Tamurt n Ibaskiyen

Si Wikipedia, tasanayt tilellit.
Neggez ar: ẓer isebtar, anadi


Tamurt Ibaskiyen tuzga-d ger snat n tmura: Fransa akk d Spenyul (Spanya)

Imezdaɣ-is isem-nnsen Ibaskiyen. Tamaneɣt-is Bilbao


Amezruy n tmurt n Ibaskiyen yella-d di tlisa n snat n temnaḍin [1]:

  1. Tamurt n Ibaskiyen ugafa
  2. Tamurt n Ibaskiyen n wenẓul

DI TMURT N YIBASKIYEN N UGAFA[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Anadi di tserkam n tmetti n leqrun wis 16, wis 17 d wis 18 yesskanay-d d akken tiserkam iḥekmen Tamurt n Yibaskiyen di tallit-nni llant tekksent-d rrbeḥ-nsent seg yiqeddicen ay llant xeddment i lmend n Ugellid n Fransa akk d Navarre n Wadda, dɣa ɣef wanect-a, kra n Yibirjwaziyen ibaskiyen llan ttṣaḥen-asen-d yimukan ɛlayen di leḥkem, yettxelliṣ-iten ugellid, seɛɛun tifesniwin deg yigen yernu tekksen-asen i wiyaḍ ixfawen-nsen ihaggaren (noblesse) akk d yimukan-nsen n leḥkem. Sponde, Bela, Belsance, Gramont, Etchauz akk d Meharin llan seg wid yeṭṭfen leḥkem u tuli yis-sen ddunit imi ay sennden ɣer tgeldit tafrensist akk d yimasiwen ay iqerben s agellid. Wwḍen alammi ay ten-tecrek nnesba yid-sen yernu sduklen ssɛaya-nsen akk d tin n wigi. D acu kan, anect-agi diɣ yessaweḍ-iten ad ssersen imal n Tmurt n Yibaskiyen ger n yifassen n Fransa, ur reglen- as abrid i uzureg (indépendance) n tmurt-nsen. Tawaddfa-yagi yessbanay-aɣ-tt-id mliḥ umezruy di tallit n Wemgaru n Tesreḍt [asmi ay nnuɣen Yikaṭuliyen d Yeprrutistanen di Fransa si 1562 ɣer 1598]. Imir-n, aṭas n yimasiwen ibaskiyen (am Luxe, Espelette, Garou, Etchauz akk d Domezain) ay d-ibedden i lmend n Ugellid n Fransa, akken ad t-ḥudden, dɣa rran timura-nsen s ddaw n leḥkem n tgeldit, ladɣa di tallit n Charles IX. Yernu nnernan wassaɣen n lemɛawna ugar di tallit n Henri IV (Henri III n Navarre), ay d-yeskecmen aṭas n yimasiwen Ibaskiyen ɣer leqṣer-ines u gar-asen nezmer ad d-nader Armendaritz, Laxague akk d Haramboure. Tawaddfa-yagi n Tmurt n Yibaskiyen ɣer Fransa yesseɛjel-itt-id rrbeḥ n tgeldit mgal n Usemmeskel [abeddel n tesreḍt takaṭulit] akk d wesbeddi n tsertit n usselmes tafrensist.

  • Mgal timerkanṭit

« I tɣimit n tlella, n yesladen akk d yeglamen » d awal ay llan ttɛawaden-t-id si Palais alamma d Ustaritz, Yibaskiyen inesbuɣar (imerkantiyen) yeṭṭfen leḥkem di leqrun wis 17 d wis 18. Kra n yenmezrayen walan anect-a d asuter n Yibaskiyen akken ad awin tilelli u ad ḥekmen i yiman-nsen tisuda tibaskiyin, d acu kan, anect-a ur iṣehḥa ara imi d wid-n akken ay yellan qqaren-d awal-agi ay yellan tekksen-d lfayda meqqren si tedbelt (administration) n Tgeldit tafrensist. Ihi, "tilelli" ay llan ssuturen-tt-id wigi yezmer kan ahat ad ilin qeṣden-d yis-s lebɣi-nsen akken ad ten-id-tuɣal tlelli-nni n zik ay d asen-tespuḥ tsertit n usselmes n Fransa, am wakken ara yili usuter-agi-nsen yesskanay-d diɣ tugdi-nsen akken ad asen-truḥ tlelli d leḥkem sya ar sdat imi di tallit-nni tella a d-tettenka r tserkemt tamaynut n yemzenza d yimawlan n wakal akk d yimesbankiyen ilibirraliyen, ay yellan ttuɣalen d inesbuɣar (imerkantiyen) s lɛejlan yernu zgan-d mgal n uqader n yisuḍaf, akken ma llan. Nezmer dɣa ad d-nefk sin n yimedyaten i deg ara d-nesban aya : Di 1784, ssutren yimawlan n wakal inesbuɣar n Navarre seg unemzaɣ n Béarnais, Polverel, ad as-yaru asektay i Ugellid n Fransa i deg ara d as-yessefhem ayɣer ay ilaq ad qqiment "tlella d yesladen" n tgeldit n Navarre, dɣa asmi yexdem aya, fkan-as yimawlan n wakal Ibaskiyen amkan gar-asen, yuɣal ula d netta yesɛa akal u yerbeḥ-d ixef n tihhugra. D acu kan, lemmer ad nwali mliḥ s agbur n wayen d-issumer, ad nẓer d akken Polverel yessider-d takti n ussuter n tfulmant (autonomie) di lweqt i deg wiyaḍ akk ttun-tt [u a ttxemmimen amek ara kemmlen ad ttidiren deg yeglamen s ddaw n leɛnaya n Fransa], yernu yewwet-d Polverel deg usektay-is mgal n "unedbal n wakalen" ay yellan yekkat mgal n twaculin tinesbuɣar timaynutin n yemzenza akk d yimesbankiyen. Yuɣ lḥal, Polverel iger-d tivri, xas maci s ledjherr, akken ad asen-d-uɣalen i Yibaskiyen yizerfan-nsen ay sen-yefka umezruy, ad asen-d-tuval tmurt n lejdud-nsen i deg ttalasen, yernu ayen ara d-yesbegnen aya netta d akken Polverel yuv abrid-is i yiman-is asmi ay d-tekker Tegrawla tafrensist.

  • Tagrawla tafrensist

Atmaten n twacult n Garat n Ustaritz, ay ttwalin yenmazrayen seg wid yellan ttḥuddun "tisuda tibaskiyin", leɛben ddurr d ameqqran di lebni n Tegrawla tafrensist akk d wesbeddi n unagraw azerfan (système juridique) d tedbelt tamaynut n Fransa. D acu kan, asmi ay ttwakksen akk yeglamen imsugal deg yiḍ n 4 Ɣect 1789, ttwakksent ula d tisuda tibaskiyin, xas akken ifuk lḥif ɣef wegdud abaski, ay yeddren acḥal d leqrun s ddaw n lbaṭel n yimasiwen, ma d atmaten n twacult n Garat, rewlen s tuffra si tmurt. Tagrawla tafrensist tefka azal, di tgara, i tutlayt tafrensist ay yuɣalen d tutlayt tawḥidt i yes tteddu tegduda, i yes ttdeddu tedbelt akk d yiɣerbazen. Ibaskiyen n Ugafa (n Fransa) ay d-yuran ɣef tnettit tabaskit seg yimir-n d asawen, am Antoine d'Abbadie di "Eskualtzaleen Biltzara", ur d asen-iban ara webrid ara aɣen, wanag llan ttmalen tikwal ɣer tesnakta takarlit (carlisme), tikwal ɣer tesnakta tafrensist yerran tutlayin timedrusa n Fransa d aḥric kan seg ufulklurr n tmiwa n tmurt. D acu kan, llan-d kra n yemyura ay nezmer ad d-nini d akken d tisuraf (exceptions), am Chaho akk d Broussain.

DI TMURT N YIBASKIYEN N WENẓUL , DI SPENYUL[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Di lqern wis 18, talibirralit taspenyulit tella d nettat ay d tasnakta ay ḍefrent s umata tserkam ɛlayen n Yibaskiyen n Spenyul, wid yellan sɛan aṭas n wakal, akk d yiburjwaziyen n temdinin yebdan seɛɛun akal neɣ llan bɣan ad t-sɛun. Taɣdart (élite) n Yibaskiyen akk d tin n Yikatalanen llant d tirebbaɛ yesɛan aswir adelsan (niveau culturel) ɛlayen akk di tmetti taspenyulit, yernu llan dima d nitni ay d imezwura di tmurt ay d-ilemmden ayen d-yettnulfun d amaynut di tussna di tmura nniêen n Turruft . Aṭas deg-sen ay yellan ttaznen arraw-nsen akken ad ɣren di tesdawiyin n Fransa d Legliz neɣ di tesdawit n Bergara. D tarbaɛt-agi diɣ ay d-yesbedden Takebbanit nCaracas, d takebbanit n tnezzawt meqqren ay ṭṭfen Yibaskiyen yernu tettekka mliḥ di tenneflit n Venezuela. Tura-d tmesnalest ( anthropulug)Marianne Heiberg : «Deg wayen yerzan tinettit, at tegrawt-agi llan ttwalin iman-nsen d akken ulac wi yellan d "Ispenyuliyen" ugar-nsen di Spenyul. Llan ḥesben iman-nsen ṣubben-d seg wid-n akken umi ur xliḍen ara yidammen akk d Yimurriyen neɣ Uwdayen, wid-n akken yessuffɣen ikefrriyen* yernu rran-d taɣerma akk d Tamasiḥit ɣer tmurt. Xas ulamma aṭas deg-sen llan ttmeslayen tabaskit, d taspenyulit ay llan smenyafayen ad tt-sqedcen ama deg wexxam neɣ di berra» [2] U terna-d : «Dɣa amkan ay d as-fkan wigi i tbaskit d win kan n tutlayt n yimeksawen, d tutlayt n yimezdaɣen n tmurt ur d-neswi si tala n ṭṭbeɛ akk d tɣerma, di lweqt i deg taspenyulit tella d tutlayt n ṭṭbeɛ, n yedles, n leqraya akk d rrbeḥ n temdinin, yernu simmal yella yettali ccan n temdinin, simmal tella tettuɣal tbaskit di rrif, tettzad fell-as tḥeqranit». [*yuɣ lḥal, Ispenyuliyen yennuɣen mgal n Yinselmen di Spenyul, llan ttwalin Inselmen d Wuwdayen d ikefrriyen.] Si 1876 d asawen, beddlen wid yellan di tserkam yeṭṭfen leḥkem : anekcum n tmurt n Yibaskiyen s ulzuz (ssuq) akk d usaḍuf (lqanun) aspenyuli yewwi-d yid-s yiwet n tegrawt (tarbaɛt) tamaynut n yinesbuɣar iqeddcen di temguri (industrie) akk d tbankiwin (banques), yernu wigi wwḍen alammi ay ṭṭfen imukan ɛlayen deg udabu aspenyuli. Iburjwaziyen-agi yennerna leḥkem d timmerkantit-nsen asmi ay d-sbedden anagraw n "Conciertos Economicos" (Iburaz Udmisen), d ayen ay ten-yeddjan ad rren tiseqquma n temnaḍin ddaw n leḥkem-nsen u ad sneqsen tiwsi ɣef wayen llan xeddmen-t-id u znuzuyen-t, dɣa anect-a yegla-d s uxeṣṣar ameqqran ɣef tserkemt n yiqeddacen akk d wegdud s umata. Tamsedrast-agi tabaskit tuɣal d aḥric si tburjwazit taɣelnawt taspenyulit yernu aɣerya ad teqdec i lmend n lebni n tmurt timsihrit tatrart di Tmurt n Yibaskiyen, nettat teqdec i lebni n tmurt n Spenyul.


Timsulya[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

  1. http://imedyazen1.tripod.com/
  2. Marianne Heiberg, The Making of the Basque Nation, Cambridge University Press, 2007-09-17 - 284 pages.


Ẓer daɣen[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]