Ibaskiyen

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Ibaskiyen
Euskaldunak (s tbaskit)
Leḥsab
c. 3 imelyan
Timnaḍin akked amur ameqqran n yimezdaɣen
 Spanya
(people living in the Basque Provinces of Spain, including some areas where most people do not identify themselves as Basque)
2,410,000[1][2]
 Fṛansa
(people living in the French Basque Country, not all of whom identify as Basque)
239,000[1]
 Iwunak Yedduklen
(self-identifying as having Basque ancestry)
57,793[3]
 Kanada
(including those of mixed ancestry)
6,965[4]
Tutlayin
TabaskitTaspenyultTafransist
Ddin
Tamasiḥt (ladɣa Takatulit),[5] nniḍen

Ibaskiyen d imezdaɣen n Tmurt n Yibaskiyen, d yiwet n tama ay d-yuzgan ɣef yiri n yilel (lebḥer), ger n Fransa akk d Spenyul akk d yidurar n Pyrénées utrimen (iɣerbiyen). D nitni ay d imezdaɣ iqdimen akk n tmiwa-yagi yernu ttmeslayen yiwet n tutlayt, tabaskit, seg wakken d taqdimt, ar ass-a werɛad d-ufin yimassanen d acu n tutlayt nniḍen ay tt-icuban neɣ d acu n twacult n tutlayin i ɣer ara tt-qqnen. Tamurt n Yibaskiyen ass-a tebḍa ɣef sin yeḥricen. Yiwen weḥric, win n ugafa (nord), d Fransa ay t-iḥekmen u yuzga-d ugezdu n Pyrénées-Atlantiques, ma d aḥric nniḍen, win n wenẓul , d Spenyul ay t-iḥekmen yernu yebḍa ɣef snat n tmiwa (timettiyin timaniyin) : tin n Tmurt n Yibaskiyen, tamaneɣt-is d Vitoria, akk d tin n Navarra u tamaneɣt-is qqaren-as Pamplona. D acu kan, Ibaskiyen ara yessuturen acḥal d iseggasen aya ad awin azarug-nsen , ttwalin tamu rt-nsen d yiwet-is, agdud-nsen yeddukel, yernu smenyafayen ad semmin i yiman-nsen "Euskaldunak" u ad semmin i tmurt-nsen "Euskadi", ma d tutlayt-nsen, qqaren-as "Euskara".

Di Spenyul llan azal n 2.600.000 n Yibaskiyen di lweqt i deg di Fpansa llan kan 250.000. Azal n 700.000 n Yibaskiyen ay yettmeslayen tabaskit di Spenyul, di lweqt i deg di Fransa, 400.00 kan ay tt-yettmeslayen.

Ibaskiyen sɛan yiwet n tɣerma d taqdimt aṭas yernu mazal-itt tedder ar ass-a, u sɛan yiwet n tsekla tatlayt d tamerkantit maci d kra, cennun-tt-id kra akken n yimedyazen umi qqaren id "bertsolari". Ibaskiyen mazal diɣ ṭṭfen deg waṭas n wansayen, gar-asen takessawt n wakraren deg wedrar, addal n takurt tabaskit akk d wadag n yiceṭṭiḍen.

Amezruy-nsen [6][ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Idrizen iqdimen akk ay d-ufan ɣef Yibaskiyen ttuɣalen ɣer 8000 n yiseggasen uqbel n Sidna ɛisa, u akken yebɣu yili, d igiman n yiseggasen ayaka seg wasmi ara ttidiren Yibaskiyen di tmiwa-yagi i deg llan ass-a. Seg wasmi ay bdan a d-keccmen yiberraniyen ɣer tmurt-nsen, Ibaskiyen, ladɣa wid n Navarra, zgan-d mgal-nsen u nuḍḥen akken ad ilin d ilelliyen. Dɣa nnuɣen mgal n Rruman yernu di tallit i deg llan Yinselmen sbedden tixlifin-nsen di Spenyul, yernu Fransa llan ḥekmen-tt Yefranken , ssawḍen Yibaskiyen ad d-gen tageldit timziregt di Navarra di 850, s ddaw n leḥkem n Inigo Arista. Tageldit-agi tewweḍ ɣer tallit-is n wureɣ s ddaw n leḥkem n Sancho III Ameqqran, ay iḥekmen tamurt si 1000 alammi d 1035. Ma di tama n ugafa, llan sɛan diɣ Yibaskiyen yiwet n tgeldit nniḍen ay yellan qrib d timziregt, d tin umi qqaren Soule. D acu kan, deg yiseggasen ay d-iḍefren, tufa-d Navarra iman-is zzint-as-d tgeldiwin timsiḥiyin (chrétiennes) si yal tama yernu tigi gant fell-as lḥers akken ad teǧǧ tilelli-yines u llant tettent-as-d seg wakal-is, dɣa seg yimir-n ay tuɣal Navarra tettɛeddi sya ɣer da s ddaw n leɛnaya n tgeldiwin-agi (Castilla, Aragon akk d Fransa), akken ur tseɛɛu ara uguren yid-sent. Maca, xas tella Navarra tettɛeddi s yisem s ddaw n leḥkem aberrani, isuḍaf-yines (leqwanin-is) d yeglamen (privilèges) n wid ay tt-iḥekmen llan mazal ttuqadaren. Ma d tageldit tabaskit n Soule tebda ula d nettat tettɛeddi s ddaw n leɛnaya n lḥekkam ifrensisen u seg yimir-n ay tebda a tesruḥuy cwiṭ, cwiṭ tilelli-yines. Di 1234, yuli Champagne Thibaud Amenzu ɣer leḥkem di Navarra u yewwi amkan n twacult-nni yellan teḥkem tamurt uqbel, d anect-a ay yeǧǧan Navarra ad teqqen ɣer Fransa si 1284 alammi d 1328. D acu kan, di tallit-nni n leḥkem afrensis, tesseǧhed Navarra tinettit-is tasertit , yernu werǧin qbilen Yibaskiyen ad ten-teḥkem Fransa. Xas akken ifuk leḥkem usrid n Fransa di Navarra, d yiwet n twacult tafrensist, Evreux, ay ikemmlen teḥkem tamurt. Ma d tama n Soule yewwi-tt ugellid n Fransa, Philippe le Bel di 1306, u seg yimir-n ay tuɣal d aḥric si tgeldit tafrensist. Uguren ay tella tesɛa twacult n Evreux di Navarra ldin-as tawwurt i Ferdinand II n Aragon akken ad yesdukel tama-yagi ɣer tgeldit n Castilla. Ma Navarra n Wadda (neɣ Navarre yellan ɣer tama n Fransa) tewwi-tt twacult tafrensist n Bourbon di lqern wis XVI. Di 1607, agellid n Fransa, Henri IV (Henri III n Navarra), ay yellan si twacult-agi, ikemmel asdukel Navarra n Wadda ɣer Fransa u seg wass-n ay tuɣal d aḥric si tmurt-a, tleḥḥu s usaḍuf n Fransa. Ma d Navarra taspenyulit, xas akken tella d aḥric si Spenyul s yisem, kemmlent tsuda-yines a xeddment alammi d 1841, asmi ay d asen-ttwakksen i lḥekkam ibaskiyen n tama-nni iglamen-nsen (. Yuɣ lḥal, teɣli Tmurt n Yibaskiyen di beḍḍu akk d leḥkem aberrani imi, si tama, Ibaskiyen ur nudan ara ad d-gen tamurt meqqren yedduklen, si tama nniḍen, timura d-yezzin fell-as llant ugarent Tamurt n Yibaskiyen di lǧehd. Di 1959, snulfan-d yiɣelnaẓriyen ibaskiyen yiwet n tuddsa timselleḥt, isem-is E.T.A, d tin ara yekkaten i lmend n uzarug n Tmurt n Yibaskiyen di Spenyul, xas akken tettunefk-as timanit i tama-yagi akk d Navarra di 1980.

Tamselyut[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

  1. 1.0 1.1 V. inkesta soziolinguistikoa 2011 [V. Sociolinguistic Survey] (PDF) (in Tabaskit). Vitoria-Gasteiz: Central Publications Service of the Basque Government. 2013. ISBN 978-84-457-3303-5. Retrieved 2 November 2016.
  2. "INE". INE. 2013. Retrieved 5 November 2014.
  3. "Census 2000: Table 1. First, Second, and Total Responses to the Ancestry Question by Detailed Ancestry Code: 2000" (XLS). U.S. Census Bureau. 22 January 2007. Retrieved 2 November 2016.
  4. "Census Profile, 2016 Census - Canada [Country] and Canada [Country]". 2.statcan.gc.ca. 2018-03-20. Retrieved 2018-04-16.
  5. Estadísticas Enseñanzas no Universitarias – Resultados Detallados – Curso 2007–2008, Ministry of Education, educacion.es – Compiled by Fernando Bravo. FP: Formación Profesional (Vocational training).
  6. http://imedyazen1.tripod.com/id12.html