Singapur

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Singapur
Asenǧaq
Asenǧaq Singapuri
Tamurt n Litwanya
Tutlayt tunṣibt Tinglizt,Tamandarint,Tamalayt, Tamil
Tamanaɣt Singapur-Aɣrem (Singapore City)
Tajumma 699.4 km² (wis 188)
Imedzaɣ 4,483,900 (wis 117)
Imedzaɣ deg km2 6,208/km² (wis 4)
Singapur

Singapur, ay yellan d tamurt tamecṭuḥt ay d-yuzgan di Asya n wenẓul agmuḍan (sud-est), d tamurt i deg ttidiren waṭas n yegduden, u ttmeslayen deg-s aṭas n tutlayin. Anabaḍ (gouvernement) n tmurt-agi yesbedd-d tasertit (politique) i yes ara yerr taglizit d tutlayt i yes tteddu tmurt, am wakken ara tttwaḥerzent tutlayin nniḍen, tid umi semman n "yegduden", akken yis-sent ara lemden yelmeẓyen idelsan d wansayen-nsen. D acu kan, tagnit deg wennar tewɛer' ugar n wakken i tt-yettmuqul unabaḍ. Yuɣ lḥal, xas anabaḍ asingapuri iqeddec ɣef wamek ara yeḥrez tutlayin n yegduden-is, maca maci merr'a tutlayin ay ssawalen di Singapur ttwaḥerzent, yernu kra seg Yisingapuriyen ttawḍen bitt alamma sr'uḥen tutlayt d yedles-nsen ɣef idra n tsertit-agi.

Yuɣ lḥal, di tmurt am Singapur, i deg ṭṭuqqten yegduden, adennit (labudd) ad tili tutlayt, xas d taberr'anit, ara fehhmen merr'a yegduden-is yernu yis-s ay tez! m er ad d-tili teywalt (communication) wagar-asen. D acu kan, si tama nniḍen, tasertit n Singapur akken ad teḥrez tutlayin n yegduden-is ur telli d tin iɛedlen ger n tutlayin merr'a n tmurt-a. Di lweqt i deg Icinwaten a xeddmen ayen umi zemren akken ula d nitni ad sɛun tutlayt-nsen teǧhed di tmurt-a (xas ma yella atni a ttsemmiḥen di tentalyin-nsen tineṣliyin), igduden nniḍen n Singapur, i sen-d-yeqqimen kan ad qeblen tasertit-agi n unabaḍ ara iteddun akken ad temḥu aṭas n tutlayin si tmurt-a. Amagrad-agi yettqeddimaɣ-d amek ay llant tutlayin di tmurt n Singapur, amek ara ixeddem unabaḍ akken ad yessemsawi lumur di tmurt i deg ṭṭuqtent tutlayin am ta, d wamek ara yekkat akken ad ilin Yisingapuriyen d wid ara yissinen tutlayin i yes ara nefɛen tamurt-nsen. D acu kan, si tama nniḍen, nezmer diɣ ad naf deg-s tagnit iṣeɛben i deg ttidirent tutlayin timecṭaḥ sdat n tutlayin "umi meqqer ccan", di tmurt-a, i deg taglizit d nettat ay d tutlayt "tagraɣlant" yekksen akk cciɛa i tiyaḍ, ma d Tacinwat d nettat diɣ ay d tutlayt n tuget deg yimezdaɣen n tmurt. Afud igerrzen

Amezruy n Singapur[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Xas ma yella amezruy n Singapur d aqdim aṭas, ayen yesɛan azal meqqren akk deg-s netta d asmi ay yewweḍ ɣur-s Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles deg waggur n Yennayer n 1819. Mi akken ay yewweḍ Raffles ɣer tegzirt-agi, yufa-n deg-s yiwet n taddart tamecṭuḥt n 150 n yimezdaɣen dɣa yuɣ tigizrt-agi ɣef yiwen n ukerwa n yilel (maître de la mer) isem-is Abdul Rahman yernu yerra-tt d ayla n Tkebbanit Tabriṭanit n Lhend Tagmuḍant (Tacerqit). Dindin kan tuɣal Singapur d asagen (port) irebḥen. Di 1826, tuɣal Singapur d aḥric si Thersin n Yekriẓen (Colonies des Détroits), am nettat am Penang d Malacca [di Malizya]. Ma di 1867, tuɣal Singapur, akk d Thersin-nni n Yekriẓen d Tahrest seg Uqacuc Abriṭani.

Iminigen n Ccinwa, n Lhend, n Malizya akk d tegzirin n Indunisya llan-d si ger n yimezwura ay d-yewwḍen ɣer Singapur, akken kan d-sbedden asagen-ines. Leḥkem abriṭani akk d tewwura yeldin ɣef tnezzawt (commerce) di Singapur d ayen ay yeǧǧan aṭas n medden ad d-inigen ɣur-s si Ccinwa. Aṭas seg Yicinwaten-nni ay d-yewwḍen ɣer din d wid yellan ttwalasen ṭṭlaba dɣa llan ssexdamen-ten di tmurt-a. Ma d iminigen Ihendiyen, bdan ttasen-d ɣer din seg wasmi ay d-yewwi Raffles kra seg-sen deg yiserdasen-is. Imi ay zemren ad xedmen di Singapur di inawaren (fonctionnaires) n unabaḍ, d imestekniyen (techniciens), d iselmaden neɣ d imzenza (commerçants), aṭas n Yihendiyen ay d-yinigen ɣer din si Penang, Lhend akk d Sri Lanka. Di 1823, tuɣal Singapur d amḍiq i ɣer d-ttawin imeḥbas, dɣa uɣalen ttusexdamen yimeḥbas ihendiyen di lebni n yizudaɣ (bɛtiments), n yiberdan akk d tqenṭyar.

Uqbel n 1860, imezdaɣen n Singapur llan ḥessben-ten s uqerru, yernu d tamsulta (police) ay d-ilehhun d wanect-a. Di 1860, yettwaxdem wuddun (recensement) amenṣab amenzu, yernu ufan-d d akken llan imir-n 80.792 n yemdanen di tmurt-a. Zik-nni, ala kan d Imaliziyen ay yellan zedɣen di Singapur, d acu kan, ur ɛeṭṭlen ara uɣalen Yicinwaten d nitni ay yeṭṭuqqten dinna.

Di 1824, llan 10.683 n yimezdaɣen di Singapur, gar-asen 60 % d Imaliziyen, 31 % d Icinwaten akk d 7 % d Ihendiyen. Ma di 1830, uɣalen Yicinwaten d nitni ay yeṭṭuqqten akk ger n yimezdaɣen n tmurt-a, yernu mazal-iten ara ass-a d nitni ay tigti (majorité). Di 1867, wwḍen Yicinwaten ɣer 65 % (55.000) seg yimezdaɣen n Singapur, yernu anect ay yellan a d-yettaweḍ d iminigen icinwaten yettnadin leqdic yella yettbeddil seg useggas ɣer wayeḍ. ɣef umedya, di 1880, wwḍen-d 50.000 n yiminigen si Ccinwa, di lweqt i deg di 1912, wwḍen-d 250.000. Ihokkienen (Hokkien), Iteochewen (Teochew), Ikanṭuniyen akk d Yihakkaten si trebbaɛ timeqqranin akk ay yellan ttawḍent-d si Ccinwa. Seg wasmi ay d-yebda yinig ɣer Singapur, d Ihokkienen akk d Yiteochewen ay yeṭṭfen tanezzawt (commerce), ma d Ikanṭuniyen qeddcen s umata di tfellaḥt, maca kra deg-sen qeddcen diɣ di yineḍ (artisanat), bennun ixxamen n wesɣar, ttxiḍin neɣ qeddcen d iḥeddaden.

Tamharsa* Tabriṭanit[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

(*colonialisme)

D asnulfu n yiɣerruba ay iteddun s yiraggen akk d tullya n terga n Suez di 1869 ay yeǧǧan tadamsa n Sigapur ad tennerni. Tuɣal Asya n Wenẓul agmuḍan (sud-est) d tama yettwassnen s ussuffeɣ (exportation) n kawaču akk d uhellun (étain), yernu tuɣal Singapur d yiwen seg yisugan imeqqranen akk deg wemḍal. Di 1921, bnan Yebriṭaniyen di tmurt-a yiwen n wabuḍ awlal (base navale) meqqren, d win ay ṭṭfen Yijapuniyen deg Wemgaru Amaḍlan (Guerre mondiale) wis sin asmi ay ttf'en Singapur si Fur'ar' n 1942 alamma d Ctember' n 1945.

Di 1946, tuɣal Singapur d tahrest i yiman-is di Tqacuct Tabriṭanit, asmi ay ttwakksent Thersin n Yekriẓen. Di 1959, tettunefk-as tfulmant (autonomie) i Singapur xas ma yella Briṭanya tella mazal-itt d nettat ay d-yelhan d laman akk d lumur' n berr'a n tmurt-a. Ma di 1963, tekcem Singapur ɣer Tfidir'alit n Malizya, am nettat am tmiwa n Malaya, Sabah d Sarawak. D acu kan, di ɣect n 1965, temsebḍa-d Singapur ɣef Malizya yernu tuɣal d tigduda timziregt (indépendante) i yiman-is. Xas ma yella ass n uzarug n Singapur d ass n 9 ɣect 1965, kemmlen yiserdasen Ibriṭaniyen ttilin dinna alammi d taggara n 1971.