Tussit

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Tussit neɣ Inflwenza d aṭṭan amanṭaṭ yessisrig-it-id (yettsebbib-it) uvirus n tussit[1]. Isekna n tussit zemren ad ilin fsus-it neɣ d uzmiren (ujhiden)[2]. Isekna ayyi gan d tusut, azzug n ugerjum, tazzla n yinzaren, takma tamaẓwalt, tawla, Amaẓla d utmelli, deg tuget n tegnatin isekna ayyi d wid id yettneflalin seld n sin n wussan seg tefsert ar uvirus d unekcum-is ar tfekka w ad ṭṭfen azal n 7 n wussan i wakken ad kksen. Maca tusut tezmer ad teṭṭef ugar n 15 n wussan[1]. Ar warrac meẓẓiyen yezmer ad yeglu ula s umuktu d iriran maca isekna ayyi ur ttilin ara ar imeqqranen

Timukrisin n tussit gant d: azzug n turin, Azzug abektir n turin d unerni n wuguren idawsanen am uneggaf d yibriren n wul.[2][3]

Isragen (ssebbat)[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Llant 3 n telmas n ivirusen n tussit ttaɣent amdan, tilmas-a gant d: Talmest A, Talmest B, Talmest CC.[3]Ivirusen-a d wid yettenfufuden s wezwu d tusut d unezzu.[1] aladɣa mi ara ad ilin seg yistumen gezzilen neɣ meẓẓiyen.[4], Akken yezmer ad yenfufed s tuṭsa (anali) n tiggiwin yummsen s uvirus sin akin ad tili tuṭsa n yimi neɣ n wallen.[2][4]. Amdan i tuɣ tussit yezmer ad yessigem (ad yessenṭeṭ) avirus send d seld n teflalit n Isekna fell-as.[2], Asentem n yigem yezmer ad yili s ukayed n uvirus deg ugerjum, alɣuɣ neɣ inzaren akken illan iberdan d tirrayin tiruradin, maca imdanen id yeffeɣ ukayad-nsen d ibaw zemren ad ilin ddmen igem. Dɣa tella telmest n tsedmirt tanmezrit n Polimiraz (PCR) id yesnaramen (id ikeccfen) ɣef uzeffar aṛibuɣsan n uvirus, dɣa akayad-a igan yakk d usdid.[3]

Taggaẓt d ussuji[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Asired n yifassen yessedras (yessenqas) seg umihi n yigem acku avirus yettmettat mi ara ad yessemres (yessexdem) wemdan aserrad.[1] timelsiwt n unaffar afetkan d ayen igerrzen daɣen.[5], Tuddsa tamadlant n tdawsa tessmagel (tweṣṣa) s wegzay neɣ acraṭ amseggas (n yal aseggas) mgal tussit i wid yettwafesren i yimihiyen meqqren. Tigezt d tin yettilin d tamellilt mgal 3 neɣ 3 n telmas n tussit.[6]

Acraṭ[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Agzay (acraṭ) mgal tussit

Tuddsa tamadlant n tdawsa d Ammasen i wsenɣed d tesɣilt ɣef waṭṭanen ssmetren (weṣṣan) s wecraṭ mgal tussit i yimdanen yettwafesren i wmihi am warrac meẓẓiyen d yimɣaṛen d yixeddaen deg tɣult n tasnujjya d wid ilan (yesɛan) aṭṭanen imezrayen am uneggaf d wuguren wul. Ma d imdanen imawaṭen izemren yettili-d ucraṭ ɣur-sen d amellil cwiyya deg usedres n yisekna yettemcabin agla n tussit, Dɣa anzaten (ttbut) ttɣananen tadersi deg yisig n tussit ɣer igerdan yugaren sin n iseggasen. Ɣer wid-ak yettnegririfen (iɛetben) seg wecraṭ itekksasen cwiya waṭṭan n wergal aberfaw maca ur yiban ara ma iy tekkes aneggaf.[7][8][9][10][11][12]

Amezruy n tussit[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Deg yal aseggas, tussit tettenfufud deg tamiwin n umadal yakk. Ayen id igellun s 3 ar 5 n imelyan n tegnatin tinamsadin (qessiḥen) d wazal n 200,000 ar 500,000 n tegnatin n tmekkest (lmut).[1], deg tamiwin tigafanin d tinaẓulin ttilin-d isefrurten deg tegrest s talɣa tagejdant ma deg yideggan isbegsanen d tamiwin id yezzin ttilin-d deg yal akud n useggas.[1], Timekkest (lmut) tettili-d gar idrasen n ilemẓiyen ilan (yesɛan) uguren deg tdawsa-nsen d yimɣaren meqqren .[1][3], deg tsut tis 20 lfant-d (ḍrant-d) 3 n yirwasen n tussit: * Tussit Taspenyulit deg useggas n 1918 yegla-d s 50 n tmekkisin, * Tussit n Asya deg useggas n 1957 tegla-d s sin n imelyan n tmekkisin, * Tussit n Hong Kong deg useggas n 1968 tegla-d s umelyun n tmekkisin.[13]. Tuddsa tamadlant n tdawsa telɣet-d s usefruret d unfufed n telmest tamaynut n tussit isem-is A / H1N1 id yeglan s Arwas n tussit A (H1N1) n 2009.[14], Tussit tezmer ad tessemdu w ad taɣ ula deg iɣersiwen am yilfan d iyas d yigṭaṭ.[15]

assegzi n uvidyu

Isekna d yizmal[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Isekna n tussit yakk d tawla d tusut[16] d isekna imezdiyen s waṭas[17]

Azal n 33% n yimdanen i tuɣ tussit ur lin ara (ur sɛan aran) sekna.[18]. Isekna n tussit zemren ad ssemtin (ad bdun) s tugnit (taswiɛt kan) seld n yiwen ar sin n wussan seld n yigem. Isekna imenza ttilin d aqiccew n weglim d ufray s usemmiṭ, maca ula d tawla tettili d timezdit deg wakud imizik n yigem s tseddart n teẓɣelt yettilin gar n 38° ar 39°C. Amur ameqran n imuṭan ttawin-d ussan n tudna-nsen deg wusu s usrag n wagazen deg yakk tamiwin n tfekkiwin-nsen aladɣa deg uzagur d iṭarren.[19][20]. Isekna n tussit d wid izemren ad ilin d:

Ar warrac meẓẓiyen, Isekna n tussit ttilin deg unagraw amesgunef am beṛṛiṭ, Agaz n wadis (Isekna ayyi zemren ad ilin d inamsaden ɣer warrac i tuɣ tussit B.[22][23][24] Aserwes (ameyyez) gar n tussit d yidis d win imrayen (iweɛṛen) deg talliyin timezwura n wazzugen-a. Tussit d arway n yisekna n yidis d wazzug n turin asemmaṭ d igazen g tfekka d umaẓla d utmelli.[17][17][23][25][26]

Mya isafaren inemgalen n ivirusen d imellilen deg usuji n tussit ma ttwafken-d zik, ad yili d axatar i tukza (aɛqal) n tignatin deg wakud imizik. Akken i yezmer i tegrawin n tawla d tusut d wazzug n ugerjum neɣ asekfel n yinzaren ad sselhunt seg tseddi n twessna. Snat n tezrawin sseknen-tt-d d akken s isefrurten idiganen n tussit, isig n unfufed n waṭṭan yettugar 70%.[27][28][29] Ikayaden inamalen zeddiɣ (mazal) lehhun, immasen n usenɣed n waṭṭanen (CDC) di Marikan tetteffer agzul amsetrer i yikayaden inamalen n isnuda s unect n CDC, ikayaden n twessna taruradt tla (tesɛa) tanefrayt 50-75% d tulmist 90-95% mi ara ad yettwaserwes s yidles anvirus.[27][30][31]. Deg kra n tikwal, Tussit tezmer ad teglu s waṭṭan anamsad am wazzug n turin anvirus. Akken illan isekna ibanen am wemray n usgunef

Avirus n tussit[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Tilmas n ivirusen n tussit[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Taɣessa (tamsukt) n uvirus n tussit tesskanay-d Hemagglutinin (HA) d ipṛutinen n Neuraminidase (NA) deg tiggi n tzelɣiwin. Yettwafser uzeffar aṛibuɣsan anvirus id yessiliɣen ajinum am tkurin tizeggaɣin s agensu (daxel) n tzelɣiwin yettiwṭen ar (RNP)

Avirus n tussit s unect n usismel n ivirusen yettwameggez d avirus n ARN yettmag-d seg 5 n tewsitin n twacult n ivirusen inezɣiwen uzmiren.[32]

Ivirusen-a teqqnen kan ar ivirusen n tussit n yilfan talsant, igan d ivirusen n uzeffar aṛibuɣsan yeṭṭafaren tawacult n Maramixeros yettumeggezen d asrag (ssebba) imezdi i wazzug n unagraw amesgunef ar warrac meẓẓiyen am waṭṭan n taɣiṭṭ, akken i yezmer ad yeglu s waṭṭan yettemcabin i tussit ar imeqqranen.[33][34]

Tettwasumer-d twacult tis 4 n ivirusen n tussit igan d (Avirus n tussit D).[35][36][37][38][39][40][41], Talmest-a tamaynut iga d tussit n tsita yettwasinfen (yettwaɛezlen) i tikkelt tamezwarut deg useggas n 2012

Avirus n tussit A[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Igṭaṭ n waman gan d imsnugaten igamanen i tegrawt meqqren n tussit A, Tikwal ivirusen-a ttenṭaṭen i telmas n iɣersiwen n iden, sin akin yessisrig-d s unfufed d usefruret id igellun s twaɣit i yiwuzaṭ imegruden id t-yessenṭaṭen s iman-is ar wemdan i wakken ad telfu (ad teḍru) tẓidmelt n tussit gar n imdanen. Dɣa ivirusen A i yemrayen (i weɛṛen) yakk gar n 3 n ivirusen n tussit acku ttaken-d Aṭṭanen inamsaden. Yezmer ad yili beṭṭu n ivirusen n tussit A ar waɣanen d inawen yemgaraden s usizder ɣer tririt n tfekkamgalin i yivirusen-a, inawen inmegzayen i yessentamen ar wemdan gant d:[42][43]

Avirus n tussit B[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Ismawen n uvirus n tussit (i wvirus n tussit n Fujian)

Avirus n tussit B yettaɣ imdanen kan (maca yezmer daɣen ad yaɣ snat n telmas n iɣersiwen: isifer d unessas), Dɣa tussit B ur telli ara s tuget am tussit A, Talmest-a n tussit yesniffil s yisig n 2 ar 3 n tikkal s ddaw n telmest A, s usrag n tdrwsi ayyi n tuggta tasemgalt tettili-d tseddart n waffal mgal n tussit B deg temẓi, ɣas akken tussit B tesdeṛmis ɣer tfesna anda ur yettili ara waffal amaɣlal mgal-is, isig-a anamum (uḍɛif) i wessnifel asemgal yakk d tegrawt n umesnubget (asekref n tuddit n telmas s usemgal) s wakka ad yettwasegger (ad yettwaḍman) ur ttilin ara irwasen n tussit B.[42][45][46][47][48][49]

Avirus n tussit C[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Tussit C tettaɣ imdanen d yiqjan d yilfan. Aṭṭanen inamsaden gellun-d s tzitmura tidiganin. Maca talmest-a d tin ur nelli ara s tuget yakk yerna tettaɣ kan arrac meẓẓiyen s tefses.[50][51][52][53]

Tuddit d unfufed n uvirus[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Mi ara ad yenzi (yeɛḍes) neɣ yusu wemdan yudnen s tussit, ugar n wezgen n umelyun n tfekkiwin n ivirusen nettgen ar wezwu. Anṭaṭ n uvirus ɣer yimdanen irennu s waṭas deg wezgen n wass ar yiwen n was seld n yigem (akud deg acu yettili deg-s wemdan yessenṭaṭ-it i wayeṭ) ma d isig n wenṭaṭ yeflalin (ɛlayen) i wemdan niden deg taggara n wass wis sin akken i yettaṭṭaf azal n 5 wussan maca yezmer ad yeṭṭef alammi d 9 n wussan

Tasensakrart[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Isniflen isemhayen[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Ideggan yettufesren i tussit tasemhayt: wamber ar yebrir (azegzaw), wamber ar yebrir (azeggaɣ), s teɣzi n useggas (awṛaɣ).

Tussit tettawaṭ ar waggi-ynes deg tegrest, llant snat n tsemhuyin n tessut yal aseggas acku tagrest tettas-d deg sin n wakuden yemgaraden gar n wezgen agafan n tegnit d wezgen anaẓul, ɣef waya tuddsa tamadlant n tdawsa tettaked isemtar (ttewṣiyat) i snat n tsuddsin yemgaraden n wecraṭ yal aseggas (yiwet deg wezgen agafan tis snat deg wezgen anaẓul).[54]

amezruy n tussit[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Tigmayin (inadiyen)[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Ẓeṛ daɣen[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Imniren[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

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