Isṭunya

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Isṭunya
Eesti Vabariik
Flag of Estonia.svg Coat of arms of Estonia.svg
Administration
Government republic Suqel, soviet republic Suqel, authoritarianism Suqel akked republic Suqel
Head of state Kersti Kaljulaid Suqel
Tamaneɣt Tallinn Suqel
Tutlayin tunṣibin Tisṭunit
Tajyugrafit
EU-Estonia.svg, LocationEstonia.svg akked Estonia on the globe (Europe centered).svg
Tajumma 45339 km²
Borders with Liṭṭunya, Rrus akked Soviet Union Suqel
Tadimugrafit
Imezdaɣ 1,324,820 imezdaɣ. (1 Yennayer 2019)
Density 29.22 imezdaɣ/km²
Isallen nniḍen
Time Zone UTC+02:00 Suqel, UTC+03:00 Suqel, Eastern European Time Suqel, Europe/Tallinn Suqel akked Eastern European Summer Time Suqel
Internet TLD .ee Suqel
Calling code +372
Currency euro Suqel
www.eesti.ee


Isṭunya (Eesti Vabariik s tutlayt tistunit), d yiwet n tmurt n umenẓaw Urub. Tezgad si tama usamar n ill n Baltik, ddaw n tmurt n Finlund, ttama n Gulf n Finlund, ar ugafa n tmurt n Lituni, ar umalu n tmurt n Russ.

Tamurt n Isṭuni, d tmura n Lituni d Litwani, ttusemant timura n baltik.

Isṭuni tetteka di tidukla n Urup seg umezwaru n mayu 2004, u tesekcem aṣurdi n Euro seg umenzu Yennayer 2008. Tekcem ar Temsisa Taṭlasit (OTAN) ass 29 meɣres 2004.

Tasertit n tutlayin di Isṭunya : d leqdic iteddun ɣer sdat[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Aqeddem[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Amagrad ay d awen-d-newwi ass-a d win ay d-yettmeslayen ɣef tutlayt tisṭunit, d tutlayt taɣelnawt n tmurt n Isṭunya. Tamurt-a ay d-yuzgan di Tuṛuft n Ugafa (Europe du Nord), teqreb ɣer Rusya yernu tella d yiwet si tegdudyin tiqburin n Tdukli Tasuvyatit (Union soviétique), am Litwanya akk d Kirgizistan i ɣef ay d-newwi awal yagi. Iṣtunya d yiwet si tmura tibaltiyin, meḥsub d tamurt ay d-yuzgan ɣef yilel Abalti (mer baltique), yernu am nettat, am Litwanya akk d Litṭunya, tekcem-itent Tdukli Tasivyatit di 1940, u terra-tent tamara d aḥric si tmurt-agi tameqqrant, alammi d 1991, asmi ay tewwi Isṭunya azarug-is (indépendance). Di tallit-nni n lbaṭel ɣezzifen ay tesɛedda Isṭunya, tuɣal tisṭunit, tutlayt n yimawlan n tmurt, d tutlayt ur nesɛi azal sdat n tutlayt tarusit ay d-tḥettem fell-asen Musku. Yuɣ lḥal, Irusiyen, xas ulamma "ttqadaren" igduden yellan ttidiren di Tdukli Tasuvyatit, llan ttwalin iman-nsen d nitni ay ten-yifen merṛa, d idles-nsen ay yernan win n tdersiyin nniḍen (minorités) yernu d tutlayt-nsen ay ilaqen ad tt-lemden akk yegduden isuvyatiyen nniḍen. S wanect-a, Irusiyen yettidiren di Isṭunya werǧin walan iman-nsen terra-ten tmara ad lemden tutlayt tisṭunit, wanag ttwalin d akken d imawlan n tmurt ay d-tewwi ad lemden tutlayt-nsen. Yuɣal bab n yiger d akli. D acu kan, ddunit ttetti, tettemtetti, idewweṛ-d zzman i deg d as-d-yuɣal uzarug-is i Isṭunya, yernu yuɣal-as-d wemkan-is i tutlayt tisṭunit. Ass-a, mi akka ay d-teffeɣ Isṭunya seg ujeɣlal-nni i deg tella zik-nni, tezzi udem-is ɣer Tuṛuft tutrimt (taɣerbit) akken ad tesnerni tadamsa-yines, dɣa anect-a yedǧa-tt ad tesnerni ula d tutlayt-is, tutlayt tisṭunit i yes tteddu tmurt, akken ad tqabel Isṭunya tallit n wass-a. D anect-a ay ibeddlen zzman ɣef Yirusiyen yettidiren di Isṭunya. Assemɣer ay ssemɣaren iman-nsen ɣef tisṭunit tura yexsi, tarusit-nni-nsen ay llan ttwalin-tt tif tisṭunit tuɣal ur teswi ara di tegduda-yagi tamaynut, dɣa tewwi-d fell-asen ass-a, ma bɣan ad ttekkin ula d nitni di tmurt-a, ur ten-yettara ara zzman di rrif, tewwi-d fell-asen ad lemden tisṭunit, d tin kan ara d asen-yessifessen tudert di tmurt-a n yimawlan-is. D acu kan, akken diɣ ad tettwaqbel Isṭunya di terbaɛt-agi n tmura n Tuṛuft wukud tebɣa ad tettekki, tewwi-d fell-as ula d nettat ad tqader izerfan n wemdan d yizerfan n tutlayin ay ttmeslayen di tmurt-is, dɣa amagrad-agi ad aɣ-yedǧ ad nẓer amek ay tqeddec Isṭunya akken ad as-d-terr azal-is i tutlayt taɣelnawt n tmurt, d wamek ara tqeddec diɣ akken ad teɛdel ger n tutlayin nniḍen merṛa ay ttmeslayen di tmurt-a. Afud igerrzen.

Tagnit[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Ger n yiseggasen n 1940 d 1991, d Tadukli Tasuvyatit ay yetṭfen Isṭunya, ala kan ger n yiseggasen 1941 d 1944, asmi ay d-kecmen Yinaziyen n Lalman ɣer tmurt-a. D acu kan, asmi ay tebda thezzel (affaiblir) Tdukli Tasuvyatit, yebda leḥkem yettbeddil afus di tmura ay teḥkem tneggarut-agi, yernu tisertiyin tisuvyatiyin n peristroika* akk d glasnost* snernant ifadden i yegduden isuvyatiyen akken ad ssutren ugar n tlelli. Dɣa yessaweḍ wanect-a ɣer ɣellu n Tdukli Tasuvyatit di 1991 yernu yuɣal-as-d uzarug-is (indépedance) i Isṭunya i deg ay beddlent tzemmar iḥekmen tamurt.

[*Perestroika : D tasertit ay d-yessebded uselway asuvyati, Mixail Gorbatcev, akken ad yeg tisemmeskal (réformes) i udabu asuvyati, i tdamsa n tmurt akken ad nnernint, yernu diɣ i lmend n ubeddel n wamek ttxemmimen Yisuvyatiyen akken ad zemren ad snernin tamurt-nsen.

Glasnost : d tasertit n tallit n perestroika ay d-yessebded diɣ Gorbatcev akken ad yerr yis-s kra n wayen xeddmen yemḍebbren isuvyatiyen d afrawan (transparent), yezmer ad t-iẓer wegdud.].

Yuɣ lḥal, abeddel ameqqran am wa [ay d-yeɣlin deg yiwet kan n teswiɛt], yella yewɛeṛ ɣef Isṭunya ad taɣ yid-s tanumi. Dɣa abeddel-agi yemxallaf wamek ay iḥuza imezdaɣen n Isṭunya akken mxallafent tmiwa (tamaneɣt n tmurt Talinn akk d Ugafa agmuḍan -nord-est n tmurt) d wakken mxallafen diɣ yinurar n leqdic di tmurt (ɣef umedya : tibankiwin -banques- ma nquren-itent ɣer leqdic deg yemɣizen -mines), yernu yemxallaf diɣ wamek ay iḥuza ubeddel-agi igduden yemxallafen yettidiren di Isṭunta, am Yisṭuniyen akk d Yirusiyen. Di ɛecṛa n yiseggasen-agi ineggura, tisnaddanin (statistiques) n yimezdaɣen n Isṭunya beddlent aṭas u yennerna citṭ wanect ay yellan n Yisṭuniyen di tmurt-nsen [ugar n wanect ay nnernan yegduden nniḍen yettidiren di Isṭunya]. D acu kan, addun (recensement) n useggas n 2000 yesskan-d d akken igduden merṛa n Isṭunya neqsen ɣef wakken llan zik-nni. Dɣa mbeɛd tella Isṭunya tesɛa 1.565.000 n yimezdaɣen, tuɣal deg useggas n 2000 tesɛɛa kan 1.361.000 n yimezdaɣen, yernu wid ur nelli ara d Isṭuniyen di tmurt-a neqsen-d ɣer 459.000 n yemdanen (32,1 % seg yimezdaɣen n tmurt). Ma d Irusiyen n Isṭunya neqsen s 25 %. Tuɣ, ayen akk yessawḍen s anect-a, netta d addukel n ssebbat yemxallafen, gar-asent tuffɣa n waṭas n yimezdaɣen ɣer lberṛani, anqas ay neqsen wid ay d-yettlalen akk d unnerni d wanqas n yegduden yemxallafen yettidiren di tmurt-a.

D acu kan, ayen igan amgerrad-agi (lxilaf) ger yegduden yettidiren di tmurt-a d tutlayt tayemmat, maci d ayen nniḍen, imi tutlayt d nettat ay yettaken azal i wemdan di Isṭinya n wass-a. Dɣa d tutlayt ay d-yellan d abrid i seg ay d-tewwi ɣef wemdan ad iɛeddi akken ad yaweḍ ɣer rrbeḥ u ad yesɛu azal di tmetti, yernu d tin ay yettaldin tiwwura i wemdan akken ad yili d win ara yafen iman-is ama seg yidis n uxeddim, ama seg yidis n tedrimt. Di tallit tasuvyatit, yeqdec udabu akken ad yerr tarusit d nettat kan ay d tutlayt i yes tlehḥu tmurt, dɣa ass-a, mi akka ay tewwi Isṭunya azarug-is, anect-a yexleq-d uguren i wid yessnen kan tutlayt tarusit. Nnig waya, yeḍfer diɣ udabu arusi yiwet n tsertit n usselmed ay yesseqdec kan di Isṭunya, d tin n usseqdec n trusit akk d tisṭunit d tutlayin n usselmed, d acu kan, yal yiwet deg-sen qqaren-tt kan deg yiɣerbazen-is, dɣa d anect-nni diɣ ay yessawḍen ad d-yexleq snat n trebbaɛ yeɣran, d acu kan, ur zmirent ara ad msefhament wagar-asent imi ur ttmeslayent yiwet n tutlayt, ur sɛint yiwen n yedles. Dɣa d anect-nni ay yessawḍen ad tuɣal tmetti tisṭunit akken tella ass-a am wakken ay d-llant diɣ waṭas n ssebbat nniḍen ay yesmeɣren amgerrad ger n snat-agi n trebbaɛ :

Timiwa i deg tettidir yal tarbaɛt : Wid yettmeslayen tarusit, tudet deg-sen d arraw n wid ay d-yunagen ɣer Isṭunya si tmiwa nniḍen n Tdukli Tasuvyatit yernu amur meqqren deg-sen di temdinin ay ttidiren neɣ di tmiwa n Ugafa agmuḍan (nord-est) n Isṭunya. Aṭas seg-sen ay yettidiren di Tallinn [tamaneɣt n tmurt] akk d tmiwa ay d-yezzin fell-as (Harjumaa), u llant tirebbaɛ nniḍen timecṭaḥ seg wid yettmeslayen tarusit, ttidiren di tmiwa nniḍen, d acu kan, 90% seg-sen di temdinin ay zedɣen yernu anect-a yennerna seg wasmi ay ffɣen yiserdasen Isuvyatiyen (sakin Irusiyen) si Isṭunya.

Inurar n leqdic i deg txeddem yal tarbaɛt : di tallit n perestroika, Irusiyen n Isṭunya llan qeddcen di tkebbaniyin yettaɣen, znuzuyent, llan ssekcamen-d u ssuffuɣen sselɛa si Isṭunya, am wakken ay llan qeddcen di tkebbaniyin tisuvyatiyin tiqburin ay yuɣalen ur a d-ssekcament ara aṭas imir-n. Nnig waya, llan Yirusiyen-agi diɣ mazal-iten tteklen ɣef leɛnaya n unabaḍ (gouvernement) n Musku, xas ulamma aneggaru-ya ur d-iqqim wara wayen ay yella yezmer ad asen-t-yeg akken ad ten-iɛiwen asmi tebda tettbeddil tegnit yernu tella tteddu Tdukli Tasuvyatit akken ad teɣli. Anect-a yessehzel (affaiblir) mliḥ tanezzawt-nsen (commerce) akk d Rusya, yernu ayen akken d-xeddmen teɣli yis-s ula di Isṭunya, ur yezmir ad yenz am zik di tmurt-a i ɣer d-tekcem tdamsa tamaynut, d anect-nni ay tessawḍen Irusiyen n Isṭunya ad uɣalen di rrif seg yidis n tdamsa u ad ttwaɛezlen di tmurt-a. Nnig waya, yiwet si ssebbat meqqren ay yessawḍen diɣ Irusiyen ad ɣlin di Isṭunya nettat d lqella n tmusni n tutlayt tisṭunit ɣur-sen, dɣa d anect-nni ay sen-ireglen abrid akken ad znuzuyen u ad ttaɣen akk d Yisṭuniyen, am wakken diɣ lqella n tmusni-nsen di tutlayin tiberṛaniyin tkemmel-asen, imi anect-a yerra-ten ur zmiren ad sseftin (investir) idrimen di lberṛani, ur tezmir ad ten-id-tṣaḥ tallalt taberṛanit. Dɣa yuɣal win yebɣan ad t-id-iṣaḥ leqdic, tewwi-d fell-as ad yissin mliḥ tutlayin nniḍen menɣir tarusit.

Tasertit n tutlayin[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Tasertit n tutlayin ay d-tewwi Isṭunya di ɛecṛa n yiseggasen-agi ineggura nezmer ad tt-nebḍu ɣef tlata n talliyin, ɣef leḥsab n wemxallef ay mxallafen yeswiyen (buts) imeqqranen n Isṭunya di yal tallit. Tallit tamenzut tebda-d di tgara n yiseggasen n 1980 akk d tezwara n yiseggasen n 1990, asmi ay d-xelqent tsertiyin n glasnost akk d perestroika tagnit i deg ara d as-d-yuɣal uzarug-is i Isṭunya di 1991. Tallit tis snat tebda-d asmi ay yefren wegdud isṭuni tamenḍawt (constition) tamaynut n tmurt-is di 1992, dɣa ayen ay d-yeddan di tmenḍawt-a (lebni n tmurt, aḥraz n yizerfan n wemdan, atg.) d ayen ay d-icerḍen ɣef Isṭunya ad d-tessebded tasertit n tutlayin d tamaynut yernu telha. Yuɣ lḥal, simmal yettaǧhad uzarug (souverainenté) n Isṭunya, simmal tqeddec deg yinurar n tugdut, n tdamsa, n tedrimt akk d laman akken ad tekcem ɣer terbaɛt n tmura tutrimin (tiɣerbiyin) u ad taf iman-is gar-asent. Di tgara n yiseggasen n 1990, d anect-a dɣa ay yuɣalen d iswi ameqqran n Isṭunya ay yedǧan timsal nniḍen n tmetti ur nesɛi ara azal meqqren, yernu abeddel-agi meqqren di tɣawsiwin n tmurt d ayen ara d aɣ-yedǧen ad d-nini d akken yeldi-yas tawwurt i yiwet n tallit d tamaynut di tsertit n tutlayin n Isṭunya, d tin ay d tallit tis tlata.

Tinwit (amendement) n tmenḍawt ay yerran tutlayt tisṭunit d tutlayt taɣelnawt di Isṭunya d tin ay d-sbedden deg wass n 6 Dujembeṛ 1988, di tallit i deg mazal Isṭunya d tigdida di Tdukli Tasuvyatit. Ma deg wass n 18 Yennayer 1989, tlata n yiseggasen uqbel ma tewwi azarug-is, yessebded-d usuvyat ameqqran n Isṭunya yiwen n usaḍuf (lqanun) amaynut ɣef tutlayin, d asaḍuf ay d-yellan kan si leɛḍil, akken ad tesɛeddi yis-s Isṭunya tallit n ubeddel. Xas ulamma di tallit-nni n unnefsusi wid yebɣan ad tawi tmurt-nsen azarug fuṛsen tagnit rran tisṭunit d nettat ay d tutlayt tamenṣabt tawḥidt di Isṭunya, iswi n wanect-a di tidet netta d asnerni n wazal n tutlayt tisṭunit akken ad tuɣal am nettat am trusit di tegduda-yagi yellan tettidir ussan-is ineggura di Tdukli Tasuvyatit. Dɣa yecreḍ-d usaḍuf-nni amaynut d akken kra n yiqeddacen iqeddcen di kra n yinurar tewwi-d fell-asen ad issinen mliḥ ama d tisṭunit, ama d tarusit, u ma yessen yiwen 800 kan n wawalen, anect-a yezmer ad t-iqam akken ad tt-isellek. Yuɣ lḥal, mi iga unabaḍ isṭuni aya, yella yessaram ad yefru ugur-nni i deg tarbaɛt yeɣran s tisṭunit ur tezmir ara ad temsefham d tin yeɣran s trusit yernu akken ad yessiweḍ leqdic-agi s iswi-yines, yefka unabaḍ (gouvernement) isṭuni ṛebɛa n yiseggasen i yiman-is i deg yessefra ad yesselḥu tamurt am wakka, s snat n tutlayin alamma d 1 Fuṛar 1993, d acu kan, ikemmel iqeddec unabaḍ s usaḍuf-agi alammi d 1995, asmi ay yefren asaḍuf amaynut n tutlayin. Imi di tallit-agi tamenzut, ayen iceɣben Isṭuniyen netta d aẓayer (staut) n tisṭunit di tmurt-is sdat n tutlayt tarusit ay iǧehden, timsal yeqqnen s asnerni n tutlayt tisṭunit akk d usselmed-ines llan twalin-tent imir-n ur sɛint azal meqqren. Asadu'f n 1989 yesseǧhed-as amkan-is i tisṭunit ay yettusemman d tutlayt tamenṣabt n ddewla, nnig waya, rnan Yisṭuniyen gan-d isuḍaf imecṭaḥ nniḍen s idis n usaḍuf-a ameqqran akken ad rnun ad ḥerzen amkan n tutlayt-nsen u ad tt-rren d nettat ay d tutlayt yernan akk tutlayin nniḍen n Isṭunya, ladɣa tarusit. Asaḍuf n 1989 yedǧa diɣ ad d-nnulfun ttawilat n teɣwalt (communications) yesseqdacen tisṭunit, akken ad yedǧ Isṭuniyen ad ttemselɣun (communiquer) s tutlayt-nsen.

D acu kan, asaḍuf-agi yefka-yas izerfan-is diɣ i yal aterras (individu) di tmurt, ladɣa i wid ur nettmeslay ara tisṭunit, dɣa uɣalen wigi ttalasen ur sseqdacen ara tisṭunit akk d ddewla yernu zemren ad d-xedmen lekwaɣeḍ-nsen s trusit. Amagrad wis 3 n usaḍuf-agi yeqqar-d d akken (t)aterras(t) ur nettmeslay ara tisṭunit yettalas/tettalas ad yesselḥu/tesselḥu lumuṛ-is s trusit di tsuda (institutions) n ddewla akk d unabaḍ, akk d tsuda, tikebbaniyin d tuddsiwin (organisations) n Tegduda Tanemlayt Tasuvyatit n Isṭunya. Asaḍuf-agi yedǧa diɣ ula d asselmed s tutlayt tarusit ad ikemmel, dɣa nezmer ad d-nini d akken asaḍuf-a yeḥrez tarusit u yefka-yas tamkant i yiman-is di tmurt n Isṭunya, d acu kan, yesselha diɣ s waṭas amkan n tutlayt tisṭunit.

Yella-d diɣ di tallit-nni usaḍuf i lmend n weḥraz n tdersiyin (minorités) nniḍen, dɣa d anect-nni ara tent-yedǧen ad sɛunt iɣerbazen s tutlayinnsent. Asadu'f-agi yedǧa diɣ ad d-ilin wahilen (programmes) n rṛadyu d tilibizyu s tutlayin n tdersiyin timecṭaḥ n Isṭunya u ad d-ilint ula d tisuda akk d trebbaɛ tidelsanin ara iqedcen i lmend n weḥraz n yedles n yegduden-agi. Asadu'f-agi d win ay d-yewwin abaɣur (lfayda) meqqren i yegduden nniḍen imecṭaḥ nniḍen n Isṭunya, menɣir Irusiyen, imi igduden-a werǧin sɛin izerfan idelsanen di tallit tasuvyatit. Asaḍuf-agi ihi yedǧa tidersiyin timecṭaḥ (ad ɛiwdent) ad ldint iɣerbazen akk d tdusa-nsent, yernu i tikkelt tamenzut deg umezruy, yesteɛṛef unabaḍ isṭuni s tdersiyin timecṭaḥ nniḍen akken ay yesteɛṛef s Yirusiyen, dɣa yeɛdel ger n yegduden merṛa yettidiren di tmurt-is yernu yefka-yasen llsas ibedden ɣef usaḍuf (lqanun) akken ad snernin iman-nsen (ɣef umedya uɣalen merṛa ttalasen ad sseɣren igerdan-nsen s tutlayin-nsen).

Uɣalen ihi Yirusiyen ttalasen kan ad sqedcen tutlayt-nsen deg wayen ḥwaǧen, am nitni am yegduden nniḍen di Isṭunya, yernu anect-a yekkes seg wallaɣen n medden tikta-nni n tesnakta (idéologie) ay yettwalin d akken d tarusit ay ilaqen ad tili d tutlayt i yes ara ttemsefhamen yegduden wagar-asen neɣ diɣ, takti-nni ay yettwalin d akken tidersiyin nniḍen tewwi-d ad ttmeslayent dǧent akk tutlayin-nsent akken ad ttmeslayent tarusit, d tikta i yes yella iqeddec zik unabaḍ asuvyati. D acu kan, xas tenqes tezmert n trusit di Isṭunya, mazal sɛan Yirusiyen di tmurt-a izerfan i yes ifen tidersiyin nniḍen di tmurt-a. Yuɣ lḥal, lemmer ad nuɣal ɣer tidet, asaḍuf n tutlayin n 1989 ur d-igli ara s ubeddel ameqqran di tegnit i deg llant tutlayin uqbel n yimir-n, wanag yedǧa tagnit akken tella u yeḍmen-asen kan i yegduden n tmurt ad lemmden tutlayin-nsen deg uɣerbaz, am wakken ara tesɛu tisṭunit aẓayer ɛlayen ɣer Yisṭuniyen u ad tesɛu trusit aẓayer ɛlayen ɣer Yirusiyen. Asadu'f n tutlayin n 1989 yefka-yas i tisṭunit aẓayer n tutlayt taɣelnawt, d tutlayt n ddewla akk d tedbelt (administration) yernu d tin i yes ara yettmeslay weḥric meqqren di tmetti, xas ulamma nettat deg wennar, yerra-tt umezruy d tutlayt tameddarsut (minoritaires) di tmurt-is, imi di tilawt (en réalité). Dɣa xas tuɣal tisṭunit d tutlayt taɣelnawt, maci d nettat ay d tutlayt ay izerɛen mliḥ di tmurt, maci d nettat ay fehhmen akk medden : di lweqt i deg amur meqqren seg yimezdaɣen n Isṭunya zemren ad tt-sellken s trusit, ala kan amur amecṭuḥ seg yimezdaɣen n Isṭunya ur nelli ara d Isṭuniyen ay yessnen tisṭunit akken ilaq.

Dɣa assebded n usaḍuf-agi yeldi-d tiwwura akken ad beddlent tzemmar n tmurt ifassen, u ad d-yeglu wanect-a s tlalit n tedɣert (élite) tamaynut di Isṭunya. Nnig waya, imi ulac aṭas n tɣawsiwin ay ibeddlen ɣef wid yettmeslayen tarusit di tmurt-a (imi tamusni n tisṭunit tettwacreḍ-d kan seg weḥric amecṭuḥ seg-sen), tkemmel lqella n wemsefham ger n Yisṭuniyen akk d Yirusiyen, yernu anect-a yegla-d s wuguren nniḍen ay yeldin tiwwura i tmura tiberṛaniyin akken ad d-grent iman-nsent di tɣawsiwin n tidaxliyin n Isṭunya. Imi ahilen (programmes) n unabaḍ n yimir-n ssulin kan leḥsabat-nsen ɣer lqerb di lweqt i deg dǧan timsal i ɣef ilaq ad ssalin leḥsabat ɣer lbeɛd, am usselmed akk d unekcum n tmurt di trebbaɛ tigraɣlanin, tḥulfa Isṭunya d akken tewwi-d fell-as, di tegnit-agi n wuguren ay d-ilulen, ad teg aḥurif nniḍen yifen amenzu-nni akken ad tesselhu tagnit n tutlayin di Isṭunya.

Akken ad tessiweḍ Isṭunya s iswiyen-yines deg wayen yerzan asaḍuf-nni n tutlayin, tessebded-d acḥal n tsuda di tedbelt (administration). Akken ad d-yelhu unabaḍ d usselmed n tisṭunit i Yirusiyen imeqqranen yettidiren di Isṭunya, yessebded-d, s yiwen n usaḍuf deg wass n 13 Meɣres 1989, yiwen n useqqamu d uslig (spécial) umi isemma Ammas n Tutlayt Tisṭunit. Ma deg wass n 31 Meɣres 1989, terna tessebded-d Isṭunya Aseqqamu n Weḥraz n Tutlayt. Asmi ay d-yelfa d akken aseqqamu-ya ur d-yewwi ara abaɣur (lfayda) deg wayen yerzan asnas (application) n usaḍuf-nni n tutlayin, yessebded-d unabaḍ deg wass n 23 Nwembeṛ 1990, Aseqqamu n Tutlayt Taɣelnawt, i lmend n waya. Yuɣal Useqqamu-yagi d udus (organisme) ameqqran akk di tmurt ay d-yelhan d tɣawsiwin n tutlayt di Isṭunya, dɣa yelha-d s umata d temsal n usseqdec n tutlayt tisṭunit di Isṭunya akk d usselmed-ines s yisem-is d tutlayt tayemmat neɣ d tutlayt tis snat i yimezdaɣen n Isṭunya, am wakken diɣ ay yettɛawan Useqqamu n Tutlayt Taɣelnawt tutlayin timeddursa nniḍen u yelha-d d wasnas n yisuḍaf ay tent-yerzan. Iswiyen imeqqranen n Useqqamu-yagi nitni d assebded n tsertiyin n tutlayt akk d yiɣawasen (plans) i lmend n wesnerni n tutlayt, u yekcem deg waya weḍfar n wesnas n Usaḍuf n Tutlayin, asselhu n tarrayin (méthodes) n usselmed, aḍfar leqdicat yeqqnen ɣer tmawalt (léxique) d yismawen usligen (noms propres) akk d yeḍfar n leqdicat yeqqnen ɣer tesnilsit tamettit (sociolinguiste). D acu kan, di 1997, yuɣal Useqqamu-yagi d udus kan yettqaraɛen ma yella iteddu mliḥ leqdic ɣef tutlayt neɣ ala.

Di Yulyu n 1993, yessebded-d uselway n Isṭunya Lennart Meri ayen umi isemma Tadabut Timdewweṛt n Uselway (Table Ronde Présidentielle), d agraw ameɣlal (permanent) i deg ay d-ttemlilin yigensasen (représentants) n tdersiyin n tmurt d wid ur nesɛi ara taɣlent (nationalité) tisṭunit akk d yimaslaḍen n wemni (membres du parlement) n Isṭunya i lmend n wembaddel n leṛyuy akk d ussenqes n teɛdawt ger n trebbaɛ tisertiyin yemxallafen n yegduden yettidiren di tmurt-a.

Tiɣawsiwin yelhan akk d tid n d iri i yes d-yegla usaḍuf n tutlayin amezwaru d tid ay yuɣalen ttwaḍfarent s lqerb. Asmi ay walan Yisṭuniyen d akken tallit n uɛeddi si tegnit ɣer tayeḍ deg wayen yerzan tutlayin tfuk, yernu assebded n tmenḍawt tisṭunit tamaynut di 1992 yecreḍ-d ad tbeddel tegnit n tutlayin di Isṭunya, ɛezmen ihi Yisṭuniyen ad d-sbedden asaḍuf n tutlayin amaynut ara d-yemyezgen d tallit-agi ay d-ikecmen. I lmend n waya, ɛawden ssulin Yisṭuniyen leḥsabat-nsen deg wayen yerzan amek ara ssemyezwaren iswiyen-nsen deg wayen yerzan tasertit-nsen n tutlayin, dɣa imi iswi n Isṭunya n yimir-n netta d lebni n tmurt i uzekka, fernen yemḍebbren ad as-fken i tmurt yiwet kan n tutlayt ara icerken akk imezdaɣen-is, d tin i yes ara tebnu tmurt, dɣa rran tisṭunit d tutlayt tamenzut i wid yettmeslayen tisṭunit yernu d tutlauyt tis snat i wid ur tt-nettmeslay ara. Imi ay tuɣal tisṭunit d tutlayt n ddewla akk d tin n Yisṭuniyen ay d-yekkren yis-s, tewwi-d ad sqeɛden tutlayt-a, ad as-gen ilugan yernu ad tt-rren d tutlayt tizeɣt (standard) akken ad tezmer ad tuɣal d tutlayt i yes ara tlehḥu ddewla. Nnig waya, tewwi-d diɣ ɣef ddewla ad tqabel yiwet n tegnit iṣeɛben i deg ay tebɣa ad tesnerni tutlayt tisṭunit akken ad tt-terr d tutlayt ara fehhmen akk yimezdaɣen n tmurt, ula d wid ur tt-nettmeslay ara (ladɣa Irusiyen), dɣa tewwi-d ad txemmem Isṭunya ɣef wamek ara d asen-tesselmed tutlayt tisṭunit i yineggura-ya, ladɣa imi ay izemren ad ḥulfun d akken almad n tutlayt tisṭunit s yisem-is d tutlayt-nsen tis snat, d taɛkemt kan ara d asen-d-yernu.

Annar wis sin yesɛan azal meqqren i ɣef d-tewwi ad xemmem i usebded n usaḍuf amaynut n tutlayin netta d win n yeqqnen ɣer tsertit n usselmed n tutlayin tiberṛaniyin, ladɣa deg wayen yerzan almad-nsent akk d usseqdec-nsent di kra n yinurar n leqdic (takkast -douane-, iqeddicen yeqqnen ɣer tmerrayt -tourisme-, atg.). Dɣa ma mazal Isṭunya ur teẓwir ara deg yinurar-agi, ur tettazmar ara ad tekcem u ad taf iman-is di trebbaɛ tigraɣlanin n laman (am Temsisa Taṭlasit -OTAN) neɣ tirebbaɛ tudmisin (économiques) am Tdukli Tuṛufit (Union Européenne), dɣa ilaq ɣef tmurt-a ad teẓwer akken ad d-tessewjed iman-is akken ilaq deg yinurar n tmerrayt akk d tnezzawt (commerce) tagraɣlant.

Ma d annar wis tlata, d win yeqqnen s assebded n weḥkim (contrôle, régulation) deg wayen yerzan assaɣen (ralations) n tezmert yellan ger n tutlayin timeddursa akk d usselmed-nsent. Dɣa llan sin n leqdicat ay ilaqen ad ttwaxedmen deg wennar-agi : tukksa n unagraw (système) ay d-yettwaweṛten si tallit tasuvyatit, win i deg ala kan d tarusit ay yettusexdamen i lmend n usselḥu n tmurt yernu igduden nniḍen tewwi-d fell-asen ad dǧen akk tutlayin-nsen akken ad ddmen tarusit, ladɣa imi anagraw-agi yuɣal ass-a d ssebba i unulfu n yemgerraden (conflits) ger n trebbaɛ [ɣef umedya, wid yessnen ala kan tarusit, atni ass-a ttwaɛezlen, yernu beɛden ɣef wakk inurar imaynuten n leqdic di Isṭunya], am wakken ay ilaq ad d-yexleq unabaḍ tagnit i deg tidersiyin timecṭaḥ nniḍen, meḥsub wid ur nelli d Iṣtuniyen wala d Irusiyen, ad zemrent ula d nitenti ad ḥerzent tutlayin akk d yidelsan-nsent. Dɣa deg wayen yerzan anect-a, acḥal d abrid ay tɛawen ddewla tirebbaɛ-agi s yedrimen akken ad gen aṭas n yiqeddicen idelsanen neɣ ɣef tutlayin-nsen. D acu kan, tamsalt-nni tamenzut ay d-nebder, tin yerzan Irusiyen akk d leqdic n unabaḍ akken ad asen-yessiɣ tanumi d tegnit-agi tamaynut d ayen yeḥwaǧen tazmert tasertit tameqqrant akk d tallalt (lemɛawna) taberṛanit.

Ihi ɣef llsas n yeswiyen-agi akk ay d-yessebded unabaḍ isṭuni tasertit-is tamaynut n tutlayin i deg llan wugar n 70 n yisuḍaf, ama d wid ay d-yeddan di tmenḍawt neɣ d isuḍaf akk d warraten (actes) nniḍen imecṭaḥ ay d-iḍefren sakin. Yuɣ lḥal, llsas ameqqran n yisuḍaf n Isṭunya netta d tamenḍawt (constitution) yernu taneggarut-agi tettwafren deg wass n 28 Yunyu 1992 u tebda tqeddec tmurt yis-s deg wass n 3 Yulyu 1992. Tamenḍawt-a tesdukel ama d ansay (tradition) n yisuḍaf isṭuniyen n wasmi ay tewwi Isṭunya azarug-is (indépendance) amenzu [ger n 1920 d 1940], ama d isuḍaf ay d-tewwi ad ten-id-ternu tmurt ɣef idra n ubeddel n tegnit tagraɣlant. Tamenḍawt-agi teqqar-d d akken Isṭunya d Awanek-aɣlan (Etat-nation) yernu d Awanek (ddewla) yedduklen seg yidis n tsertit (Amagrad 2), akka i wakken ur ttazmaren ara yegduden n tmurt-agi ad d-gen timiwa tifulmanin (autonomes) i yiman-nsen. Dɣa ayen tessefra ad t-teg Isṭunya i lmend n lebni n tmurt s tsertit-agi-yines tamaynut n tutlayin, meḥsub assebded n tutlayt ara icerken akk imezdaɣen n tmurt akk d wethelli di tutlayin timeddursa nniḍen d ayen diɣ ay d-tebder ula d tamenḍawt n tmurt, yernu nezmer ad ten-id-nessegzel am wakka :

  • Tutlayt ara yeduklen imezdaɣen n Isṭunya deg wakal akk n tmurt nettat d tutlayt tisṭunit.
  • Tidersiyin ttalasent ad issinent snat n tutlayin, tisṭunit -tutlayt taɣelnawt- akk d tutlayin-nsent timeddursa.

Yuɣ lḥal, nezmer ad d-nini d akken isuḍaf yerzan tutlayt zgan ttbeddilen di Isṭunya yernu d tiɣawsiwin tisertiyin n daxel n tmurt akk d lḥeṛs ara d-sseḥṛasent tmura tiberṛaniyin ay yedǧan abeddel-agi ad d-yili. Dɣa, xas ma yella tamenḍawt di 1992 ay tt-id-sbedden, maca asaḍuf amaynut n tutlayin ur t-id-sbedden ara alammi d 1995. Tuɣ, isuḍaf n tutlayt akk d tiqqermi (citoyenneté) n 1995 ldint tiwwura i werkad n tmetti akk d lebni n tmurt iǧehden, yernu isuḍaf-agi ur smenyafen ula d yiwen n wegdud ɣef wayeḍ di Isṭunya wanag ttusqedcen kan d allal i lmend n wesdukel n yimezdaɣen merṛa n tmurt. Qrib yal amdan yettidiren s wudem n usaḍuf (légalement) di Isṭunya yettalas ad yessuter u ad t-id-tṣaḥ teɣlent (nationalité) tisṭunit, akken yebɣu yili laṣel-is yernu anect-a akk yesskan-d d akken abeddel n tmetti tisṭunit d win ara tt-yettawin deg webrid n tugdut, n tullya akk d uqader n yizefan n wemdan.

D acu kan, tutlayt tisṭunit n wass-a yedǧa-tt zzman ɣer deffir deg wayen yerzan taknussna (technologie). Timacinin n tsuqilt (machines de traduction) akk d wahilen n weɛqal n wawal melmi kan ay d-yebda unadi fell-asen akken ad ten-id-xedmen, iseɣẓanen (logiciels) s tisṭunit mazal-iten qlilit yernu ayen ay d-yeffɣen yagi deg wennar-a qlil kan anda ay yettuseqdac yernu ilaq ad d-nini d akken d anabaḍ ur d anabaḍ ay yessawḍen ɣer tegnit-agi umi ay werǧin yefka azal i temsalt-a. D acu kan, Aseqqamu n Tutlayt Tisṭunit yessebded-d asenfar (projet) i lmend n wesnerni n tutlayt tisṭunit deg useggas n 2001, u yekcem leqdic-agi di leqdicat n Useggas Uṛufi n Tutlayin, dɣa atan yekkat Useqqamu ass-a akken ad d-yessaki medden akk d trebbaɛ ay terza temsalt ɣef tḍullit (nécéssité) n tifin n tifrat i lexṣaṣ n ttawil atrar (moderne) s tutlayt tisṭunit akk d wayen ilaqen ad yettwaxdem i lmend n wesnerni n tisṭunit deg wennar-agi.

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