Tafsut n Imaziɣen

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Ass n 20 ibrir, d amulli n tefsut imaziɣen, amulli n tefsut n tlelli. D yiwen wass i deg a nesfugel i tikkelt tis 25 tadyant n imaziɣen. Anwa-t weqbayli ur nesli neɣ ur nessin tafsut n imaziɣen ? Anwa-t umaziɣ im’ ur yiwiḍ yissel? Wa yecfa wa ala akken it-iccenu Abranis deg yiwet si tezlatin-is maca, tura, seg weqrur-nni amecṭuḥ alma d amɣar-nni acaraf, ssnen awk anamek-is uzemz-a*. Azekka daɣen, a nemyager akk d yiman-neɣ, akk d weḥric-a axatar deg umezruy azi* n Tferka n ugafa.

Mačči d asfugel iɣ-d-yeggran ass-a, ur ɣ-yeţţak wul i waya acku gran-aɣ-n yiswan wuɣur mazal werɛad nessaweḍ, yeggra-ɣ-n webrid i mazal ur ifuk ara, ggrant-aɣ-n ccfayat ur neḥriz akken iwata...teggra-yaɣ-n tutlayt tamaziɣt i yuɣalen amzun d taǧǧalt. Ggrant-aɣ-n terwiḥin n wid yeţwanɣan di tefsut taberkant. Widak-nni i d-yekkren di 1980 d widak i d-yekkren di 2001 yiwen n yiri nsen. Timesbaniyin-nni i yeḍran di tmurt n leqbayel send iḍelli, iḍelli neɣ ass-a, ţţakent-ed udem n weqbayli i yerɣan af tilelli. Ayen awk wiɣer id-nessaweḍ ass-a,123 n imeɣrasen i nɣan iserdasen d isultiyen n udabu azzayri aɛrab inselmizri akk d ibuxusen-is, yesban-aɣ-d dakken: ger yiḍelli d wass-a, ulac dacu i ibeddlen fell-aɣ. Imi mazal neqqen arrac nneɣ am yizan, teţwaḥreṣ ugar n yiḍelli. « Aman-nni yeččuren d ḥellejɣar d nutni d nutni, bedlen-asen kan acemmux » Tafsut n imaziɣen mačči kan akka i ţ-lul-ed ger yiḍ d wass: dayen wiɣer i d-nessaweḍ, dayen awk id-yekkan zdat-es i ţ-id-ismentsen.

Idim mazal tuɣ yeḥma ass mi yeţwakkes usarag n (Dda lmulud) Mulud At Mɛammer af tmedyazt taqburt n yeqbayliyen(asarag-a tuɣ teţţuhega-n i wass n 10 meɣres), yugi-ţ udabu azzayri, teţwakkes kan akka...d amnukal n ugerzu n Tizi-Wezzu s yiman-is i s-ţ-yennan i dda Lmulud. Si tal tama, di yal adrum, bdan medden ţţarran nnehtat si cayaḍ i sen-iserkeb udabu azzayri, bdan ţţiwzagen waman...aseqqi yemmar-ed akken yerɣa. Meḥyaf-nni i isik Bu-iledyen af yeqbayliyen yezzi-d af bab-is, tefɣ-ed tiɣri n wid yugin ddel d uzaglu. Dɣa tetṭerḍeq af tikkelt, temmar-ed af yiwin yidis. Krim Belqasem d yiwen seg yiḍan n “El-Moudjahed“ i s-d-itekkan i dda lmulud, s rregmat akk d useglef; ira ad yefk iɣil i wat-is: wid-nni iɣ-d-imedlen tiwwura, wid-nni iţţarrayin af wegdud. Tamesbanit tamenzut i d-yellan di Tizi-Wezzu d tin n 11 meɣres 1980, tsembiwel addad(liḥala) n timiren. D inelmaden d tinelmadin n [[Taseddawit Asif Σisi]] d Iḥesnawen i yetṭfen tuɣḍaṭ-a, ur ẓẓrin ara kan dacu i yellan yegguni-ten …

Aɣaram asdawan n wasif ɛisi, mazal-it ar ass-a i wakken a d-yesmekti wid yeţţun, akken a ten-d-yeḥku af yiḍ-nni n 19 yebrir1980 mi d-mkuben iserdasen s yeqjan. D ahmaj i hemjen deg inelmaden d tnelmadin. Acḥal iwin ar lḥebs, acḥal ɛedmen ger-asen... A nekk seg wayaki mebla ma neţţu awk imeɣnasen i s-yefkan udem azedgan i wayen i d-yeḍran. Ur ntekk ara kan akka ma yella ur d-nudir irgazen am Ɛebbuṭ, Lunawsi, Mezdad, Saɛdi, Ferḥat Mhenni, Zituni... d yawk arrac imaziɣen i iseblen iman-nsen i wakken tadyant n 20 Yebrir a ţ-aweḍ ar tal taddart di tmurt n Yeqbayliyen. Aseggas yezzi af waya, si tama n Bgayet iɣ-d-tekka taɣrit n Imaziɣen tikkelt-a...Tafsut n 1981 Ilmeẓyen d telmeẓyin n din ččan aḥlalas n udabu azzayri, awal nsen yiwen: werǧin ad teḥlelli-d tugduţ i yeqbayliyen

Seg wass-nni, Iqbayliyen fkan awal, ggulen dakken tineţţi nsen ur tnegger u s deffir-sen ḍefren-d imaziɣen s umata. Ulayɣer a nesṭuqet awal, d timuggiyin i asenfar nneɣ. Imal n yeqbayliyen atan di tmurt nsen, iẓuran-nsen ɣzan almi anda yiwen ur yessin…Imal n tutlayt nsen atan ger tarwa-s, atan di tmurt-is, deg urebbi n warraw-is. Talalit n Amussu Adelsan Amaziɣ s tumert medden ay ţ-muggren, ass-nni i yebda umennuɣ af yidles d tutlayt nneɣ yeţţali yeţnerni almi ass-a, ulac win ur nessin xas ula cwiyya n umezruy nneɣ. Tafat iɣ-d-isiɣ Umussu d ajgagal s wiyes nerfreẓ abrid deg wi’ nteddu, nerfed aqerru nneɣ ar igenwan mebla akukru. Ula ma xas ass-a, Amussu yebḍa d icḥricen seg mi kkan ikabaren nnig-es, iswi-s amenzu n win n widak icḥemlen ayla nsen, akal nsen...

Azekka d amulli n wass mi d-tefrari tagut af wid iran seg wul tugduţ d yetṭfen deg iẓuran nsen…amennuɣ simmal irennu, agdud simmal yeţţaki. Ad rnuɣ af wayaki, amennuɣ n imeɣnasen s yimru , tamedyazt d ccna.

Maɛṭub Lwennas seg imezwura i sen-yerran tajmilt i tlawin d yergazen n tefsut imaziɣen, tasfift i d-yessufeɣ kra n wayyuren kann s deffir 20 yebrir anda icennu:

Eḥzen Lwad Ɛisi Mi yebda imenɣi Yewweḍ-iten Lɛesker deg Yiḍ Tuddar slant irkwelli, suwwent ɣer Tizi Kul abrid a yeţfeggiḍ Ur telli d tisselbi, nehwaǧ tilleli, Uqbel aɣ-ḥerren ɣer lhid. Akken nella zik a nili, Ma yella imenɣi, Wi’ mmuten ad yennerni mmi-s. A wid iḥekmen ayenni, ur nelli d ulli, Tamurt iban-d lsas-is. Tamaziɣt ad tennerni …

Ferḥat Mhenni, yeccna tafsut imaziɣen:

Nnif d lḥerma dayen yeḍran Di tefsut n Tizi Wezzu Llan d ilemẓyen d tlemẓyin fɣan-d s iberdan. Nnan-d ala dayen neɛya Si lbaṭel akk d uzaglu ...

Neɣ ayen yeccna Buǧemɛa Agraw :

Timest n 54 tensa di 62 Teggra-d tirgit deg iɣed-nni Tuɣal tecɛel di 80 Tetṭef-iţ-id tideţ n lesnin Ansi i d-isuḍ ubeḥri D leqbayel i izuggiren Mazal-aɣ d imaziɣen … Ma ţţuɣ arrac nneɣ yeɣlin, Nekk mačči d aqbayli

Lwennas d dda Lmulud Mazal-aɣ d imaziɣen Ur neţr’uz ur nkennu Ur nqebbel ara azaglu Mazal-aɣ…mazal-aɣ d imaziɣen ...

Amezruy n Tefsut n Yimaziɣen : D acu yeḍran ?[beddel]

[Tafsut n 1980 deg Tmurt n Leqbayel d tin ay ikecmen deg umezruy (ttarix) n tmaziɣt d win n Ldzayer akk-n ma tella. Deg wussan-nni, ḍrant aṭas n tɣawsiwin s tghawla, d tid ay yuraren ddurh d ameqqran deg tikli i lmend n wakkaz s tmazight deg tmurt-is. Yelha ma nessawel-d ghef way-n yedhran deg Tefsut-nni akk-n ad nefhem xir tidyanin-a. Adhris-a ay d-nuwey d tukkist (extrait) seg "Weghmis n Tedyanin n Tmurt n Leqbayel" ay yura Racid Caker deg tallit-nni u yeffeɣ-d deg tesɣunt (revue) n "Les Temps Modernes" (uṭṭunen 432-433, Yunyu-Ɣuct 1982), akk d tesɣunt Tafsut.]


Ass n lḥedd, 9 Meγres 1980 : Tasdawit n Tizi Wezzu tella tesaa imir-n sin n yiseggasen d wezgen seg wasmi ay tettwaldi yernu yufa-d lḥal yagi tga tlata yisundilen (grèves) imeqranen, aneggaru deg-sen d win ay d-yellan deg gar 17 Tubeṛ d 13 Nwembeṛ 1979. Asunded-nni gan-t γef wugur n ugenses idetti (représentation authentique) n yinelmaden sdaxel n tesdawit. Akabar n Tirni n Weslelli Aγelnaw (FLN) yella la d-yeqqar dakk-n inelmaden ara yesseḥṛasen akk-n ad gen isundilen-a d "imesmaziγen" (berbéristes) neγ d imaṛksiyen imaziγen (u llan qqaren-asen "Bougiots").

Seg yimir-n, iselmaden ay llan ttwalin-ten d imarksiyen, llan ur ten-ttaznen ara ɣer Tizi Wezzu, wanag ttaznen-ten ɣer tesdawit n Sṭif. Ma d iselmaden idzayriyen ay yeghran deg Fransa llan ttqaraaen-ten u tikkwal ssagaden-ten. Yagi, deg way-n iaaddan, adtas n tikkal ur jjin ara ad d-ilint tmeskanin tidelsanin (manifestations culturelles) tidelsanin timazighin deg Tizi Wezzu. Ur jjin ara At Mengellat neɣ Yidir ad cnun, gedlen tamezgunt (pièce de théâtre) n "2000 n yiseggasen n Ṭradh" ay llan tturaren-tt-id s teqbaylit.

Kra n wussan uqbel ma yusa-d Mouloud Mammeri γer tesdawit n Tizi Wezzu akk-n ad d-yeg asarag-is, sneṭḍen yinelmaden inazalen (affiches) deg yiγerban akk-n ad d-xebbren γef way-a. Anemhal n tesdawit (recteur), γas ma yella ur as-yeεjib ara lḥal, yeqbel ad d-yili usarag-nni imi d aseqqamu (comité) n uγaram (cité) n Oued Aïssi ay d-yelhan s tigin n usarag-a yernu aseqqamu-a testeεṛef yes-s tedbelt (administration). D acu kan, aṭas n yinazalen ay d-yettwasγersen. Deg yiḍ n wass n lḥedd d letniyen (γef ttnac n yiḍ), yeγra-as-d yiwen i Mouloud Mammeri, yenna-as dakk-n d netta ay d anemhal n tesdawit n Tizi Wezzu u yenna-as dakk-n asarag-nni-ines yebṭel.


Ass n letniyen 10 Meγres 1980 Azekka-nni taṣ̣ebḥit, Mouloud Mammeri yesteqsa, u d Mass Arab, anemhal (directeur) n tesdawit n Tizi Wezzu s timmad-is ay as-yennan dakk-n maci d netta ay as-d-yeγran yernu asarag-ines ur yettwamneε, ur yettuwexxer. Ɣef tizi n ttnac n wass, Mouloud Mammeri yeqleε seg Ldzayer, yedda id-s Salem Caker d yiwen n unehhaṛ iqeddcen deg CRAPE, la tteddun γer Tizi Wezzu. Mi uwḍen γer Dreε Ben Xedda, γef jjuj, yeḥbes-iten yiwen n wuggug (barrage) n yibulisen (uggug niḍen yella yegguni-ten deg Buxalfa).

Sdeffir ma walan lekwaγeḍ-is, ibulisen uwyen Mouloud Mammeri γer uwali n Tizi Wezzu, u d netta ay as-d-yennan s yimi-s dakk-n asarag-ines (conférence) γer "yisefra iqdimen n teqbaylit" yettwamneε imi ay-a "yezmer ad d-yawi ccwal", am wakk-n ay as-yenna ad yeffeγ seg Tizi Wezzu imir-nni kan. Yuγ lḥal, awali yekcef-d ula d win ay iwekkel akk-n ad as-d-iγer i Mammeri deg yiḍ-nni u ad as-yini dakk-n asarag-is yettwamneε. Wagi d Mass Merabten, d anemhal (directeur) n COUS. Akk-a, Mammeri yeqqel yeẓra dakk-n anemhal n tesdawit ula ay t-yegren deg way-nni. Yuγ lḥal, anemhal n tesdawit akk d umaru amatu (secrétaire général) qqlen nnan-as i Mammeri dakk-n ay-nni yekka-d nnig n tezmert-nsen. Γef ṛṛebεa d wezgen n tmeddit, llan ugar n 1000 n medden ara yettṛajun melmi ara yebdu usarag-nni. Mi ẓran dakk-n yettwamneε, bdan la ten-id-ttalin wurfan, yernu ssefran ad gen timlilit i uzekka-nni, 11 Meγres, γef 9 n tṣ̣ebḥit.


Ass n ttlata 11 Meγres Inelmaden gan tameskant-nsen (manifestation) tamezwarut deg yizenqan n Tizi Wezzu. Γef ttesεa n tṣ̣ebḥit ay mlalen u gar n 10:15 d 12:15, gar n 500 d 700 n yinelmaden ay yelḥan deg yizenqan n Tizi Wezzu, zzin-d sin iberdan γef yizenqan imeqranen n temdint. Tikli teḥbes sdat n Useqqamu Aγelnaw Aγerfan (CNP) n FLN, sdat n twilayt u sdat n tesnawit (lycée) n temdint, u llan refden tiḥucay ay deg d-uran "Idles amaziγ : idles aγerfan", "Awali, Aseqqamu aγelnaw aγerfan, asarag n Mammeri yettwamneε ?", "Ḥebset aqmaḍ n yedles". Uran-d daγen s tefṛensist : "Ad yeγli weqmaḍ" (répression), "Awali, Aseqqamu aγelnaw aγerfan d iqettalen". Ma s tmaziγt uran-d "Tamaziγt d tameslayt-nneγ", "Ad nerreẓ wala ad neknu", "Neεya deg lbaṭel".

Imeẓla (ssrabes) n weqmaḍ (respression) llan ḥedṛen s waṭas dinna : ibulisen, ijadeṛmiyen d yisexsayen (pompiers), d acu kan, ur d-giren ara iman-nsen. Kullec yeḥbes deg temdint yernu medden llan la d-ttḍillin seg ṭṭwaqi n yexxamen. Medden amzun ddan u fkan-asen lḥeqq i yinelmaden-nni, maca ur d-sbanen ara lebγi-nsen akk-n ad ttekkin neγ ad εawnen inelmaden. D acu, llant kra n temγarin nnant-asen d "arrac ijehlen". Deg tmeddit n wass-nni, mlalen yiselmaden idzayriyen n tesdawit n Tizi Wezzu u uran-d aḍris (texte) n yiwet n tsakbabt (pétition), aḍris-nni gan-t d tabṛat yeldin i uneγlaf (ministre) n usselmed aεlayan. Deg weḍris-nsen, iselmaden ur qbilen ara imi ay yettwamneε usarag (conférence) n umeddakel-nsen deg tesdawit, u sḥeṛsen i wakk-n ad tettuqader lḥeṛma n tesdawit (ur qbilen ara imi ara d-keccmen yibulisen γer daxel n tesdawit ...), a m wakk-n ssuttren ad tili tlelli n wawal ladγa deg way-n yerzan idles d yiles amaziγ. Tabṛat-nni zemlen-tt (stenyan-tt) ṛebεin n yiselmaden (ṛebεa yimuren γef xemsa seg yiselmaden idzayriyen yellan qeddcen deg tesdawit n Tizi Wezzu).


Ass n laṛebεa 12 Meγres 1980 Agraw amatu (assemblée générale) n yinelmaden n Tizi Wezzu yura-d yiwet n "tebṛat yeldin i Uselway n Tegduda". Tabṛat-nni ssuffγen-d seg-s luluf n tsukan (copies) u ferqen-tent deg waṭas n yimukan (Ldzayer, Bumerdas, atg.). Tabṛat-a yettwarun s yiles ur nqesseḥ ara aṭas d tin ay deg d-bedren yinelmaden ay-n d-yeqqar werkawal aγelnaw (charte nationale). Daγen, inelmaden bedren-d deg tebṛat-nsen akk ay-n yeḍran deg wussan-nni nnan-d dakk-n iles d yedles imaziγen ttalasen ad ttusnernin, am wakk-n d-ssuttren dakk-n tamaziγt ad teqqel d iles aγelnaw wis sin deg tmurt.

Deg Ldzayer tamaneγt, medden yeslan s way-n ara iḍerrun deg Tizi Wezzu, banen-d amzun ur uminen ara, bitt llan kra kra nnan-d dakk-n ay-a d lekdeb akk yernu ur uminen ara ula s Mouloud Mammeri dakk-n yella. D acu kan, llan kra n medden, qlilit, llan bγan ad gen tameskant (tamesbanit) deg wezniq !


Ass n lexmis 13 Meγres 1980 Iselmaden n Usudu n Tussniwin Tudmisin (institut des Sciences économiques) n Ldzayer tamaneγt) asmi ay ẓran s lexbar, gan tasakbabt (pétition) ay fkan i weγlif (ministère) akk-n ad d-sseknen dakk-n ur qbilen ara amnaε n usarag-nni (conférence) n Mammeri. Aḍris-a zemlen-t (stenyan-t) ṛebεin n yiselmaden, meḥsub tlata n yimuren γef ṛebεa seg yiselmaden idzayriyen (gar-asen wid iqeddcen deg PAGS [akabar amesdukli (parti communiste)] d wid iqeddcen deg tedbelt (administration)]. Deg webrid, gar Budwaw d Tizi Wezzu, amur ameqran deg yigalisen (tiplakin) akk d tseddariyin (abribus) uran deg-sent s ssbiγa : "Tugdut", "Aït Ahmed deg tmurt !", "Ḥebset assenger n yedles !", "FLN amaynut d afaci", "Akk d inmeglayen" (opposants). Tira-a uran-tent deg yiḍ n 12 d 13 Meγres. Medden walan daγen tira am tigi deg Tizi Wezzu akk d yiberdan yettalin γer tuddar deg Tmurt n Leqbayel. Adabu yeεreḍ ad yeffer akk tira-nni s tγawla s ssbiγa tamellalt neγ taweṛdit, deg wass n lexmis, 13 Meγres. Ass-nni daγen ay d-yeffeγ umagrad (article) amezwaru deg lbeṛṛani γef way-n ara iḍerrun deg Tizi Wezzu. Wa d amagrad awezlan ay d-yeffγen deg weγmis afṛensis n Libération, yeḥka-d ay-n yeḍran s tidet deg wass n 11 Meγres. (Mebla ccek, d ay-n ay yejjan akk lejnas ad d-rren lwelha-nsen γer tedyanin-a !).


Ass n ljemεa 14 Meγres 1980 Medden bdan la ttmeslayen γef tira-nni u mxallafen leṛyuy-nsen fell-asen.


Ass n ssebt 15 Meγres 1980 Terza yiwet n tfagla (délégation) n yinelmaden i tikkelt tamezwarut γer tselwit (présidence) u tejja-n dinna tabṛat yeldin i uselway. D A. Benhabyles ay ten-yemmugren, iban-d yewhem maca ur d-yesban ara taεdawt-ines. Inelmaden sseknen-as-d amek ay tettwaru tmaziγt (s tfinaγ) u yenna-d dakk-n yefka tira-nni i Uselway (?). Deg temlilit-ines tis snat akk d yinelmaden ay d-yesban addud-ines (position).


Ass n lḥedd 16 Meγres 1980 Deg Ldzayer, medden la ttmeslayen dakk-n tella yiwet n tewriqt n FFS ay yettwaferqen γef yinelmaden deg wussan-nni (yuγ lḥal, d tin ay d tawriqt tis tlata ara yefreq ukabar-a deg setta n wayyuren ineggura). Tawriqt-a tessawal-d γef tedyanin-nni n Tizi Wezzu u tenna-d dakk-n 2000 n yinelmaden ay yettekkan deg tmeskant-nni (tamesbanit) n 11 Meγres (yili ay-a ur iṣ̣eḥḥa).

Deg Tmurt n Leqbayel, ass n lḥedd 16, letniyen 17 d wass n ttlata 18 Meγres, medden gan timeskanin (timesbaniyin) deg Laṛebεa n Ayt Yiraten, deg Yiεeẓẓugen akk d Σin Lḥemmam. Deg Laṛebεa n Ayt Yiraten, medden qqimen la tteddun deg yizenqan tlata n wussan, wa sdeffir wa. Aṭas seg wid yettekkan deg tmeskanin-a d ilmeẓyen (inelmaden n tesnawiyin [lycéens], atg.), akk d kra n yigerdan d tlawin (amur ameqran deg-sent d timγarin). Ḍrant tγawsiwin yessewhamen. Deg Laṛebεa n Ayt Yiraten, medden kecmen γer lkaziṛna u ḥettmen iserdasen (iεsekṛiyen) ad d-ffγen seg-s s yiceṭṭiḍen n waddal (sport) (imi ay llan la ttgen addal) i wakk-n ad ttekkin yid-sen deg tmeskant γef yiles amaziγ. Ula d amγiwan (lmir) ḥettmen-t ad d-yeffeγ, u ad yezwir i ṣ̣ṣ̣ef u ad d-yini "Ad ddren Yimaziγen".

Deg yal amkan, medden rẓan jjaj d yigalisen (tiplakin) n lbenyanat n ddula u uran fell-asen isekkilen (lḥuṛuf) n tfinaγ. Deg Yiεeẓẓugen, yiwen n ubulis yusa-d ad yennaγ medden imi ay rẓan yiwen n ugalis n FLN, dγa smaren fell-as acabcaq n ssbiγa tazewwaγt. Imsenza (ttejjaṛ) γelqen tiḥuna-nsen maca kra nnan-d dakk-n d medden ay ten-iḥettmen ad γelqen.


Ass n letniyen 17 Meγres 1980 Daniel Junqua yellan la iqeddec d anemyaru (correspondant) deg weγmis n "Le Monde", yedda γer Tizi Wezzu u yebda la yesteqsay inelmaden d yiselmaden. Yeεreḍ ad yesteqsi daγen kra n yemḍebbren, maca ur yessaweḍ ara (anemhal n tesdawit [recteur] ulac-it, atg.). Deg wass n 19 Meγres, yeffeγ-d umagrad (article) amezwaru deg Le Monde u yeḥka-d γef lumuṛ akk-n ḍrant (mebla azeyyed wala assenqes).

Deg tesdawit n Tizi Wezzu, inelmaden d yiselmaden la ssawalen γef wakk ay-n yeḍran. Llan kra bγan ad d-sseknen dakk-n ur qbilen ara ad ad d-gren iman-nsen yikabaren (partis) n tenmegla (oppisition) deg temsalt-a u ad εerḍen ad sqedcen tidyanin-a deg leṣ̣laḥ-nsen, d acu kan, rran-ten deg rrif yernu jjan ay-n akk-n llan bγan ad t-gen. Tameddit-nni, Ferhat Mhenni, acennay n terbaεt Imaziγen Imula iga abaraz (gala) deg telmessit (foyer) n yinelmaden deg Yiḥesnawen. Ḥedṛen azal n 1000 n yinelmaden, gar-asen anemhal (directeur) n COUS, Merabtene, yellan yeskeṛ yernu llan la smesxiren yes-s yinelmaden. Abaraz-nni yeqqel d timlilit ay yes d-sseknen yinelmaden dakk-n ur qbilen ara aqmaḍ (respression) n ddula. Timlilit-a teqqel mechuṛet imi ay sqerdcen yinelmaden s lejheṛ γef kra n temsal tisertiyin (politiques) am tuqqla n Aït Ahmed d Boudiaf. Arezki About yellan iqeddec deg unegmi (laboratoire) n tesdawit, yessawel-d γef yiwet n tewriqt ay n FUAA ay d-sεeddan s ddaw n tewwurt n texxamt-is.


Ass n ttlata 18 Meγres 1980 Lexbar n timeskanin (timesbaniyin) ay d-yellan deg Laṛebεa n Ayt Yiraten, Iεeẓẓugen d Σin Lḥemmam yelfa-d d tidet. Medden qqlen la ttwalin lumuṛ s leḥder (ladγa irgazen imeqranen), imi ugaden "lemmer ad yekker ṭṭrad aγarim (guerre civile)".


Ass n laṛebεa 19 Meγres 1980 Aneγlaf (lewzir) n usselmed aεlayan, Bererhi, yemlal i tikkelt tamezwarut akk d Mammeri, u yessutter seg-s ssmaḥ d ameqran s yiles "aẓidan am tamemt", maca ur iban ara γef wacu. Tikkelt niḍen, yeγra-as akk-n ad t-yenṣ̣eḥ ur yettekkay ara deg yisaragen (conférences) ay ssefran ad ten-gen yinelmaden deg uγaram (cité) n tesdawit n teqcicin deg Ben Aknoun, γef yedles aγelnaw. Nnan-asen daγen akk-a i Mass Labidi akk d Rachid Boudjedra, imi ay ugaden lemmer ad ttekkin deg yisaragen-nni. Mammeri yessutter ssmaḥ s leḥdaqa deg teqcicin ay t-iεerḍen. Kra n teqcicin n Tdukli Taγelnawt n Yelmeẓyen Idzayriyen (UNJA) εerḍent ad frunt ugur-a, maca ur ssawḍent ara.


Ass n lexmis 20 Meγres 1980 Aγmis n El Moudjahid yessuffeγ-d yiwet n tebṛat n ucemmet d rregmat yettwaxetmen s yisem n K.B. (mebla ccek d Kamel Belkacem, anemhal n tira [rédacteur en chef] n weγmis-a). Tabṛat-a tetthem Mammeri (mebla ma tebder-d isem-is) belli d axabit ixeddmen akk d temharsa (colonialisme). Tasγunt n "Révolution Africaine" tessuffeγ-d daγen tigejdit (éditorial), ur yettwafhem ara d acu ay d-yeqsed maca, deg tgara, iwet-d deg wid ay d-yessekren ccwal deg Tizi Wezzu. Ma d aγmis n Algérie Actualité yenna-d dakk-n tirzi ay iga Chadli γer Ccerq Alemmas d tin ay yessefra ad tt-yeg aṭas ay-a, yernu ccwal yekkren deg tmurt n Leqbayel ur yeqqin ara γer tirzi-a. Nnig way-a, Chadli yessefra ad yerzu γef Tizi Wezzu deg wass n 15 neγ 16 Meγres. Γef way-a ay gan kra n lecγal n ucebbeḥ n temdint s tγawla deg wussan-nni.

Deg Dreε Lmizan, inelmaden n tesnawiyin (lycées) εerḍen ad gen tamsekant (tamesbanit) i tikkelt tamezwarut deg wussan-nni n yimuras (vacances). Ttekkan azal n 200 n yinelmaden deg tmeskant-nni. Deg Tizi Wezzu, inelmaden gan timlilit iweεṛen ay deg kra ur qbilen ara imi ay d-gren iman-nsen yikabaren n tenmegla (partis d'opposition) am FFS, FUAA d PRS. Kra bedren-d ula d PAGS (akabar amesdukli [parti communiste]) yellan la yesseqdac ma ulac sin wid yellan "la d-ssenkaren" inelmaden). Deg temlilit-a, inelmaden n Tizi Wezzu fran-tt-id ad ddun γer Laṛebεa n Ayt Yiraten, Iεeẓẓugen d tmura niḍen u ad εerḍen ad ten-qennεen ur d-ttadren ara γer Tizi Wezzu akk-n ad msegrawen dinna. Tameskant-nni ay γef llan la ssawalen medden aṭas ay-a (ula deg Ldzayer) yewεeṛ akk-n ad tt-ḥebsen. Iγallen n laman llan swejden iman-nsen akk-n ad wten.


Ass n ssebt 22 Meγres 1980 Iselmaden n Tizi Wezzu la ssawalen γef tririt ara gen i umagrad-nni (article) n ucemmet d rregmat ay d-yeffγen deg El Moudjahid. Yuγ lḥal, amagrad-a iḥuza ula d iselmaden n tesdawit n Tizi Wezzu. Deg Ldzayer, kra n yiselmaden n tesdawit εerḍen ad d-gen tasakbabt (pétition) ara fken i El Moudjahid akk-n ad as-yeḍmen i Mammeri lḥeqq n uwajeb deg weγmis-a. Ciṭṭaḥ kan ay iqeblen ad zemlen (ad stenyin) tasakbabt-a. Ula d wid iqeddcen deg CRAPE (anda ay yella Mammeri iqeddec d anemhal [directeur]), maci aṭas ay tt-izemlen.


Ass n letniyen 24 Meγres 1980 Iselmaden n tesdawit n Tizi Wezzu ur msefhamen ara γef lecγal ara gen. Tabṛat yeldin ay uran i uneγlaf (lewzir) werεad ur tt-uzinen ara. Deg Usudu n Tussniwin Tudmisin (Institut des Sciences Economiques) deg Tizi Wezzu, anemhal Arab yessebded-d taseqqamut taslemdant (commission pédagogique). Iselmaden ssuttren deg tedbelt (administration) ad asen-tefru ugur n ussuffeγ n tsukan (polycopies) uqbel n 29 Meγres. Ma ur yefri ara wugur-a, ad gen asunded (grève).


Ass n ttlata 25 Meγres 1980 Asudu n Tussniwin Tudmisin (Insitut des Sciences Economiques) n Ldzayer yebda-d asunded (grève) n tlata n wussan imi aseqqamu (comité) n usudu-nsen ur testeεṛef ara yes-s tesdawit.

Aneγlaf (ministre) n Usselγu (information), Mehri, yemlal d Mammeri u yessutter seg-s ssmaḥ s leḥdaqa imi ur yezmir ara ad t-yejj ad d-yessuffeγ tiririt-ines deg weγmis n El Moudjahed. Mammeri ur yebγi ara ad ikemmel asseḥṛes-ines γef El Moudjahed, dγa yeεred ad yessutter ad d-yessuffeγ tiririt-ines deg Algérie-Actualité. Gar way-a d way-n niḍen, anemhal n Unadi ussnan (rechercher scientifique) n weγlif (ministère), Mass Benbouzid, akk d kra n medden n ONRS, nnan-d dakk-n ad qeblen lemmer ad d-gen amkan i usselmed n tmaziγt deg tesdawit u ad d-gen afurk (branche) n unadi deg wenrar-a. Aṭas n tsakbabin (pétitions) n wurfan n medden ara d-yettawḍen γer udabu.


26 Meγres 1980 Gan tameskant (tamesbanit) niḍen deg Tizi Wezzu, ay deg ttekkan azal n 1000 n yinelmaden. Ibulisen ur d-giren ara iman-nsen.


30 Meγres 1980 Deg Fṛansa, Aït Menguellet yeγra-d kra n yisefra deg tewwurt n Pantin. Aseqqamu n uḥuddu n yizerfan (droits) idelsanen iger-d tiγri akk-n ad msegrawen medden deg tsusmi sdat n tmahelt (ambassade) n Ldzayer deg Fṛansa.


6 Yebrir 1980 Inelmaden gan timlilit deg Yiḥesnawen (Tizi Wezzu) u fran-tt-id ad ṭṭfen u ad qqimen deg tzeqqa (salle) n assukken (reprographie) n tesdawit u gren-d tiγri akk-n ad gen tameskant (tamesbanit) deg wass n 7 Yebrir deg Ldzayer tamaneγt.


7 Yebrir 1980 Lεecṛa n tṣ̣ebḥit. Ldzayer tamaneγt, deg Tsenbert (place) n Umezwaru n Mayyu. 500 n yinelmaden d yiselmaden ay yemsegrawen akk-n ad d-ssuttren dakk-n idles amaziγ yettalas ad yili. Tiḥucay ay refden yura-d deg-sent "Idles aγerfan (culture populaire)", "Tilelli n wawal", "tamaziγt ur telli ara d iles adzayri ?", "tugdut tadelsant (démocratie culturelle)". Wid yettekkan deg tmeskant-a (tamesbanit) bdan la d-cennun imseγret (nnacid) n yemjuhad "Min jibalina" (Seg yidurar-nneγ ay d-tuli taγect n tlelli). Ibulisen bdan la kkaten medden akk-n kan d-tebda tikli. Wten wid yettekkan u qemḍen-ten mebla ṛṛeḥma. Azal n 200 ay ssulin deg yifurguten s tiyta n tdebbuzin. Gar wid yettekkan, llan aṭas ay yettwajerḥen, gar-asen xemsa γlin deg lkuma. Yiwen seg wid yettekkan wten-t s tdebbuzin alama ay yemmut. Deg tesdawit n Ldzayer, inelmaden deγren (bbuṭin) akk-n ad gen asunded (grève). Tasdawit n Tizi Wezzu tga asunded daγen yernu ṭṭfen-tt yinelmaden, deg-s ara ttγimin, deg-s ara gganen.

Γef leḥdac d wezgen n tṣ̣ebḥit, deg tesdawit talemmast n Ldzayer, inelmaden gan timlilit akk-n ad mciwṛen γef tikliwin niḍen ara gen sdat n teγsart talemmast n yibulisen (commissariat central) akk-n ad sbegnen dakk-n ur qbilen ara aqmaḍ (répression).

Γef tlata n tmeddit, Aseqqamu n uḥuddu n yizerfan idelsanen (Comité de défense des droits culturels) yessegrew-d azal n 1000 n yemdanen deg tsusmi sdat n tmahelt (ambassade) n Ldzayer deg Fṛansa. Wid igan amsegraw-a llan bγan ad as-fken yiwen n ussumer (motion) i wenmahal (ambassadeur). D acu kan , aneggaru-a yegguma ad ten-yemmager u yenna-d dakk-n wigi ur llin d Idzayriyen. Aseqqamu yura-d yiwet n tebṛat yeldin i uselway (ṛṛayes) u iga-d tasakbabt (pétition) ara sseddun d tebṛat-nni.

Tameddit : Inelmaden n Tizi Wezzu gan timlilit ay deg ay tt-id-fran ad gen asunded amatu (grève générale) mebla tilisa, u ad qqimen ṭṭfen tasdawit.


Ass n 8 Yebrir 1980 Deg Ldzayer tamaneγt, ugar n 1000 n yinelmaden ay d-yeffγen ad ttekkin deg tmeskant (tamesbanit) u la ttberriḥen "Ad yeγli weqmaḍ (répression)", "Ibulisen d iqettalen", "Brum-asen-d i wid yettwaṭṭfen", "Idles aγerfan (culture populaire) adzayri". Llan daγen la d-cennun imesγerten (nnacidat) n tmurt. Ibulisen dehhmen-ten s ljehd γer daxel n tesdawit. Tameskant-a teqqim ugar n snat n tsaεtin. Amur ameqran deg wid yettwaṭṭfen bran-asen-d.

Deg Tmurt n Leqbayel, d luluf n yifellaḥen seg Σin Lḥemmam d Laṛebεa n Ayt Yiraten ay iεerḍen ad ttekkin deg yiwet n tikli ay gan deg Tizi Wezzu. Igen (armée) yergel-asen iberdan u iḥettem-iten ad qqlen γer tuddar-nsen. Amur ameqran deg wid yettwaṭṭfen iḍelli-nni bran-asen-d. Inelmaden n Bumerdas gan asunded (grève). Inelmaden d yiqeddacen n tesdawit talemmast n Ldzayer gan-d assumer (motion) n uεiwen n yinelmaden n Tizi Wezzu. Nnig way-a, gan-d daγen anaru (bureau) ara yesseddun lecγal n tmeskanin (timesbaniyin) deg Ldzayer tamaneγt.


9 Yebrir 1980 Amussu (mouvement) yebda la yettimγur deg Tmurt n Leqbayel. Ilmeẓyen n Yiwaḍiyen, Ayt Yanni, Ljemεa n Ssarij, Delles, Buṛj Mnayel, Sidi Σic, atg. gan timeskanin (timesbaniyin) akk-n ad d-ssuttren ad as-yettunefk lḥeqq i yedles amaziγ ad yili. Ass-nni deg Sidi Σic, yettwamneε ubaraz (gala) n Ferhat n Imaziγen Imula. Ibulisen ṭṭfen Ferhat.


Seg 9 ar 15 Yebrir 1980 Deg tuddar n Tmurt n Leqbayel, gan-d iseqquma n uqareε d uεiwen n yinelmaden igan asunded (grève).


10 Yebrir 1980 Akabar n Terni Weslelli Aγelnaw (FLN) iga tameskant (tamesbanit) mgal n tin ay gan yinelmaden deg Tizi Wezzu.


11 Yebrir 1980 Mouloud Mammeri yuzen tiririt-ines i weγmis n El Moudjahid ay d-yessuffγen amagrad-nni (article) n ucemmet "Wid yettafken timsirin" (dduṛus). El Moudjahid yegguma ad d-yessuffeγ tiririt n Mammeri. D aγmis n Le Matin ay tt-id-yessuffγen. Inelmaden gan-as-d tisukan (copies) s Roneo u ferqen-tt γef medden ama deg Ldzayer, ama deg Fṛansa.


13 Yebrir 1980 Aneγlaf (lewzir) n usselmed aεlayan yemlal d yiwet n terbaεt n yiselmaden n Tizi Wezzu. Inelmaden n tesnawit (lycée) n Amirouche, deg Tizi Wezzu, bdan-d asunded (grève) u ṭṭfen tasnawit-nni. Iqeddacen n sbiṭar n Tizi Wezzu uznen assumer (motion) n uεiwen i yinelmaden igan asunded akk d tebṛat yeldin i uselway (ṛṛayes) Chadli ay deg ay as-ssuttren ad yeḥbes weqmaḍ (répression). Yiwet n tewriqt yettwaferqen γef medden (u nnan-d dakk-n n FFS) tger-d tiγri akk-n ad gen medden asunded amatu (grève générale) deg wass n 16 Yebrir.


15 Yebrir 1980 Aseqqamu n uḥuddu n yizerfan idelsanen deg Ldzayer (Comité de la défense des droits culturels en Algérie) iger-d tiγri akk-n ad gen tikli deg wass n 26 Yebrir sdat n tmahelt (ambassade) n Ldzayer deg Fṛansa u deg wass n Umezwaru n Mayyu seg wezniq n "Filles du Clavaire" alama d Bastille. Sbiṭar n Tizi Wezzu ṭṭfen-t yiqeddacen.


16 Yebrir 1980 Medden gan asunded (grève) ikemlen deg Tmurt n Leqbayel. Acennay Ferhat Mhenni n terbaεt n Imaziγen Imula yettwaker deg Dar El Beida [deg ccerq n Ldzayer tamaneγt] γef tizi n jjuj d wezgen n tmeddit. Aneγlaf (lewzir) n usselmed aεlayan iεeyyen-asen i yinelmaden n Tizi Wezzu akk-n ad qqlen γer tγuri deg wass 19 Yebrir. Tameddit-nni, mlalen yiqeddacen n Sonelec, Sonelgaz, Sonitex, Casoral, sbiṭar n Tizi Wezzu akk d yiselmaden n yinelmaden akk-n ad d-sseknen dakk-n ur qbilen ara aqmaḍ (répression) n ddula u sbedden-d aseqqamu aγerfan (comité populaire) i usseddu n lecγal.


18 Yebrir 1980 Iminigen msegrawen sdat n tmahelt (ambassade) n Ldzayer deg Ottawa yernu gan tikli tazamalt (symbolique) sdat n wemni (parlement) akanadi.


20 Yebrir 1980 Γef lweḥda n tṣ̣ebḥit : tebda-d temhelt (opération) n Mizrana. Iγallen n weqmaḍ (répression) kecmen γer wakk imukan ay ṭṭfen yinelmaden d yiqeddacen (tasdawit, sbiṭar, lluzinat). Inelmaden yellan ṭṭsen bdan-ten s tiyta nitni mazal-iten deg wusu. Wid ara irewwlen bran-d fell-asen iḍan. Inelmaden la d-ttneggizen seg lbaṭimat n uγaram (cité) n tesdawit mebla ma lsan iceṭṭiḍen-nsen. Iselmaden ttwarefden seg yexxamen-nsen. Akk iqeddacen n sbiṭar ttwaṭṭfen, u uwyen-d deg wemkan-nsen imejjayen (iṭbiben) n lεeskeṛ. La ittezzi wawal dakk-n mmuten 32 n medden u d timeyyatin ay ijerḥen. Imezdaγen n Tizi Wezzu gan asunded amatu (grève générale). Medden ur d-jjin ula d yiwen n ugalis (taplakt) yuran s taεṛabt deg yizenqan. Tamurt n Leqbayel tegzem γef ddunit. Yettwamneε unekcum γer-s ladγa γef yineγmasen (imesjeṛnanen).


21 Yebrir 1980 21 seg wid yettwaṭṭfen ttucaṛεen deg Leqṣ̣er [Bgayet] u yeḥkem-d fell-asen wexxam n ccṛeε ad kecmen γer lḥebs. Medden bdan la regglen iberdan deg temdint akk d teγsart n tmacint (gare). Iγallen n weqmaḍ (répression) bdan la tteddun deg yizenqan s yibeckiḍen yesεan tiferyin yernu sxerben igniren (galeries) imaynuten (ahat gan ay-a akk-n ad smentsen [provoquer] medden ?). Medden sxerben ammas n tinḍi (centre d'artisanat), taγsart (station) n lkiṛan akk d tedwirt n Kharroubi. Imezdaγen n tuddar ay d-iqerben γer Tizi Wezzu udren-d akk-n u gan tikli deg temdint-a akk-n ad d-sseknen dakk-n ur qbilen ara aqmaḍ (répression) d tmenγiwt n medden.


22 Yebrir 1980 Asunded amatu (grève générale) yuweḍ γer wass-ines wis tlata. Mazal la regglen iberdan deg Tizi Wezzu. Imeskanen (manifestants) la tteddun deg temdint s tḥucay akk-n ad d-ssuttren ad asen-d-brun i wid yettwaṭṭfen u ad ḥebsen aqmaḍ (répression). Imeskanen refden daγen tiḥucay ay deg d-uran "Imaziγen". Ibulisen (tamunin tiγelnawin n tγellist, CNS) mmγen γef yiselmaden seg sdeffir. Llan-d yimenγin imeqranen deg wakk imukan n Tizi Wezzu gar yibulisen d yimeskanen. Imesdurar qqlen-d γer temdint yernu ula d nitni bdan la regglen iberdan. Sxerben inura (lbiruwat) n APS, SAA, axxam n tinḍi, anaru (lbiru) n ukabar n FLN, asensu (hôtel) n Balwa akk d tzeqqa n ssinima Mondial. Iqeddacen n sbiṭar n Mustapha Bacha, deg Ldzayer tamaneγt, bdan-d ula d nitni asunded akk-n ad msegman d Tmurt n Leqbayel.


23 Yebrir 1980 Ass wis ṛebεa n ussunded amatu (grève générale). Ibulisen la ttaṭṭafen medden s waṭas u deg yal amkan. Imeskanen (manifestants) ay d-yusan seg Tegzirt nnuγen akk d yiγallen n weqmaḍ (répression) deg unekcum n temdint n Tizi Wezzu. Yella-d daγen yimenγi d ameqran deg Dreε Ben Xedda.


24 Yebrir 1980 Tebda la d-tteqqel "lehna" cwiṭ, cwiṭ. Tiḥuna n tuccit bdant la leddint tameddit n wass-nni. Llan-d yimenγiyen d imeqranen gar yimeskanen (manifestants) (deg Yiwaḍiyen, Laṛebεa n Ayt Yiraten d Σin Lḥemmam) d yiγallen n weqmaḍ. Igniren (galeries) imaynuten hudden seg lketṛa n sselεa.


25 Yebrir 1980 Iγallen n weqmaḍ ṭṭfen akk tamdint n Tizi Wezzu. Tilibizyu n Ldzayer tṣ̣ewwer-d imukan yettwasxerben. Γef lxemsa n tmeddit, anmahal (ambassadeur) n Ldzayer deg Fṛansa yemlal d weγlif (ministère) n tγawsiwin n beṛṛa deg Quai d'Orsay. Γef lxemsa u xemsin n ddqayeq, anebdad (préfet) n yibulisen n Paris yenna-as i Useqqamu n uḥuddu n yizerfan idelsanen deg Ldzayer dakk-n tikli-nni ay ssefran ad tt-gen i uzekka-nni tettwamneε.


26 Yebrir 1980 Anebdad (préfet) yemneε tikli-nni, d acu kan, γas ma yella Aseqqamu n uḥuddu n yizerfan idelsanen deg Ldzayer llan zemren ad t-ttehmen, yessγer aqerru u iger-d tiγri deg weγmis (ajeṛnan) d ṛṛadyu akk-n ad d-asen ttekkin medden deg tikli-nni. 500 n yemdanen ay yettekkan. 400 seg-sen ṭṭfen-ten yibulisen u uwyen-ten γer Vincennes anda ay ten-qellben, weṣ̣ṣ̣fen-ten yernu gan-asen tisenta (fiches). Tadukli (Amicale) n Yidzayriyen deg Fṛansa tessegrew-d 200 n yemdanen akk-n ad smentsen (provoquer) wid ara yettekkin deg tikli-nni, usan-d deg lkiṛan γer Paris yernu llan ttuxellaṣ̣en s wass.


29 Yebrir 1980 Aseqqamu n uḥuddu n yizerfan idelsanen deg Ldzayer yessefra ad yeg tikli tasusamt deg wass n 1 Mayyu, d acu kan, anebdad n Paris yemneε tikli-nni imi "ay tezmer ad d-teglu s ccwal".


10 Mayyu 1980 Matoub Lounes iga abaraz (gala) deg Olympia (deg Paris). Medden gan ddqiqa n tsusmi akk-n ad msegman d umussu aγerfan (mouvement populaire) deg Ldzayer.


12 Mayyu 1980 Tasdawit n Ldzayer tga asunded (grève).


16 Mayyu 1980 El Moudjahid yessuffeγ-d umuγ (liste) n 24 n yimeḥbas u yenna-d dakk-n wigi ad εeddin deg ccṛeε n laman n ddula deg Lemdeyya.


18 Mayyu 1980 Deg Tizi Wezzu gan asunded amatu (grève générale), medden akk ttekkan deg-s (ala igniren [galeries] imaynuten n Ldzayer.


19 Mayyu 1980 Deg Ldzayer gan tameskant (manifestation) mgal n weqmaḍ (répression).


24 Mayyu 1980 Inelmaden gan timlilit deg tesdawit talemmast n Ldzayer, maca mmγen fell-asen wid ay yessexdam udabu.


25 Mayyu 1980 Aseqqamu n uḥuddu n yizerfan idelsanen deg Ldzayer yessuffeγ-d "Tabṛat yeldin i Chadli" sdeffir ma yessegrew-d 3522 n tekbabin (signatures).


3 Yunyu 1980 Aseqqamu agraγlan n uεiwen n teγtas n weqmaḍ deg Ldzayer (Comité international de soutien aux victimes de la répression en Algérie) yessuffeγ-d tasakbabt-ines (pétition). Aseqqamu n uḥuddu n yizerfan idelsanen deg Ldzayer sbedden-t-id s tidet u yessegrew-d 140 n tekbabin (signatures) sγur yemdanen yettwassnen deg tesdawiyin d tẓuri (art).


21 Yunyu 1980 Γef jjuj n tmeddit, Aseqqamu n uḥuddu n yizerfan idelsanen deg Ldzayer (CDDCA) akk d Useqqamu agraγlan mgal aqmaḍ (répression) gan timlilit sdat n Taggazt n Leqdic (Bourse de travail) deg Paris. Gar yiberriḥen (slogans) ay d-nnan medden : "Ḥebsem aqmaḍ", "Brum-asen-d i yimeḥbas akk mebla ccuruṭ", "ilsawen iγerfanen (populaires) (taεṛabt n Ldzayer d tmaziγt d ilsawen iγelnawen". Akk tuddsiwin (organisations) d yemdanen idzayriyen d yefṛensisen yettwassnen ttwaεerḍen-d γer temlilit-a. Ttekkan deg-s akk wid ay yesteεṛfen s yimenzayen-a (principes). CDDCA, ASEP, UNEF, LCR, FEN, FO, OCI, FFS. Ma Djamel Allam akk d terbaεt n Djurdjura gguman ad ttekkin deg temlilit-a. Ferhat d Aït Menguellet llan ttwaṭṭfen deg Ldzayer.


25 Yunyu 1980 Deg Tizi Wezzu, medden gan ass n webdad i lmend n yimeḥbas. Γef tmanya n tmeddit, Tanegga n Tγamsa Tadzayrit (APS) tenna-d dakk-n 24-nni n yimeḥbas n Berrouaghia ad asen-fken tilelli takudant (liberté provisoire) i uzekka-nni.


26 Yunyu 1980 Teqleε yiwet n terbaεt, deg-s aṭas n tkeṛwas, seg Tizi Wezzu, akk-n ad d-awyen imeḥbas-nni umi d-bran. Wigi, mi ten-id-ssawḍen γer Tizi Wezzu, gan-asen tameγra.


Umuγ n 24-nni n yimeḥbas n Berrouaghia :

1- ABBUT Arezki
2- CEMIM Meqqran
3- AGGUN Aḥmed
4- ḤALET Racid
5- AḤMED ZAYED Yidir
6- XELLIL Saεid
7- At Wakli Racid
8- LAMARI Idriss
9- AIT LARBI Arezki
10- LUNAWSI Mulud
11- ALI CCIX Ubraham
12- NAYET ABDELLAH Muḥemmed
13- BACA Mustafa
14- RACIDI Muḥemmed
15- BEN AMUN Kamal
16- SAADI Mulud
17- BELƔEZLI Acur
18- SAΣDI Saɛid 
19- BERDUS Mammar
20- STIET Muḥamed
21- BURRIF Salaḥ
22- TARI Laziz
23- BRAHIMI Ali
24- ZENATI ǧamal


Racid Caker yemmut deg wass n 5 Ɣuct 1980 deg yiwet n twaγit n webrid ay deg mmuten ula d tameṭṭut-is, memmi-s d yemma-s. Yella d aselmad amalal (assistant) n tdamsa (économie) deg tesdawit n Tizi Wezzu. Yettekka deg umussu (mouvement) n Tefsut n 1980 deg umazday (collectif) "mgal n weqmaḍ" (anti-répression) deg tesdawit.

Tiγbula: http://membres.lycos.fr/cicbgayet/ch20avril80.html

Tasuqilt sγur Omar MOUFFOK

1980 : Abeddel ameqran[beddel]

"Tafsut n Yimaziγen" n 1980 d yiwet seg tedyanin tisertiyin (politiques) timeqranin akk deg Ldzayer timziregt (indépendante).

Uqbel, tamsalt n tmaziγt tella tenkeṛ-itt ddula yernu imassanen (savants) llan qqnen fell-as allen, neγ ur ttwalin-tt d tamsalt ur nesεi azal meγγren, d tin yeqqnen s afulkluṛ. D acu kan, asmi ay d-ḍrant tedyanin n 1980, tamsalt-a deg yiwen webrid kan tban-d u yegget fell-as wawal.

Timeskanin (timesbaniyin) akk d yimenγiyen ay d-yellan gar medden d yiγallen n ddula deg wakk timiwa n Tmurt n Leqbayel akk d Ldzayer tamaneγt gar Meγres n 1980 d Mayyu n 1981 sseknen-d dakk-n wid yessutturen tamaziγt ur llin d aggagen (intellectuels) imeεzulen, wanag d ay-n yerzan u bγan-tt akk wid yessawalen tamaziγt deg Ldzayer.

"Tafsut n Yimaziγen" d tin ay d-yemlan dakk-n medden ukin-d u bdan la ttxemmimen ad d-neṭqen, ad d-ssiwlen i yiman-nsen γef way-n bγan deg yiwet n tmurt anda ddula tella tebγa ad d-tessken dakk-n kullec deg-s yeddukkel. Uqbel, tasertit (politique), tasnakta (idéologie) d yedles llan s ddaw n umunupul n ddula yernu d tamenḍawt (consitution) ay as-iḍemnen ay-a. U deg way-n yerzan iles, ulac kra n tlelli deg tmurt imi seg wasmi ay tuwey Ldzayer azarug-ines (indépendance), akk timenḍawin n tmurt qqarent-d dakk-n d "taεṛabt ay d iles aγelnaw unṣ̣ib (national et officiel) n tmurt".

Iḍrisen n llsas (textes fondamentaux) n tmurt d nitni sskanayen-d s lejheṛ dakk-n d ddula kan ay yettalasen ad teṭṭef asselγu (information) u ad t-tesseddu s yiles ay as-yehwan. Tiγawsiwin banent ugar mi ara nγer tizzwariyin (préambules) ay d-uran i tmenḍawin (constitutions), d tid-nni umi qqaren "irkawalen iγelnawen" (chartes nationales).

D acu kan, seg wasmi ay tεedda Tefsut n 1980, lejyal n yelmeẓyen bdan la d-sskanayen dakk-n ugin ineḍfaren-nni (dogmes) ay yettwaḥettmen fell-asen.

D ljil s lekmal-is n yelmeẓyen, d imezdaγen akk n Tmurt n Leqbayel ay d-yekkren u ssuttren "asteεṛef s yiles amaziγ" d u ad asen-tettunefk "tlelli n wawal".

D tadyant yesεan iẓuran lqayit

Assutter n tmaziγt yesεa iẓuran ijehden deg wegdud, d ay-n ara idumen yernu ur yezmir ad yettussusem. Amnaε n usarag (conférence) n Mouloud Mammeri deg wass n 10 Meγres 1980 d ifeṭṭiwej ay d-yessaγen urfan yellan ffren seg zik-nni. Yagi, deg Tmurt n Leqbayel, medden llan wwan u rran urfan-nsen γer daxel seg tezwara n yiseggasen n 1970.

Tasdawit n Tizi Wezzu, yettwaldin deg 1979, tejbed-d aṭas n waggagen, teqqel d amkan anda ay ttemlilin akk wid yeγran deg Tmurt n Leqbayel. Ay-a yurar dduṛ deg ussenker n tmeskanin-nni (timesbaniyin). Maca γas ma yella d tasdawit n Tizi Wezzu ay yeqqimen acḥal n ledwaṛ la tessedday deg tmeskanin-nni, ay-n ay d-yesnekren medden ur yeqqin ara kan γer temsal taggagin (intellectuelles). Amur ameqran deg yimezdaγen n Tmurt n Leqbayel ḥulfan dakk-n terza-ten temsalt n ussutter n tmaziγt yernu ttekkan deg tedyanin-nni. Yuγ lḥal, seg wasmi ay tuwey Ldzayer azarug-is (indépendance), ula d yiwen wass ur d-llint tmeskanin (timesbaniyin) timeqranin am tid ay d-yellan deg wussan-nni n tefsut. Ama deg Tizi Wezzu, ama deg Bgayet, d ledwaṛ ay qqimen medden la ttgen timeskanin (timesbaniyin). Ula deg temdinin timecṭuḥin, ffγen-d medden akk-n ad d-sseknen dakk-n ur qbilen ara tikli n ddula (Σin Lḥemmam, Laṛebεa n Ayt Yiraten, Dreε Lmizan, Buγni, Iεeẓẓugen, Amiẓur, Sidi Σic, Aqbu, atg.), ula deg tuddar.

Γas ma yella kra n yimanayen (observateurs) ifṛensisen nnan dakk-n ala deg Tizi Wezzu d tama-ines ay d-llant tedyanin, Tamurt n Leqbayel akk tewlawel, s "tmeqrant", s "tmecṭuḥt". Bitt, tikkwal, kra seg yimenγiyen ay d-yellan deg "tmecṭuḥt" (Bgayet d yeγzer n Ṣṣ̣umam) ugaren wid ay d-yellan deg Tizi Wezzu. Aqmaḍ (répression) ur yezgil ula d yiwet n tama. Tubiret d Bgayet, γas ma llan kra ay yettwalin dakk-n txuṣ̣ṣ̣ timmuzγa-nsent, uγent tiytiwin ijehden ugar n tid ay tuγ Tizi Wezzu. Akk-n yebγu yili, γas ma yella kulci yebda-d seg Tizi Wezzu, ddula ur twit ara medden deg-s akk-n ay ten-twet anda niḍen yernu seg 1980 d asawen, teqqel tettḥadar tamdint-a d tmura ay d-iqerben γer-s.

Tamsalt n tmaziγt dindin kan tefreq u tennul aṭas n tmiwa n tmurt n Ldzayer. Yernu d ilmeẓyen s umata ay tt-yettnaγen fell-as, dγa d ay-n ay aγ-yejjan ad d-nini dakk-n amussu-a (mouvement) d win ara idumen u ad yesεu azal meγγren deg uzekka n tmurt. Ddula teεreḍ ad tesseddu awal dakk-n wid ay d-yesnekren tamsalt n tmaziγt d kra n yemdanen ur nemεin, ur nesεi azal yernu "jjmen tallit n Fṛansa", maca ay-a ur yelli d tidet, wanag wid yennuγen γef temsalt n tmaziγt ggten u meẓẓiyit.

Amur ameqran deg wid irefden tamsalt-a dima llan sεan s ddaw n 25 n yiseggasen deg leεmeṛ-nsen. Wid yerγan fell-as aṭas, amur meγγren deg-sen d inelmaden n tesnawit (lycée), yernu ur ttεeddin ara i εecrin n yiseggasen deg leεmeṛ. Akk-a ay yella lḥal ama deg tmeskanin (timesbaniyin) n 1980, ama deg wakk tid ay tent-id-iḍefren. Akk-a daγen ay yella lḥal deg tmeskanin-nni ay d-yellan deg Nwembeṛ n 1985 : ixxamen n ccṛeε n Tmurt n Leqbayel ḥekmen s lḥebs γef wazal n meyya n yelmeẓyen γef ljal n "ccwal" ay snekren deg yiberdan, akk-n ma llan d inelmaden n tesnawit (lycée). Ljil-a n yelmeẓyen d Ldzayer ay ten-yesseγren akk yernu ur ssinen ara Fṛansa ... Γas ma yella nga-as dakk-n wid ay d-yesnekren timeskanin-a (timesbaniyin) d imdanen yeγran s tefṛensist yernu ahat jjmen kra n zzman iεeddan, amek ara d-nessefhem dakk-n ilmeẓyen n Tmurt n Leqbayel ay tessγer ddula n Ldzayer ad ddun d wid yebγan ad rren Ldzayer γer deffir ?

Yuγ lḥal, tasertit-nni (politique) n usseεṛeb ur tessaweḍ ara ad d-teqleε "ay-n ay d-yeqqimen" seg temsalt n tmaziγt seg Tmurt n Leqbayel wanag d assejhed ay tt-tessejhed. Takti (lfekra) n tmaziγt tuγ akk timiwa n Tmurt n Leqbayel deg lweqt ay deg ddula tella tugi-tt u la tt-tettḥaṛab seg lqaεa. D ti ay d tiγawsiwin ay wuγur yessefk ad d-rren lwelha-nsen wid yesseddayen lumuṛ n ddula.

Amussu (mouvement) n tmaziγt ur yelli ara daγen yezmer ad yettwarnu, imi ay d-yenker deg yiwet n tallit ay t-iεawnen γef way-nni, d tallit ay deg ikabaren (partis) uffiren (gar-asen FFS n Aït Ahmed d kra n trebbaε timecṭuḥin n uzelmaḍ) gren-d iman-nsen, d acu kan, medden maci d ikabaren-nni ay ḍefren wanag ay-n ay ten-yessewlawlen yugar ay-a. Yuγ lḥal, ikabaren n tenmegla (opposition) deg Ldzayer qqimen d uffiren alama ay d tagara n 1988, yernu ula d yiwen wass ur ssawḍen ad rṣ̣un iman-nsen deg wegdud u ad yaγ uẓar-nsen deg-s u ad idum, yernu ula d yiwen wass ur gin kra n tigawt (action) ara idumen akk-n ad qablen tasertit (politique) n ddula.

Akk iγallen isertiyen (politiques) ay temneε ddula llan d uffiren, ur zmiren ara ad gen kra ara d-yawin lfayda ibanen, ur llin ara sεan isenfaren (projects) ibanen, llan ttwaqemḍen (réprimer) dima neγ sya γer da, dγa ula d yiwet seg trebbaε-a ur tessaweḍ ad d-tban, ad tif tiyaḍ neγ ad temneε seg uqareε d weqmaḍ (répression) n yibulisen.

Amussu (mouvement) adelsan amaziγ yefhem seg tazwara dakk-n ur yessefk ara ad d-yeγli deg snat n tfexxtin : tamezwaurt, ur yessefk ara ad yeqqel d uffir, tis snat, ur yessefk ara ad yeqqim s ddaw tecḍaḍt n yikabaren (partis). Dγa, wid ay t-id-yesnekren deg yiseggasen n 1980, ssawlen-d s lejheṛ, ẓran-ten medden. Yuγ lḥal, mi ara nwali γer ussirem-nsen, γer tmuγliwin d uxemmem-nsen, ad nẓer dakk-n wid yennuγen γef tmaziγt glan-d s ubeddel ameqran deg tmurt n Ldzayer, snekren-d tagrawla (révolution) n tidet : medden qqlen zemren ad ssiwlen s lejheṛ, deg webrid, yernu yettwakcef-d weqmaḍ-nni (répression) ay tqemmeḍ ddula n Ldzayer s kra n win ara d-yessiwlen. D ay-a ay yejjan ad d-yekker yiwen n ljil n yimeγnasen (militants) ur nettagad, d wid iwejden ad nnaγen akk d weqmaḍ n ddula u ad bedden γef wawal-nsen alama d ṭṭerf. Zik, akk-n ad tessens urfan n medden, ddula tella tettaṭṭaf wid ay d-yessenkaren timeskanin (timesbaniyin) neγ tḥebbes medden yettekkan deg trebbaε ur nelli, neγ deg trebbaε, seg wasmi ay tent-id-sbedden llan yagi deg-sent yemdanen iqeddcen d yiγallen n laman, maca, asmi ay d-yekker ljil-a amaynut n yelmeẓyen, tiγawsiwin qqlent ur la tteddunt ara am wakk-a. Tiεeqqayin n tmaziγt γlint u mγint-d deg yal tama, d ay-n ay d-yesnekren aṭas n medden, mi tensa tmes da, ad d-tekker anda niḍen. Yeqqel yimenγi iban, yettili-d s lejheṛ, d imenγi s ljehd n yiγil ay yekksen tugdi akk d tsusmi seg wulawen n medden. Yekkes lweḥc-nni izedγen medden zik-nni, deg tallit n Boumediene, asmi ay llan ttxemmimen dakk-n iγallen n ddula llan deg yal amkan.

D acu kan, yessefk daγen ad nẓer dakk-n deg 1980, ddula n Ldzayer tella la tettbeddil : tamettant (lmut) n Boumediene tessewlawel akk ddula d werkad ay tella terked-it zik-nni, yernu adabu (autorité) n Chadli Bendjedid ur yejhid ara akk. D ay-a ay yejjan ddula amzun temmehmeh, ur teẓri ara d acu n tikli ara d-tawi akk d tmeskanin-nni (timesbaniyin) n 1980, ladγa imi ula d yiwen wass ur d-llint tedyanin timeqranin am tid-nni yernu tella ddula ur tebni ara fell-asent ad d-ilint. Tlata n wayyuren ay teqqim ddula εerqent-as, tikkelt ad tesseqdec iγil (dγa tiyita ijehden akk d tin n 20 Yebrir, asmi ay mmγen yibulisen γef tesdawit n Tizi Wezzu), tikkelt, tεerreḍ ad tessens times, am wasmi ay d-bran i 24-nni n warrac "ay d-yesnekren ccwal" sdeffir ma εeddan deg ccṛeε n laman n ddula). Taggara, ddula tefren ad teqbel tamsalt n tmaziγt, ad tt-teddem u ad d-telhu id-s akk-n ad tezmer ad tt-teḥkem, yili uqbel tella teffeγ-as akk afus. D acu kan, deg tallit-nni n ukukru n ddula, wid ay d-yesnekren amussu (mouvement) amaziγ ssawḍen ad d-sseknen dakk-n tamsalt n tmaziγt tesεa iẓuran lqayen deg wegdud : medden gan sin n yisudiden imuta (grèves générales), llant-d aṭas n tmeskanin, llan-d aṭas n yimenγiyen u qqlen yimenγiyen-nni weεṛen u meγγrit ugar sdeffir n 20 Yebrir. Seg wasmi ay tuwey Ldzayer azarug-ines (indépendance), d tikkelt tamezwarut ay deg ara d-kkren yimezdaγen n yiwet n tama s lekmal-is u ssawḍen ad bedden acḥal n ledwaṛ deg wudem n ddula.

S way-a, d imeγnasen (militants) n yedles, amur ameqran deg-sen meẓẓiyit, yernu deg tallit-nni tella texḍa-ten tsertit (politique) neγ akk-n kan ay bdan keccmen deg-s, ssawḍen ad gen ay-n ur igi ula d yiwen n ukabar aserti (parti politique) n menwala ar imir-n : bedden s lejheṛ deg wudem n ddula yernu idum webdad-nsen alama ay ḥettmen ddula ad testeεṛef s temsalt-nsen yernu ad tessenqes seg teqseḥ n weqmaḍ-ines (répression).

1980 : Tadukli n waggagen* d wegdud

  • intellectuels

"Tafsut n Yimaziγen" n 1980 tella-d deg yiwet n tallit ay tt-iεawnen akk-n ad d-tili : imeγnasen (militants) n tmaziγt qqimen la qeddcen azal xmesṭac n yiseggasen deg yedles, γas s tuffra, imeγnasen yerγan aṭas γef temsal-a bdan la keccmen tasertit (politique) yernu tebda la tettwabnay cwiṭ, cwiṭ yiwen n uẓeḍḍa (réseau) n "yimeγnasen imesmaziγen" (amazighistes). Gar way-a d way-n niḍen, Tizi Wezzu tella la tettnerni s tγawla, dγa, sdeffir ma tella d tamdint yeqquren, teqqel d tamdint meγγren deg tama-nni. Deg 1979, tettwaldi tesdawit n Tizi Wezzu, dγa d nettat ay d ssebba ay yejjan Tafsut n 1980 ad d-taγ. Γas ma yella timeskanin (timesbaniyin) n 1980 maci d aggagen (intellectuels) d yesdawanen (universitaires) kan i yiman-nsen ay tent-igan, maca tildin n tesdawit deg Tizi Wezzu d ay-n yuraren dduṛ meγγren deg tmeskanin-a yernu d nettat ay yejjan amussu (mouvement) ad yimγur.

Amussu (mouvement) amaziγ, asmi ay d-yeṭṭerḍeq, yelfa-d d ameqran, xelḍen deg-s akk medden yernu ur iṣ̣eggem ara aṣ̣eggem ay ijehden, dγa d tasdawit ay yuraren dduṛ deg usseqεed d usseddu n lecγal n umussu-nni.

Γef way-a, maci deg lbaṭel ara tεerreḍ ddula n Ldzayer ad tessenqes seg ljehd n tesdawit n Tizi Wezzu (imi ur tezmir ara ad tt-tekkes) : akk isenfaren (projets) n wesnerni n tesdawit-a llan ttuwexxaren, sneqsen seg-s inelmaden alama ay d ay-n kan, ttwakksen seg-s yinurar n usselmed s lekmal-nsen yernu iban dakk-n ddula tebγa ad terr tasdawit-a d tarbaεt kan n yiγerbazen (llakulat) n yisuda (insituts) n usselmed aεlayan, ay deg ur ttilin ara waṭas n yinelmaden u ad ifsusen i weḥkam.

Tafsut n 1980 tessken-d daγen dakk-n tella-d tdukli gar waggagen imeγnasen (intellectuels militants) d wegdud deg Tmurt n Leqbayel. Ay-a yesskanay-d ay-n gant trebbaε deg lγerba seg 1965 alama ay d imir-n d ay-n yeddan d way-n yebγa wegdud, yernu leqdic-nsen yegla-d s lateṛ d ameqran deg tmetti (société) n Tmurt n Leqbayel.

Werjin yewlawel wegdud deg Tmurt n Leqbayel u deg Ldzayer akk akk-n yewlawel asmi ay sdukklen waggagen (intellectuels) iγallen-nsen akk d wegdud, u d ay-a ay yejjan amussu (mouvement) amaziγ ad d-iban s lejheṛ u ad yimγur akk-n ad yaγ akk Tamurt n Leqbayel akk d Ldzayer tamaneγt u ad yeqqim akk-n ugar n useggas (seg 10 Meγres 1980 ar 19 Meγres 1981).

1980 : d tiyita ay d-yejjan lateṛ

Deg yiseggasen ay d-iḍefren tafsut n 1980, nezmer ad nger tamawt dakk-n amussu (mouvement) amaziγ yekka γef snat n talliyin yemgerraden (yemxallafen). Talliyin-a mgerradent ama deg tegnit ay deg d-llant, ama deg tsudist-nsent (stratégie).

Tallit n Meγres 1980 ar Ctembeṛ 1981, nezmer ad as-nsemmi "tallit yeḥman", d tin ay deg yella waṭas n leqdic akk d tmeskanin (timesbaniyin) timeqranin deg webrid (ama deg Tmurt n Leqbayel neγ deg Ldzayer tamaneγt), timliliyin, inejmuyaε yemgerraden, timsirin (dduṛus) n tmaziγt (ama deg Ldzayer neγ deg Tmurt). Yuγ lḥal, imir-n, wid ay d-yesnekren u sseddan amussu (mouvement) amaziγ dindin kan ukin dakk-n timsal n tmagit (identité) tamaziγt d tid wuγur d-rran medden lwelha-nsen yernu aṭas n medden ay yewlawlen fell-asent. Akukru n ddula akk d beddu n weskasi (débat) γef yedles deg tmurt n Ldzayer d ay-n ay yejjan imeγnasen (militants) ad faṛsen tagnit u ad sdumen lḥeṛs γef ddula. Yuγ lḥal, imeγnasen ssarmen ad teg ddula kra n tγawsa ibanen i tmaziγt, ad teldi tiwwura u lxerṣ̣um ad teqbel ad tettusselmed tmaziγt u ad yili unadi fell-as deg tesdawiyin n Tizi Wezzu akk d Ldzayer tamaneγt. D ay-a ay yes d-yewεed uneγlaf (lewzir) n usselmed aεlayan n tallit-nni, A. Bererhi.

D acu kan, dindin kan teqqel ddula γer weqmaḍ-ines. Tebda la tferren wid ara teṭṭef u ad ten-tawey γer lḥebs (maci d imeγnasen n menwala) i wakk-n ad tesseεreq tikli i umussu (mouvement) amaziγ.

Asmi ay ifuk useqqamu alemmas n FLN askasi-ines (débat) γef yedles aγelnaw ay d-yellan gar Yunyu d Yunyuz n 1981, iga-d timeγtusin (résolutions) γef yedles, dγa tebda tikli n ddula la d-tettban. Ddula tεawed yefren ad tkemmel deg timuγliwin-ines tiquranin imi askasi-a yefra-tt-id dakk-n tamagit (identité) tadzayrit d taεṛabt-tineslemt. Llan kra n yemdanen seg wid yettekkan deg weskasi-nni, nnan-d dakk-n mazal zemrent ad ilint lemcawṛat γef temsalt-a (γas ma yella timuγliwin n yemdanen-a llant beεdent s waṭas γef tid n yimeγnasen [militants] imaziγen), d acu kan, d wid yettnaγen γef tesnakta (idéologie) taεṛabt ay yernan deg weskasi-a. Yagi, aṭas n yiseggasen seg wasmi ay bdan yemsaεṛaben (arabistes) d yemsaεṛaben-isenselmen (arabo-islamistes) la keccmen u la ttaṭṭafen akk tisuda (institutions) n tesnakta n ddula, ladγa deg yedles, deg usselmed u deg ukabar (parti) n FLN.

Imeγnasen (militants) n tmaziγt εerḍen tikkelt taneggarut "ad ḥeṛsen ddula swadda", dγa gren-d tiγri i medden, deg wass n 26 Ctembeṛ, akk-n ad gen asunded amatu (grève générale) u ad γanzun (boycotter) aγerbaz (llakul), d acu kan, tikkelt-nni, medden ur ten-ḍfiren ara akk-n yessefk acku, mebla ccek, ur yeffiγ ara fell-asen way-nni deg tegnit-nni. Dγa, iban-asen-d i yimeγnasen n tmaziγt dakk-n ulac d acu ara asen-d-tefk ddula, wanag taneggarut-a la tqeddec akk-n ad yeqqim kullec akk-n yella zik, bitt, tebda la tqeddec akk-n ad tessejhed asseεṛeb. Ay-a iban-d deg tuqqla (rentrée) γer tesdawit deg 1981, imi ay teεzem ddula ad tesseεṛeb akk ifurkawen (branches) n tussniwin talsanin (sciences humaines) deg tesdawit. Dγa iban dakk-n ddula tebγa d nettat kan ara iḥekmen tasnakta (idéologie) sdaxel n tesdawit.

Seg yimir-nni, imeγnasen (militants) n tmaziγt εawden ṣ̣eggmen iman-nsen akk-n ad d-awin tikli ara idumen, yernu d ay-n kan ara yeffγen fell-asen. Dγa bdan la d-ssuffuγen tisufaγ (publications), γas sεint ara ttesriḥ, maca ddula ur tgi acemma akk-n ad teḥbes afraq-nsent, yernu tisufaγ-a llant d ttawil ay yes sseddan yimeγnasen isalan (lexbarat) ilelliyen akk d weskasi-nsen (débat) γef tekta (lfekrat) deg Tmurt n Leqbayel. Daγen, sbedden-d yimeγnasen tirebbaε n leqdic γef yinurar yerzan iles d yedles : dγa bdant trebbaε-a la qeddcent γef usseqεed n yiles amaziγ (la d-bennun awalen itekniyen [techniques]), u ssawḍen ad d-ssuffγen iqeddicen yemmuzzgen (spécialisés), werjin ttwagan-d uqbel deg tmaziγt, am "Tmawalt n Tusnakt" (Léxique de mathématiques). Daγen, bdan yimeγnasen la ttgen timsirin (dduṛus) i usselmed n (tira) tmaziγt s tuffra. S way-a, qqlen yimeγnasen ur la ttnadin ara ad asen-d-tefk ddula kra, wanag llan la qeddcen yal ass akk-n ad d-bnun amussu (mouvement) ijehden ugar yernu d win ur nezmir ad yens : d idles amaziγ ay izemren i yiman-is yernu yettuwehha γer yimal (avenir). D ay-a ay yejjan imeγnasen ad d-sbedden tasγunt (revue) Tafsut, ay yettwagan i lmend n tezrawin d weskasi (études et débats). Tafsut teqqel d ttawil ay deg aggagen (intellectuels) imaziγen qqlen la d-ttarun ay-n ttxemmimen γef temsal n yedles.

Daγen, yella mazal la d-yettili wembaddel gar waggagen (intellectuels) d wegdud deg Tmurt n Leqbayel; llant aṭas n tegnatin ay deg ttemlilin am yibarazen (galas) d leqdicat ay d-yettilin ladγa deg tesdawit n Tizi Wezzu. Yuγ lḥal, deg yiseggasen ay d-iḍefren tafsut n 1980, tkemmel teddert tdukli-nni yellan gar waggagen d yegdud, u ay-a yettban-d s tmeskanin-nni (timesbaniyin) ay d-yellan deg yiseggasen n 1980, u ay deg tikkwal llan-d yimenγiyen meγγren gar yelmeẓyen d yibulisen deg wakk timiwa n Tmurt n Leqbayel. Γef umedya (lemtel), asmi ay ttwaṭṭfen sebεa n yimeγnasen (militants) n tmaziγt deg Fuṛaṛ n 1985, dindin kan kkren-d akk medden n Tmurt n Leqbayel (llant-d tmeskanin deg Tizi Wezzu, deg Bgayet, deg Yiεeẓẓugen, ...). Deg umezwaru n Nwembeṛ, ttwaṭṭfen medden deg temsalt-nni n Temγunt tadzayrit n yizerfan n wemdan (Ligue algérienne des droits de l'homme), yili tamγunt-a llan la ttekkan deg-s yimeγnasen n tmaziγt s waṭas. D ay-n ay yessekren ccwal d ameqran u deg tgara, ixxamen n ccṛeε n tmiwa ay deg tekker ḥekmen-d lḥebs i wazal n meyya n medden γef ljal n ccwal.

Seg 1980 [γer 1990], nezmer ad d-nini dakk-n azal n 300 n medden ay yettucaṛεen yernu yettwaḥkem fell-asen lḥebs γef ljal n yimenγi γef tmaziγt ama deg Tmurt n Leqbayel, ama deg Ldzayer tamaneγt (attekki deg tmeskanin [timesbaniyin], afraq n tewriqin, attekki deg leqdicat d lecγal yeqqnen γer ussutter n tmaziγt). Ma d wid ay yettwaṭṭfen sakk-in bran-asen-d mebla ma εeddan deg ccṛeε, wid yettwaṭṭfen deg yexxamen n yibulisen, wid yettwaḥebsen tallit γezzifen mebla ssebba, wid ay d-γerrqen seg yiγerbazen (llakulat), wid umi kksen ipaspuṛen-nsen u menεen-ten ad ffγen seg tmurt, wigi akk ur nezmir ad ten-id-neḥseb : tiγawsiwin-a llant ḍerrunt-d yal ass, qqlent d tarutint ay nnummen akk yimeγnasen (militants) n tmaziγt. Dγa, ay-a akk yessnakay-aγ-d amek ay tefka temsalt n tmaziγt iẓuran deg wegdud deg Tmurt n Leqbayel, medden qqlen sskanayen-d s lejheṛ tamagit-nsen (identité) tamaziγt deg Tmurt n Leqbayel. Γas ma tessukk ddula acḥal n yiseggasen n lḥeṛs d weqmaḍ γef wegdud, maca ay-a ur yessaweḍ ara ad yeqḍeε ay-n izedγen deg wulawen n medden. Ccwal yekkren deg 1985-1986 deg Tmurt n Leqbayel yella d win iweεṛen ugar n win n 1980, u yessken-d dakk-n medden ukin-d deg tama-a, yernu amussu (mouvement) amaziγ yessaweḍ ad d-yessuffeγ urfan n medden γer lejheṛ u qqlen medden, ama deg tmurt n Ldzayer, ama deg umaḍal (ddunit) slan s temsalt-a n tmaziγt u ttḍafaren-tt.

Lejnas steεṛfen s ljehd n umussu* amaziγ

  • mouvement

D ay-n ibanen dakk-n amussu (mouvement) amaziγ εawnen-t-id s waṭas yiminigen (iγriben) imaziγen. Iminigen-a yekkan acḥal n yiseggasen deg lbeṛṛani yernu sεan ttejṛiba deg temsal n tsertit, d nitni ay iεawnen amussu ay yekkren deg tmurt n Leqbayel akk-n ad yemmager u ad yeṣ̣ber i weqmaḍ (répression) n ddula. Amussu amaziγ yeqqel yesεa ineṭṭaqen (porte-paroles) deg lγerba, d wid ay yellan la ttxebbiren lejnas γef way-n la iḍerrun deg Tmurt n Leqbayel : seg 1980 d asawen, teqqel tγamsa (presse) la d-tessawaḍ isalan (lexbarat) n way-n iḍerrun deg Tmurt n Leqbayel ugar n zik. D ay-a ay yejjan ddula ur tesseqdac ara aqmaḍ (répression) ameqran deg Tmurt n Leqbayel u tuwey-d tikli ay deg tḥuder imezdaγen n tama-a. D ay-a daγen ay yejjan medden ad qqlen ad ttarun neγ ad ssawalen mebla akukru, mebla ma sneqsen ay-n ay ugaden ur as-iεejjeb ara i ddula, u d ay-a ay d-ikecfen aqmaḍ n ddula, u teqqel tneggarut-a ur tezmir ara ad teqmeḍ medden s tsusmi, ur isell yiwen, am zik-nni. Azal n εecrin n yiseggasen ay teqqim ddula, yinabaḍen-ines (lḥukumat) yemxallafen, la tqemmeḍ, la tettakel γef yizerfan (lḥuquq) d tellyin, u tuweḍ alama ay d asseqdec n uεetteb d tmenγiwt ! Akk-n ad tefk lḥeqq i yiman-is u ad teg lecγal-a akk, ddula tettḥaṛab akk wid ay d-yekkren γer-s s yisem n Tegrawla (Révolution) yessuffγen Fṛansa u s yisem n yimenγi mgal (contre) n temnukda (imprérialisme). Deg tallit-nni, llan medden yettwakren, ttwaṭṭfen mebla lqanun, ttuεettben mebla ma yewlawel yiwen u mebla ma faqent trebbaε tibeṛṛaniyin yettnaγen γef yizerfan (lḥuquq) n wemdan u ad d-lhunt s temsal-a.

Seg 1980 d asawen, ttuwehhant akk teftilin γef Ldzayer, ladγa γef Tmurt n Leqbayel : ay-n yebγu teg-it ddula akk-n ad teḥbes tikli n yisalan (lexbarat), ur tessaweḍ ara, medden akk ẓran. Seg yimir-n, ddula teqqel teẓra dakk-n ur tezmir ara ad tkemmel aqmaḍ (répression) s tuffra.

Deg lweqt ay deg llant la d-ḍerrunt tedyanin deg tmurt, deg lγerba, imeγnasen bdan-d leqdic n wesḥulfu (sensibilisation) d ussaki n medden, alama ay yeqqel umussu (mouvement) amaziγ la d-ijebbed u la yettqenniε Idzayriyen yellan deg lγerba ugar n Tdukli n Yidzayriyen deg Tuṛuft (Amicale des Algériens en Europe), yellan, deg tidet, d tarbaεt itebεen γer FLN deg lbeṛṛani.

Daγen, deg tallit-nni, bdan wid yessawalen tamaziγt deg lγerba s timmad-nsen la d-ttarun idlisen ussnanen (scientifiques) γef tmaziγt, dγa d ay-a ay yekkan ibeṛṛaniyen ad d-rren ugar lwelha-nsen γer way-n iḍerrun deg Tmurt n Leqbayel. Asmi ay bdan Yimazγanen (Maghrébins) la d-lehhun nitni s timmad-nsen s tezrawin (études) γef tmaziγt, tebda la tettebεad takti-nni (lfekra) dakk-n d timura « listiεmeṛ » ara ijebbden lexyuḍ. Ay-n d-ttinin neγ ttarun-t-id yimassanen-a (savants) imazγanen d ay-n zemren ad t-amnen medden, d nitni ara d-yessawalen γef yiman-nsen, maci d wiyaḍ ara d-ineṭṭqen deg umur-nsen. Imi ay d-lhan id-s yimazγanen (maghrébins) n tmura yemgerraden n Tefriqt n Ugafa, tebda « tmesmaziγt » (berbérisme) la tetteqqel d amussu (mouvement) n uxemmem iḥuzan akk tama-a, ur yeqqim ara kan deg yiwet n tmurt.


Timmuzγa* akk d tugdut

  • amazighité

Γas ma yella imussa isnaktanen (mouvement idéologiques) deg tmura n Tmazγa (Maghreb) mgerraden, maca tella yiwet n tγawsa ay ten-yesdukklen : Tamazγa d taεṛabt yernu s kra n leqdic ara yettwagan γef yedles, yessefk ad yeqqim kan deg tlisa-a. Ma d timmuzγa (amazighité), ya tettwankeṛ maḍi, ya tettwaḥqer alama ay d ay-n kan. Win yessawalen tamaziγt, imi ay yettwankeṛ am wakk-a, ur yessefk ara ad newhem mi ara t-nwali yettsuγu-d : « Ala ! Lliγ yernu mazal bγiγ ad iliγ azekka ! ». D ay-n ibanen ad d-yini ay-a, d lḥeqq-is.

D ay-n ibanen dakk-n ankaṛ akk d tririt-agi deg rrif d ay-n ara iḍurren Amaziγ s timmad-is, maca ay-a yezmer ad yili daγen d amihi (danger) i tmetti (société) s lekmal-is, imi, mi ara tessers ddula tilisa am tigi i yedles, ad teqqel tmuγli n yedles d tamuγli tuḥṛist, d tin ur nettaẓ γer sdat, d tin ur nqebbel wiyaḍ, d tin wesdukkel n bessif n wakk medden s ddaw n yiwet n tecḍaḍt, d tin ay deg ay-n ur tebγi ara ddula ad t-tekkes, γas yella deg yedles, u d tin ay deg ttin ledwaṛ gar ddula d wegdud : deg lweqt ay deg idles d agdud ay t-id-yettgen, ad teqqel d ddula d nettat ara t-id-yettgen i wegdud. Skud ur werεad ur steεṛfen ara yimezdaγen n Tmazγa (Maghreb) s wakk ay-n yellan deg tgemmi-nsen (patrimoine), werjin ad d-ffγen seg ḍḍeεfan d tiggunẓit tadelsant (sous-développement culturel). Ur yezmir ad d-yili wesnulfu wala tudert tadelsant n tidet mi ara tqeddec ddula akk-n ad ttun medden amezruy (ttarix) d yedles-nsen, mi ara d-tḥettem fell-asen (u γef yiman-is) lḥeqq d umezruy n tkellax, mi ara tbennu azekka n tmetti (société) γef tmucuha werjin nelli deg lweqt ay deg tejja ay-n yellan.

Ḍḍeεfan ay yeḍεef yedles deg tmura n Tmazγa (Maghreb) u ladγa deg Ldzayer d ay-n ay d-yurew wemnaε ay ttwamenεent waṭas n tγawsiwin seg seg wasmi ay uwyent tmura-a izurag-nsent (indépendances) : tamaziγt teqqel deg rrif, maca daγen, tettuḥaṛeb tefṛensist yellan, ama nebγa neγ negguma, d ttawil yuγen aẓar deg Tmazγa u d yiwen seg yilsawen igan leqran i yedles d ccfawat-nneγ. Ay-a yerra idles n tmura n Tmazγa d igellil, yernu qrib ulac akk tudert taggagt (intellectuelle) deg yimukan ay teṭṭef ddula. Axemmem yeddren, idles yeqqnen γer tidet ttafen kan iman-nsen beṛṛa i tsuda (institutions) n ddula, ttilin-d kan deg yimukan idergen i wallen n ddula, ladγa deg lbeṛṛani. Yagi, maci deg lbaṭel ara naf dakk-n amur ameqran deg way-n d-itteffγen deg yedles d tudert taggagt (intellectuelle), itteffeγ-d s tmaziγt neγ s tefṛensist. Ay-a ur yebγi ara ad d-yini dakk-n taεṛabt ur tezmir ara ad tesseddu idles amuddir, wanag ssebba nettat iles-a, deg tegnit ay deg nella, ata-n gar yifassen n d wid yeṭṭfen tasertit (politique) d tesnakta (idéologie) n ddula.

Akk Imazγanen (Maghrébins), ama d wid yessawalen s tmaziγt neγ d wid yessawalen s taεṛabt, ala d rrbeḥ kan ara rebḥen lemmer ad ḥesben timmuzγa d aḥric seg wayla-nsen. Asmi ara mṣ̣alaḥen Yimazγanen wagar-asen u ad qeblen tikkersit (complexité) d tenḍa (diversité) n tmagit (identité) d yedles-nsen, ass-nni, tezmer ad teqqel Tmazγa d tamurt n wesnulfu d unnerni. Tukci n wazal i tmaziγt d ay-n ara yesqeεden assaγen (relations) gar uγerman (citoyen) d ddula ay t-iḥekmen. Amussu (mouvement) n tmaziγt d win ay d-yeglan yid-s s ussutter n tuggta (pluralisme), n weqbal n wiyaḍ, n tenḍa (diversité) akk d tlelli (liberté), ama d tin n wemdan, ama d tin n terbaεt. Amussu-a yugi ad ttuḥettmen medden ad ddren s ddaw n yiwet kan n tecḍaḍt, tin ara tḥettem fell-asen ddula u d tin ay izemren ad tγurr kra akk-n ad sbedden leḥkem amesbaṭli. Tabṛat n umussu-a tban, ladγa deg Tmurt n Leqbayel : maci d ddula ara d-yesnulfun neγ ara d-yebnun « idles » i wegdud, yernu ay-nni ur yelli d idles wanag d timucuha tunṣ̣ibin (officielles) ara qebleγ mebla ma nniγ-d acemma. S yisem-iw d aγerman ilelli, ttalaseγ ad d-iniγ d acu ay lliγ, d acu ay bγiγ ad qqleγ u ad bnuγ ay-a. Tamagit-inu (identité), idles-inu ur llin ara, akk-n ay d-yenna Kateb Yacine, d akaram (dossier) n lekwaγeḍ ay d-tga ddula, d win ay tettbeddil akk-n ay as-yehwa, ma d nekk ad qebleγ ay-n s tsusmi. Idles d ay-n ay d-tesnulfuy yal ass tmetti (société) tilellit.

Γef way-a, amussu (mouvement) amaziγ ur yelli d win ay yes bγan Yimaziγen ad γelqen γef yiman-nsen, d amussu uḥṛis yerzan kan kra n wegdud, neγ d taγelnaẓri (nationalisme) tamaynut am tid-n akk yekkan : wanag, assutter amaziγ d win ay d-yuwyen taγawsa tamaynut, d tin ay yugaren iεeddan i tlisa n tmaziγt-nni s timmad-is, d assirem i lebni n tmetti (société) ay deg tella tenḍa (diversité), ay deg medden mṣ̣alaḥen wagar-asen yernu maci d amnaε, aḥqar d wenkaṛ ara yesseddayen tiγawsiwin n tmurt. Ad tili tlelli tadelsant (culturelle) d tlelli i yiles amaziγ, maca daγen ad tili tlelli i wakk medden, acku wid yessawalen tamaziγt fehmen dakk-n ur zmiren ara ad ttwaḍemnen yizerfan-nsen (lḥuquq) s tidet u ad dumen deg yiwet tmetti (société) ala ma yella d aγerman (citoyen) ara yeṭṭfen leḥkem yernu amdan ur itteqqel ara ittedder u itteddu akk-n ay as-yehwa i ddula neγ i kra n terbaεt yerran leḥkem d ayla-s.

Yettwakkes-d seg « Imazighen ass-a », n Salem Chaker (tiẓrigin Bouchène, Ldzayer, 1990).

Tasuqilt sγur Omar MOUFFOK

Tamselyut[beddel]

Sɣur Amnay http://www.imyura.net

Amezruy n Tefsut n Yimaziγen yessuqqel-it-id Omar MOUFFOK - Tiddukla Tadelsant Imedyazen, [1]

http://membres.lycos.fr/cicbgayet/ch20avril80.html

  • Imazighen ass-a, n Salem Caker (tiẓrigin Bouchène, Lezzayer, 1990).