Tafriqt

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Tefriqt deg umaḍal

Tafriqt d yiwen seg yimenẓawen umi mechur (yettwassen) yisem deg umaḍal. Acku, medden ur tt-ssinen ara dima s wayen yelhan. Aṭas n medden deg umaḍal ur nessin ara ɣef Tefriqt amur ameqran, ttxayalen-tt d akal anda ay yugar ccwal, imgura (war) akk d imenɣan, d akal kan anda ay ttmettaten igerdan si laẓ yernu gten (tuqqten) deg-s waṭṭanen, d akal n lqella n cci anda medden akk d igellilen.

Maca Tafriqt maci ala d anect-a. Tafriqt tteččur d igduden, d agaraw, d ill (sea) n yegduden neɣ n yemdanen (human), yal yiwen s tutlayt-is, s yedles d umezruy-is. Ar ass-a werɛad ssinen imassanen akk tutlayin ay ttmeslayen di Tefriqt, neɛ mazal ay tent-ɣrin merra akken iwata (ilaq) ad yeli. Ar ass-a, werɛad ur ssinen ara imassanen ansayen (traditions) d yidelsan n yegduden merra ay izedɣen Tafriqt, werɛad ur d-lqiḍen ara seg-sen akk ayen inwamken (imaɛnen), tamussni-nsen d wayen yeffren deg yidelsan-nsen. Ass-a, mi akka ara tkeccem tetrara ɣer yal amkan, ɣer yal axjiḍ deg umaḍal, aṭas seg yegduden n Tefriqt ara yesruḥuyen ansayen d yidelsan-nsen, yernu yessefk ɣef yimassanen ad rren tamuɣli/ d wallaɣ-nsen ɣer waya uqbel ma yezri ukud.

Tafriqt tefka-d aṭas i tudert n wemdan, ama s tmussni-yines, ama s wayen ay tesɛa d cci d teɣawsiwin, ama d akal, ama d imdanen. Ass-a, ur yessefk ara ad qqnen (medlen) medden allen-nsen ɣef waya. Xas ma yella lbaṭel-nni yettwaxedmen deg Yefriqiyen, di tallit n tehrest (colonisation) iɛedda, yekfa, medden yessefk ad walin Tafriqt ad as-rren tajmilt i Tefriqt u ad tt-walin s wallen nniḍen, yessefk ad gren tamawt i wayen d-tefka i ddunit d umaḍal, i ddur ay telṭeb deg umezruy n umaḍal u ad gren tamawt diɣ i wayen ara d-tettak Tefriqt ass-a akk d yigerwaj ay d-mazal ffren deg-s.

Igduden n Tefriqt[beddel]

Igduden n Tefriqt ṭṭuqten (ggten) macci d kra, seg Yimaziɣen ɣer Yimaṣriyen n wass-a, arraw n Yimaṣriyen iqburen, ɣer Yinubiyen d Yityupiyen, ɣer Yiwulufen d Yizuluten. Ulac amkan ur neɣmir (neccur) ara di Tefriqt. Qrib yal tamurt tesɛa timerwin (dizaines) n yegduden, merra sɛan tutlayin-nsen, ansayen d yidelsan-nsen d waṭas n tɣawsiwin nniḍen ara yelmed fell-asen umaḍal neɣ igduden-is merra.

Tafriqt ugafa[beddel]

Tafriqt

Deg Ugafa n Tefriqt, imezdaɣen ineṣliyen d Imaziɣen, d nitni ay d amur ameqran deg yimezdaɣen n Tmazɣa, xas ma yella aṭas deg-sen ass-a la ttmeslayen taɛrabt neɣ/ akk d Tefransist. Imaziɣen egan-d tilas i wakal d ameqran, yewwet seg wemda n Siwa, deg Utaram (lɣerb) n Maṣer alamma alamma d Targa Zewwaɣen d Muritanya, ɣef yiri n ugaraw Aṭlasi. Yuɣ lḥal, d Imaziɣen ay d agdud n Tefriqt awḥid ay d-iḥerren anect-agi n wakal, imi amur ameqran deg yegduden ifriqiyen nniḍen, tikwal sɛan kan akal d amecṭuḥ, tikwal bitt, cerken-t akk d yegduden nniḍen. Imaziɣen ttumḍanen d agdud n yiri (race) amellal, xas ma yella nettaf gar-asen aṭas n yimibriken d yiberkanen. Aṭas n Yimaziɣen ay d-mazal la ttmeslayen tamaziɣt, yernu deg yiseggasen-agi ineggura, aṭas n trebbaɛ timaziɣin ay d-yennulfan i wakken ad wwtent u ad ḥerzent tutlayt-nsent. Xas ma yella tantalyin (dialectes) ay ttmeslayen Yimaziɣen mxallafent si tama ɣer tayeḍ, maca kkant-d akk seg yiwen n uẓar, seg yiwet n tutlayt, yernu yeshel ɣef waṭas n trebbaɛ timaziɣin ad msefhament wagar-asent s tutlayt-nsent, xas ma yella mxallafent tentalyin-nsent. Imaziɣen mazal ṭṭfen deg waṭas n wansayen (lɛaddat), ladɣa wid yettidiren di Merruk akk d Uneɣruf (Sahara), d acu kan, ass-a, aṭas n wansayen imaziɣen ay yellan ɣef (af) yiri n nnger, la ten-ttağğan medden yernu ur d asen-ttgen ara azal d leqder. Nnig waya, ula d tutlayt tamaziɣt la tettuɣal ɣer deffir deg waṭas n tmiwa n Tmazɣa, medden la tt-ttağğan, ilmeẓyen ur a ttlemmden ara, dɣa yessefk ad yettwaxdem kra n leqdic s uɣiwel i lmend n ussukkes n tutlayt di tmiwa-ya.

Akal n Yimaziɣen, seg wakken meqqer aramma ay yewweḍ ɣer wul n Tefriqt. D Imuhaɣ neɣ Imucaɣ ay d tarbaɛt n Yimaziɣen ay yesɛan akal meqqren akk, xas akken ur ṭṭuqqten ara. Akal-nsen d Aneẓruf (Idurar n Tasili, n Ayer di Niger, atg.), yernu imi ay zgan leḥḥun, ttruḥun nitni d lmal-nsen seg wemkan ɣer wayeḍ, wwḍen ɣer waṭas n tmiwa di Tefriqt. Imuhaɣ xulḍen aṭas n yegduden ifriqiyen ay ten-id-iqerben, nitni fkan-asen u wwin-d aṭas seg-sen. Ass-a, nezmer ad naf Imuhaɣ di Niger d Mali, am wakken ay nezmer ad naf kra n trebbaɛ-nsen di Čad, Burkina Faso akk d Nigeria. Deg wenẓul n Uneẓruf (Niger akk d Mali), aṭas n yegduden ifriqiyen ay yettidiren ɣer tama n Yimuhaɣ, nezmer ad d-nebder seg-sen Ibambaraten, Ifularen akk d Yisarakuliyen. Kra seg yegduden-agi kessen lmal am Yimuhaɣ, di lweqt i deg wiyaḍ xeddmen tafellaḥt. Yuɣ lḥal, akal n wenẓul n Uneẓruf ɛeddan deg-s yisafen, d aya ay t-yerran d agilal, meḥsub yelha i tfellaḥt. Nnig waya, isafen n tama-yagi ldin diɣ iberdan i waṭas n yegduden i wakken ad xeddmen tanezzawt (ttjara), ad znuzun u ad ttaɣen d yegduden merra ay ten-id-iqerben. Idyulaten n Burkina Faso, Côte ḍIvoire akk d Senegal d yiwen seg yegduden n Tefriqt Taɣerbit ay yettwassnen s tnezzawt.

Tafriqt Umalu[beddel]

Di lɣerb, igduden ay yettidiren ɣef yiri n Ugaraw Aṭlasi lhan-d s waṭas d ṣṣyada n yiselman. Imuriṭaniyen (laṣel-nsen d Imaziɣen) d yegduden n yiri n lebḥer n Senegal ttwassnen s ṣṣyada. Di Tefriqt Taɣerbit llant waṭas n tmura yesɛan tiẓegwa timeqranin. D acu kan, tiẓegwa n Tefriqt ɛemrent. Zik, igduden ay izedɣen tiẓegwa-yagi llan la ttidiren s ṣṣyada n yiɣersiwen d tukksa n wayen ay d-yettak wakal. Ass-a, aṭas deg yegduden-agi ay yeǧǧan aya. Di tmiwa-yagi diɣ, igduden Ifriqiyen sbedden-d aṭas n tgeldiyin (royaumes), yernu asmi ay bdan la d-ttawḍen Wurufiyen ɣer Tefriqt, di lqern wis 15, aṭas si tgeldiyin-agi ay yellan la xeddment tanezzawt (ttjara) d Wurufiyen. Tageldit n ɣana (ay d-sbedden Wacantiyen) tella tettwassen s ddheb-yines, yernu aṭas n tgeldiyin tifriqiyin n tama-yagi ay yellan la znuzuyent aklan (ay d-ttaṭṭafent si tmiwa nniḍen) i Wurufiyen i wakken ad ten-awin ad ten-sxedmen di Marikan. Yuɣ lḥal, amur ameqran deg yiberkanen yellan ass-a di Marikan laṣel-nsen si Tefriqt Taɣerbit.

Tafriqt Usamer[beddel]

Tafriqt

Di Tefriqt Tacerqit, llan waṭas n yegduden ay yettmeslayen tutlayin tisamiyin d tutlayin tikuciyin. Tutlayin tisamiyin d tawacult n tutlayin i deg nezmer ad naf taɛrabt d tutlayin yettemcabin ɣur-s, am tɛebrit (hébreu) neɣ tafiniqit n zik. D acu kan, menɣir taɛrabt (ay ttmeslayen di tmura am Ssudan, Ǧibuti d Iritirya), tutlayin tisamiyin n Tefriqt nezmer ad d-nebder seg-sent tamharit d ttigrinyat (ttmeslayen-tent di Ityupya d Iritirya). Igduden n tmiwa-yagi, xas d iberkanen (neɣ d imibriken), maca ḍebɛen, imi lejdud-nsen, di laṣel, llan d imellalen ay ixelḍen d iberkanen. Igduden-agi daɣen lhan-d d tfellaḥt akk d tkessawt, yemxallaf wacu xeddmen ɣef leḥsab n wakal i deg ttidiren. Wid yettmeslayen tutlayin tikuciyin ttidiren di tama tameṭṭarfut n Tefriqt tacerqit, tama-nni umi qqaren Iccew n Tefriqt, u ad naf gar-asen Iṣumaliyen, ay d-yelhan ladɣa s tkessawt n wakraren.

Di Tefriqt Talemmast akk d ccerq n Tefriqt Tasebgast (équatoriale), llan yizaɣaren d imeqranen yernu d izegzawen. Imezdaɣen n tmiwa-ya lhan-d d tkessawt n yezgaren. Agdud yettwassnen s tkessawt-agi d Imasayen n Kenya d Tanzanya. Imasayen ttwassnen s lqedd-nsen aɛlayan d uceṭṭiḍ-nni azewwaɣ ay settwen, itteṣṣer-iten si tgecrar alamma d idmaren. Aṭas n Yimasayen ay d-mazal la ttidiren tudert-nni n zik, teddun d yezgaren-nsen deg yizaɣaren-nni anda ay d-mazal la ttidiren waṭas n yiɣersiwen iweḥciyen. Maca Imasayen uɣen tanumi d yiɣersiwen-agi, yernu ula d izmawen ttagaden-ten, ur ttqerriben ara ɣer lmal-nsen.

Kenya akk d Tanzanya sɛant akal igerrzen i tfellaḥt, yernu amur ameqran seg yegduden n tmiwa-yagi ttidiren seg wayen ay d-yettak wakal. Ikikuyuten d yiwen wegdud n Kenya, zik llan sɛan aṭas n wakal, ḥerren-t-id s yiɣil-nsen, yernu llan sɛan ddewla teǧhed. Asmi ay d-wwḍen Yebriṭaniyen ɣer Kenya, di tgara n lqern wis 19, kksen-asen akal-nsen, ama i nitni, ama i yegduden nniḍen. Yuɣ lḥal, igduden-agi, arraw n wakal, gguman ad ssusmen u gan ṭṭrad meqqren i wakken ad ssuffɣen imsehres (colonisateur) si tmurt-nsen. Igduden yettidiren ɣef yiri n Ugaraw Ahendi (océan Indien), si tama-nsen, čudd tudert-nsen ɣer lebḥer (am wid-nni Tefriqt Taɣerbit), maca nnig waya, igduden-agi ttwassnen s ttjara-nsen taqdimt akk d Waɛraben. Amur ameqran deg yimezdaɣen n tefsirin (côtes) n Tefriqt Tacerqit d Inselmen, yernu ttmeslayen yiwet n tutlayt umi qqaren taswaḥilit, yis-s ay ttemsefhamen ula akk d yegduden ifriqiyen nniḍen. Yuɣ lḥal, taswaḥilit d tutlayt taɣelnawt di Kenya akk d Tanzanya, yernu nezmer ad d-nini dakken tuɣal d tutlayt tagraɣlant i yes ttemsefhamen waṭas n yegduden di Tefriqt Tacerqit d Tefriqt Tasebgast (équatoriale).

Tafriqt Tasebgast[beddel]

Ul n Tefriqt Tasebgast yella zik yeččur d tiẓegwa. Timiwa-yagi ttwassnent s Yefɣulen. Wigi d imezdaɣen ineṣliyen n tmiwa-yagi. Xas ma yella zik, tamurt-nsen meqqret (tiẓegwa n Tefriqt Talemmast, Zaïre, Kamirun, atg.), ass-a, ciṭṭaḥ kan maḍi ay d-yeqqimen deg-sen, imi aṭas n lumur ay ten-icewwlen. Ifɣulen d imecṭaḥ, ur ttimɣuren ara. Imeqranen deg-sen sɛɛan azal n lmitra d wezgen di teɣzi. Maci d aḍḍan ay uḍnen, wanag akka kan ay tga ccetla-nsen. Zik, medden llan ttewḥacen-ten imi ay d imeẓyanen yernu ttidiren kan di tẓegwa, anda ay ttṣeggiden ayen tetten. Ass-a, idles-nsen atan la inegger yernu yessefk ad d-rren medden lwelha-nsen ɣur-sen.

Madagascar[beddel]

Amur ameqran deg yegduden n tegzirt n Madagascar ṣubben-d seg Yindunisiyen. Xas ma yella Indunisya d tamurt ibeɛden ɣef Tefriqt, maca, di lqern wis 4 mbeɛd n Sidna Ɛisa, wwḍen-d kra n yemdanen si Indunisya ɣer tegzirt-agi tameqrant, u tneṣṣlen dinna alamma ay d asmi ay ten-id-ufan Waɛraben u uɣalen la xeddmen yid-sen tanezzawt (ttjara). Imalgaciyen ay izedɣen deg yidurar n tegzirt-agi mazal ttemcabin s waṭas di ṣṣifa ɣer Yindunisiyen, yernu tutlayt tamalgacit si twacult n tutlayin tustruniziyin ay ttmeslayen di Asya, am tindunisit.

Tafriqt tanẓulant[beddel]

Tafriqt 1890

Di Tefriqt tanẓulant (australe), llan waṭas n yegduden, nezmer ad ten-nebḍu ɣef snat n trebbaɛ timeqranin. Llan yegduden iqdimen n tama-ya, ur ṭṭuqqten ara, kra deg-sen qrib ad negren, ttidiren di lɣerb n Tefriqt n Wenẓul (Afrique du Sud), Namibya d Botswana. Timiwa i deg ttidiren yegduden-agi d aneẓruf (ṣṣeḥra), kkawent, qrib ur d-imeqqi deg-sent wacemma. Mazal kra seg yegduden-agi la ttidiren tudert n zik, ttṣeggiden-d neɣ ttekksen-d ayen ara ččen seg wayen ay d-yettak wakal. Igduden-agi qqaren-asen Ibucmanen. Isem-agi yekka-d si teglizit „Bushmen“ (San), meḥsub „imdanen n lexla“, maca Ibucmanen bḍan ɣef wacḥal n yegduden d teqbilin, yal agdud yesɛan tutlayt-is.

Llan diɣ yegduden yettmeslayen tutlayin tibantutin, gar-asen, nezmer ad d-nebder Izuluten. Asmi ay d-wwḍen Wurufiyen (européens) ɣer tmiwa-yagi, naqal ṭṭfen kan ciṭṭ n wakal ɣef yiri n ill (sea). D acu kan, asmi ay bdan la keccmen ɣer daxel n tmurt, bdan la ttnaɣen d Yefriqiyen u gan deg-sen lbaṭel d ameqran. Asmi ay tewwi Tefriqt n Wenẓul azarug-yines (indépendance), lḥukuma tamellalt n tmurt-agi tesbedd-d leqwanin i yes tebɣa ad tebḍu ger n Yiberkanen d Yimellalen. Igduden iberkanen qqlen ttwaɛɛezlen ɣer tmiwa anda akal diri-t, yernu ttalasen kan ad d-kecmen ɣer tmiwa n yimellalen i wakken ad xedmen. Asmi ay s-d-bran i Nelson Mandela si lḥebs di 1990, yernu yuɣal d aselway aberkan amezwaru n Tefriqt n Wenẓul, ifuk lbaṭel-nni ay iɛezlen iberkanen. Maca imellalen n Tefriqt n Wenẓul cewwlen ugar (aṭas) igduden iberkanen n tmurt-agi deg yiseggasen-nni n lbaṭel d wayen n diri, yernu later n ccwal-agi mazal-it ar ass-a.

Igduden imaziɣen[beddel]

Ula d Imaziɣen d Ifriqiyen
Langues officielles

Ass-a, mi ara d-nini Tafriqt, amur ameqran di medden fehhmen-tt (gezun-tt) d timura-nni ay d-yuzgan deg wenẓul (south) n Uneɛruf (Sahara), tid-nni anda ay ttidiren yiberkanen, am Niger, Mali akk d Nigeria. Imezdaɣen n Tefriqt n Ugafa neɣ Tamazɣa ruḥen amzun ttsetḍin ad d-inin dakken ula d nitni d Ifriqiyen, acku nitni d imellalen. D acu kan, llant kra n tɣawsiwin s wazal-nsen, yessefk ad asent-nger tamawt deg weḍris-agi.

Tamenzut, Tafriqt d amenẓaw (continent) anda ay mlalen yimellalen d yiberkanen, ulac akk tilisa gar-asen. Akken ay s-yeqqar yiwen n Urumi : “Di Tefriqt ulac iberkanen”, ira ad yini, din medden akk d imdanen, ulac aberkan d umellal. Nezmer ad naf iberkanen di Ldzayer, deg Wenẓul n Tunes d Libya d Merruk. Nnig waya, llan aṭas seg yiberkanen-agi d Imaziɣen, mazal ar ass-a ssawalen tamaziɣt (Tamaceɣt). Anect-a yesskan-ed dakken si zîk, yella yiel (jjwağ ger n Yimaziɣen d yegduden iberkanen ay d-ufan di tmiwa n Uneɛruf Ameqran (Sahara), asmi ay bdan lejdud-nneɣ la d-ttawḍen ɣer Tefriqt. Niger akk d Mali, xas ma yella ssnen-tent medden dakken d “timura n yiberkanen“, maca yessefk ad ɣren dakken llan deg-sent ula d imellalen (Imaziɣen Imuriyen, Aɛraben, atg.).

Tis snat, deg Wegles (Antiquité), d tamurt n Yimaziɣen iw-umi llan ssawalen yegduden n (ill) agrakal “Tafriqt”, yernu d Imaziɣen iw-umi egan isem (eganassag) “Ifriqiyen”. Yagi, isem n Tefriqt s timmad-is yekka-d si tmaziɣt. Anect-a ad t-tafem deg usebter ay d-yettmeslayen ɣef yisem n Tefriqt.

Tis krad, dɣa tagi d tanqiḍt yesɛan azal meqqren, Tamazɣa d amur si Tefriqt. Timura n Lezzayer, Merruk, Libya, Tunes d Muritanya merra d timura n Tefriqt, am wakken Fransa d Lalman d Briṭanya Tameqrant d timura n Turuft. A win yufan, Ifriqiyen merra, ama d wid n Ugafa neɣ d wid n tmura n wenẓul, yessefk ad tezzin iman-nsen ttidiren deg yiwen n umenẓaw, deg yiwen n wakal, yernu, lemmer di yelli wamek, ad myussanen ukk ad mekken afus xir n wakken llan tura, akken myussanen u ttemɛawanen Wurufiyen wagar-asen ass-a. Anect-a yezmer ad as-ibeddel udem i Tefriqt ukk ad tt-iɛiwen ugar i wakken ad d-teffeɣ seg wuguren i deg tettidir ass-a.

Timura n Tafriqt[beddel]

Tamselyut[beddel]



Imenẓawen n Umaḍal
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Tamrikt
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Turuft
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Tafriqt
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Asya
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Tagarawt
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