer ugafa n yilel agrakal, umbeɛd rnan ugar n mraw n yigiman deg tɛecriwin n yiseggasen id-iteddun. Deg ctumber 1962, timdinin akka am Wehran, Ɛennaba d Sidi Belɛebbas uwḍent armi qrib ad xlunt, ineṣṣef umḍan n yimezdaɣ-is imi llan amur ameqqran deg-sen d irumyen (nebder-d yakan belli ṭṭfen timnaḍin tigrakalin tinesbaɣurin). Di kraḍ n wagguren yeḥbes uxeddim di tmehla, uselmed, imsulta, azref imi d irumyen itent-yeṭṭfen.

Tudert-nsen berra n Lezzayer[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Aṭas n yirumyen ḥussen iman-nsen ttwaxedɛen sɣur Fransa, dɣa gemnen ur ttinigenara ɣerr tmurt iten-ixedɛen, kra deg-sen unagen ɣer Sbenyul i yeḥkem Franku imiren,tamurt iseg-d-usan waṭas n yiherrasen n Wehran, amur ameqqran seg wigi ddren di temnaḍt n Alicante, kra deg-sen ɛeǧbent-asen tmura n Temrikt akka am Kanada d Tejrentint.Ma d amur ameqqran n yiminigen : 800 000 yid-sen xtaren Fransa

Ma d udayen n Lezzayer amur ameqqran deg-sen xtaren Fransa (azal n 95 % deg-sen), kra kan rran ɣer Israyel tamurt i yeqqaren belli d axxam n udayen n umaḏal. 130 000 seg wudayen n Lezzayer unagen-d ɣer Fransa.

Ifransisen i yeqqimen di Lezzayer si 1962[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Mi d timunent qimen wazal n 200 000 n yirumyen deg Lezzayer, ugin ad tefɣen ihi ineggura-agi llan ttraǧun ad awin talɣent tazzayrit, maca yusa-d useggas n 1963 ideg Lezzayer tessuffeɣ-d Lqanun yeqqar-d belli ayen akk id-ǧǧa Fransa ad yuɣal d ayla n tmurt tazzayrit ɣef wannecta llan wid i yruḥen iṣubb-d umḍan-nsen ar 150 000 n yirumyen deg wakal azzayri, yiwen n uneɣmmas iɛawed leḥsab n yirumùyen i yellan di Lezzayer di 1979 yufa-ten-id gar 3 000 d 4 000 di Lezzayer s lekmal,yiwet n tremnadit tenna-d berlli uwḍen armi d 30 000 n yirumyen deg 199; deg yiseggasen n 90 yerna isubb-d umḍan agi imi yella rebrab, id-yerran ula d irumyen deg yiswi-ines ɣef wannecta aṭas yid-sen ugaden ɣef tudert-nsen ǧǧan tamurt n Lezzayer, deg 2008 yettuɛawed leḥsab nnan-d belli llan gar 800 d 4 500 n yifransisen di Lezzayer