Kamirun

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République du Cameroun - Republic of Cameroon
Asenǧaq

Asenǧaq Kamiruni
Kamirun
Tamanaɣt Yaoundé
Tutlayt tunṣibt Tagnizit, Tarumit
Tajumma 475,442 km² (wis)
Imedzaɣ 16,322,000 (wis 58)
Imedzaɣ deg km2 34/km² (wis 167)
Isurdiyen CFA franc (XAF)
Carte du Cameroun - Map of Cameroon

Tigduda n Kamirun, d yiwet n tmurt i d-yezgan di tefriqt talemmast ger Nijirya, Ččad, Tigduda n tefriqt tammast, Gabun, Gini n Ikwatur, d Gulf n Gini.

Yiwen n weḥric n wakal n kamirun illa s ddaw laɛnaya n udabu abriṭani (Isem-is Kamruns), ma d wayeḍ illa s ddaw a ifraṣiyen (i yewwin azarug-is deg umenzu n Yennayer 1960). Sin aki yemḍiqen mlalen deg 1961 i wakken ad tlul Tigduda tafidiralit n Kamirun. Deg 20 mayu 1972, tuɣal isem-is Tigduda idduklen n Kamirun. Ma di 1984, tamurt teṭṭef isem unṣib n Tigduda n Kamirun.

Tamsalt n tutlayt di Cameroun[beddel]

Aqeddem[beddel]

Kamirun d yiwet si tmura n Tefriqt taɣerbit, yernu am nettat am tmura nniḍen n tama-ya, tesɛa aṭas n yegduden d waṭas n tutlayin. Kamirun d yiwet si tmura n Tefriqt i deg ttwahdaṛent aṭas n tutlayin (ugar n 200), maca d ayen yessewhamen ma nenna-d dakken ar ass-a, ula d yiwet si tutlayin tifriqiyin n Kamirun ur tuɣal d tutlayt taɣelnawt. Anabaḍ (lḥukuma) n Kamirun yesteɛṛif kan s tefṛensist d teglizit (imi tamurt-agi tettusteɛmeṛ sɣur Legliz d Fṛansa), d nitenti umi tefka azal, xas ma yella yettili-d diɣ umenniɣ ger n snat-agi n tutlayin di tmurt-a. Maca, xas ma yella tutlayin tiɣelnawin n Kamirun tṭuqqtent, qqiment merṛa di rrif, yernu aya maci d ayen yelhan i wegdud. Imi imḍebbren n tmurt ttmeslayen u qeddcen kan s tutlayt taberṛanit, amur ameqran deg Yikamruniyen ḍhan-d amzun ttwaɛezlen di tmurt-nsen, ur fehhmen d acu ara ttmeslayen wid yellan nnig-nsen, yernu unjug-agi (obstacle) n tutlayt yergel-asen abrid i waṭas n yimezdaɣen n tmurt-a i wakken ad ttekkin di tsertit (politique) n tmurt-nsen. Maci ala d Kamirun ay yellan di tegnit-agi, wannag llant aṭas n tmura nniḍen di Tefriqt ara yettidiren akka : tadɣert (élite) tesɛa tutlayt-is, d tin i yes tezmer ad teḥkem tamurt s yiles ay tfehhem nettat, iles n umesbaṭli aqdim, di lweqt i deg agdud yellan s ddaw-atsen ttmeslayen-as kan s yiles-is asmi ara t-ḥwiǧen ad yedɣer (ad yebbuṭi). Xas ma yella Cameroun d tamurt yewwin azarug-is , asmi ay tt-ffɣent Fṛansa d Legliz, ur d-dǧint ara amkan-nsent d ilem, wanag imḍebbren n tmurt, xas d arraw n tmurt, qqnen allen-nsen ɣef yilsawen n tmurt-nsen.

Tazwart[beddel]

Tigduda n Cameroun d tamurt tagtutlayt (i deg ggtent tutlayin), i deg llant azal n 247 n tutlayin tineṣliyin n tmurt, yiwet n tutlayt n teywalt (communication - d tapidgint n teglizit) akk d snat n tutlayin tunṣibit , taglizit d tefṛensist. Snat-agi n tutlayin tunṣibit tewṛet-itent-id Cameroun si tallit-nni n tehrest (listiɛmaṛ), asmi Briṭanya d Fṛansa bḍant akal n tmurt-agi wagar-asen ger n tgara n Tṭrad n Umaḍal amezwaru d wasmi ay tewwi tmurt azarug-is . Atṭuqqet n tutlayin di Cameroun maci d ayen yessishilen taywalt (communication) ger yimezdaɣen n tmurt-a; dɣa skud Cameroun ur tesɛi ara tutlayt n teywalt ara yettwafhamen deg tmiwa n tmurt merṛa, amsefham mazal ad yeqqim yewɛeṛ ger Yikamruniyen. Nnig waya, xas ma yella tafṛensist d teglizit d tutlayin tunṣibin di snat di Cameroun, snat-agi n tutlayin ur ɛdilent ara deg wamek ay ttuseqdacent neɣ ttuselmadent, yernu aya iḍurr tasertit n tesnutlayt ay yebɣa ad yelḥu yis-s udabu n Cameroun. Yuɣ lḥal, tasertit n tutlayt di tmurt-a mazal-itt terwi yernu mazal ur d-banen ara yeswan-is : tasertit-agi ur tefki ara akk azal i tutlayin tineṣliyin n tmurt i wakken ad ten-tesnerni, yernu ur tessaweḍ ara ad terr tamurt n Cameroun d tin ay ilehḥun s snat n tutlayin tunṣibin akken yessefk lḥal. Dɣa, tasertit-nni tunṣibt i yes tebɣa naqal Cameroun ad tesdukel tamurt, ass-a tuɣal d ssebba n yemgerraden d wemsefraq aserti. Taluft n tutlayin di Cameroun d taqdimt yernu nezmer ad naf iẓuran-is di tallit n tehrest (listiɛmaṛ), tallit i deg ay d-yella wemgerrad ger tedbelt n tehrest d yemseɣdaden (missionnaires). Ass-a, taluft n Cameroun deg wayen yerzan tutlayin netta d amek ara tefru ugur-agi n utṭuqqet n tutlayin u ad tefru ugur n tutlayt taɣelnawt di lweqt i deg ara tkemmel ad tesselḥay tamurt s wudem amellil (efficacement) s snat tutlayt tunṣibin u ad teg akk ayen yessefken i wakken ad tesserbeḥ aya.

Cameroun s ttfaṣil u s tewzel[beddel]

ɣef leḥsab n CIA Fact Book, di Yulyu 2001, Cameroun tella tesɛa 15.803.220 n yimezdaɣen. Tajumma n Cameroun tewweḍ ɣer 475.442 km², yernu tesɛa tilisa akk d Nigeria deg utaram (lɣerb), akk d Tcad deg ugafa-acerqi , akk d Tegduda n Tefriqt Talemmast di ccerq, akk d Ginya Tasebgast, Gabon d Congo deg wenẓul (sud). Cameroun tesɛa 10 tmiwa tideblanin (administratives), gar-asent snat ttmeslayent s teglizit, ma di tmanya-nni nniḍen, d tafṛensist ay yettwahdaṛen.

Di 1472, asmi ay yewweḍ yemsilel (navigateur) apuṛtugali Fernando Po ɣer temda (bassin) n Biafra, yekcem s uɣerrabu-yines ɣer wasif n Wouri ay d-yuzgan ɣef yiri n lebḥeṛ. Po yewhem mi ay iwala dakken llan yiqayemrunen (crevettes) deg wasif-nni, dɣa d aya ay t-yedǧan ad as-isemmi i wasif-agi "Rio dos Camarões" (asif n yiqayemrunen). Dɣa d wa ay d isem ay fkan i tmurt-nni merṛa. Asmi ay d-usan Walmaniyen akken ad tṭfen tamurt-a, semman-as "Kamerun". Igliziyen, asmi ay d-wwḍen, semman-as "Cameroon", ma d Ifṛensisen llan qqaren-as "Cameroun". Di 1884, tekcem Lalman ɣer Cameroun, u yebda-d leḥkem almani ɣef tmurt-a asmi ay stenyan Walmaniyen amtawa (leɛqed) ger tmurt-nsen d Yedoualaten (yiwen seg yegduden n Cameroun) di Yulyu n 1884, dɣa seg yimir-nni ay tuɣal Cameroun d tanemzuɣt (protectorat) talmanit. Maca asmi ay texṣer Lalman Ttṛad n Umaḍal amezwaru (di 1916), Fṛansa d Briṭanya bḍant Cameroun wagar-asent. Naqal llant ḥekment tamurt-a s ddaw n lewkala n Temɣunt n Yeɣlanen (Société des Nations), sakkin, d Tuddsa n Yeɣlanen Yedduklen (ONU) ay ikemmlen twekkel Fṛansa d Briṭanya i wakken ad kemmlent ad tṭfent Cameroun. Briṭanya ṣaḥent-tt-id snat n tesfifin n wakal, llan deg-sent azal n 90.000 km² yernu uzgant-d ɣef tlisa n Nigeria. Tasfift-nni n wakal ay d-yuzgan deg ugafa (nord) llan qqaren-as "Cameroun Tabriṭanit n Ugafa" (British Northert Cameroons), ma d tin n wenẓul qqaren-as "Cameroun Tabriṭanit n Wenẓul" (Southern British Cameroons"). D Fṛansa umi d-iṣaḥ umur ameqran si Cameroun yernu tefka-yas i umur-agi leḥkem-is i yiman-is, wanag Briṭanya, si Lagos, di Nigeria, ay tella la tesselḥay lumuṛ n wakalen-is di Cameroun.

Cameroun tafṛensist tewwi azarug-is (indépendance) deg umenzu n Yennayer, 1960. Sakkin, di Fuṛaṛ n 1960, imezdaɣen n Cameroun Tabriṭanit n Wenẓul deɣren (bbuṭin) i wakken ad sduklen tamurt-nsen akk d Cameroun ay teffeɣ Fṛansa. Tadukli-yagi terna teǧhed ugar deg umenzu n Tubeṛ 1961, asmi ay yettusdukel akk wakal n Cameroun, u tga-d tmurt-agi tafidiṛalit i deg llant snat n tmura, Cameroun Taɣerbit d Cameroun Tacerqit. Tafidiṛalit-agi teqqim alamma ay d 20 Magu 1972, asmi ay yerra adabu ddewla-yagi d tin yedduklen ugar, s wesnulfu n 7 temnaḍin . Sakkin, di 1984, aselway yessuffeɣ-d tanaḍt (décret) i deg d-rnant tlata temnaḍint timaynutin ɣer sebɛa-nni yellan naqal, u tuɣal Cameroun tesɛa ɛecṛa temnaḍin.

Deg wennar n uselmed, Cameroun tettḍafar sin yinagrawen (systèmes) : anagraw n uselmed s tutlayt taglizit ay yettwabnan ɣef leḥsab n unagraw aneglusaksi (anglo-saxon), akk d unagraw n uselmed s tutlayt tafṛensist ay yettwabnan ɣef leḥsab n unagraw afṛensis. Dɣa llan yiɣerbazen yesselmaden s wahil (programme) aglizi am wakken ay llan wid yesselmaden s wahil afṛensis, d acu kan, di tesdawit (université), inelmaden qqaren s snat tutlayin, s teglizit akk d tefṛensist. ɣef leḥsab n tesnaddanin (statistiques) n 1995, 63.4 % n Yikamruniyen ay yessnen ad ɣren, 75 % n yergazen d 52,01 % n tilawin.

Tagtutlayt (plurilinguisme) d tsertit n tutlayt di Cameroun[beddel]

Akken ay d-nenna sufella-yagi, Cameroun d tamurt tagtutlayt i deg llant 247 n tutlayin tineṣliyin, snat tutlayin tunṣibin akk d yiwet n tpidgint n teglizit ay ttmeslayen di Cameroun. [Tapidgint d tutlayt ur nelli ara d taneṣlit di tmurt, tikwal tettili d axaluḍ n snat neɣ n waṭas n tutlayin, sseqdacen-tt medden yettmeslayen tutlayin yemgerraden i wakken ad msefhamen yis-s. Tapidgint n Cameroun d taglizit ixelḍen d tutlayin nniḍen].

Xas ma yella adeg n internet n Ethnologue yeqqar-d dakken llant 279 n tutlayin di Cameroun, kra yimesnilsiyen (linguistes) am Wolf nnan-d dakken aya ur iṣehḥa ara, imi ay llant kra n tentalyin (dialectes) ay yettwaḥesben d tutlayin, yili nitenti d tintalyin kan n kra n tutlayt. Ger tutlayin tineṣliyin n Cameroun, llant ṛebɛa tutlayin qrib ad negrent, tigi d tutlayt tadulit (duli), tageyt (gey), tanagumit (nagumi) akk d tyenit (yeni). Tutlayin-agi akk ttmeslayen-tent deg ugafa (nord) n tmurt. Adeg n Ethnologue yenna-d di 1996, dakken 14 n tutlayin nniḍen n Cameroun ay inegren yagi. Di Tefriqt, llant ṛebɛa n twaculin timeqranin n tutlayin, tlata deg-sent nezmer ad tent-naf di Cameroun, imi di tmurt-a nezmer ad naf tutlayin n twacult tafrusyawit (afro-asiatique), tutlayin n twacult taniluṣeḥṛawit (nilo-saharienne) akk d tutlayin n twacult tanijirukuṛdufanit (nilo-kordofanienne). Tutlayin n twacult tanijirukuṛdufanit d nitenti ay yetṭuqqten di Cameroun, di lweqt i deg ulac akk kra n tutlayt n twacult taxuysant (khoisan) di tmurt-a. Tutlayin tineṣliyin ay fehhmen waṭas n medden nitenti d tafulfuldet (fulfulde), tewondot (ewondo), tabasaat (basaa), tadwualat (duala), tahausat (hausa), tawandalat (wandala), takanurit (kanuri), taɛṛabt tacuwat (choa), tapidgint n teglizit akk d tefṛensist. D acu kan, tlata kan tutlayin si ger tigi ay yettwahdaṛen yernu ttwafhament ugar tiyaḍ di tmiwa timeqranin di Cameroun, d tid ay sseqdacen medden di tmiwa-ya i wakken ad msefhamen wagar-asen : deg ugafa (nord) amur ameqran di medden yettmeslay neɣ ifehhem tafulfuldet, di lweqt i deg tapidgint n teglizit tettuseqdac di lɣerb, ma d tafṛensist tettuseqdac deg timiwa ay d-yeqqimen di tmurt. D acu kan, ulac leḥyuḍ yebḍan ger yal tutlayt d tayeḍ, yernu merṛa tutlayin-agi nezmer ad naf imdanen ay tent-yessnen di merṛa timiwa n tmurt. Tafulfuldet ttmeslayen-tt yernu tettwafham di tama n ugafa (nord) anda ay tella tama n Adamawa akk d temnaḍin (provinces) n ugafa ubɛid, dɣa, akal i deg tettuseqdac tfulfuldet yewweḍ ɣer 162.107 km² neɣ 34,8 % seg wakal n Cameroun.

Azal n 3 yimelyunen n medden ay yettmeslayen tafulfuldet, xas ma yella amur ameqran di medden-agi d almad ay tt-lemden, maci d nettat ay d tutlayt-nsen tayemmat. Wid yesɛan tafulfuldet d tutlayt-nsen tayemmat (Ifulfuldeyen) ur ttɛeddin ara i 350.000, maca tutlayt-nsen si zik ay tesɛa azal. Di lqern wis 17, tafulfuldet tettuseqdec d tutlayt i wezraɛ n Lislam deg ugafa (nord) n Cameroun. Tapidgint n teglizit n Cameroun sseqdacen-tt aṭas n medden maci ala di tmiwa ay teḥkem zik Briṭanya (timnaḍin n Ugafa Utrim d Wenẓul Utrim), wanag ula di tmiwa n yiri n lebḥeṛ akk d lɣerb n Cameroun. Ass-a, nezmer ad nḥulfu i tezrirt (influence) n tpidgint-agi ula di temnaḍin i deg sseqdacen tafṛensist. Dɣa ass-a, tapidgint n teglizit n Cameroun ur teqqim ara d tutlayt n teywalt (communication) ala kan ger Yikamruniyen yessawalen taglizit, wanag attan la tettimɣur, la tteffeɣ ɣef tlisa-s n zik-nni u tezmer, yiwwas, ad tuɣal d tutlayt n teywalt taɣelnawt (nationale). Ama di temdinin neɣ di tmurt, tapidgint n teglizit n Cameroun tuɣal la tettuseqdac di teklizin (églises) am wakken tettuseqdac di leswaq, deg yinegsaren (parking) n tkeṛwas, di teɣsarin (gares) n tmacinin, deg wezniq neɣ di tegnatin nniḍen. Yuɣ lḥal, tutlayt-agi "ur nelli n yiwen" nuɣal nezmer ad tt-naf anda ma nedda di tudert timettit-tudmist (socio-économique) n yimezdaɣen n Cameroun, yernu si tallit n Lalman ay tebda tpidgint-agi la tetturar dduṛ-agi.

Ma yella d tafṛensist, alamma ay d asmi ay tewwi Cameroun azarug-is (indépendance) ay tuɣal tesɛa dduṛ meqqren di teywalt (communication), imi seg yimir-n d asawen, bdan Yikamruniyen la lemmden s waṭas tutlayt-a. Dɣa, menɣir tlata-nni n temnaḍin (provinces) n ugafa anda d tafulfuldet ay d tutlayt n teywalt akk d snat-nni n temnaḍin i deg ssawalen (tapidgint n) taglizit, d tafṛensist ay yetturaren dduṛ meqqren di teywalt di xemsa-nni n temnaḍin nniḍen ay d-yegran di Cameroun. S waya, tennulfa-d yiwet n tefṛensist d taɣerfant (populaire), sseqdacen-tt Yikamruniyen yettmeslayen tutlayin yemgerraden wagar-asen, ladɣa di temdinin d tmiwa iqerben ɣer temdint. Nnig waya, Ikamruniyen merṛa, ama d wid yesseqdacen taglizit, tafṛensist neɣ tafulfuldet, ttemsefhamen merṛa wagar-asen s tefṛensist, u tettɣimi-d tutlayt-a d nettat ay d tutlayt n wemsefham tameqrant akk di tmurt. Snat-nni n tutlayin tunṣibin n Cameroun, taglizit d tefṛensist, kecemnt-d s amezruy n tmurt-a di 1916, asmi ay tettwarna Lalman u tettwabḍa Cameroun ger Fṛansa d Briṭanya. Inehrasen (colonisateurs) imaynuten nudan ad ḥettmen tutlayt-nsen ɣef yimezdaɣen n tmurt-agi, ladɣa deg yinurar n uselmed akk d tedbelt (administration). D aya ay yessawḍen snat-agi n tutlayin ad fkent aẓar di Cameroun di tallit n tsehrest (listiɛmaṛ), yernu asmi ay tewwi Cameroun azarug-is (indépendance), uɣalent ǧehdent ugar. Asmi ay teddukel Cameroun, di 1961, taglizit d tefṛensist uɣalent d snat n tutlayin tunṣibin n tmurt-a imi Cameroun tefren ad tesselḥu tamurt s tesnutlayt (bilinguisme).

Tasertit n tutlayt di tallit n tsehrest (listiɛmaṛ)[beddel]

Yessefk ad d-nini dakken uqbel ma kecmen-d yinehrasen (colonisateurs) ɣer Cameroun, kra n tutlayin tineṣliyin n tmurt-a ssawḍent ad sɛunt azal d ameqran. Tutlayt tabamunt (bamun) tella d yiwet si tutlayin-agi, yernu d sselṭan Njoya (yiwen ugellid ineslem n Cameroun) ay tt-yesqeɛɛden i wakken ad tuɣal d tutlayt n uselmed, uqbel ma wwḍen-d yemseɣdaden (missionnaires) almaniyen. Tutlayt tafulfuldet daɣen tella tesɛa azal meqqren imi di lqern wis 17, d ta ay d tutlayt ay yettusqedcen i wezraɛɛ n Lislam di tlata-nni n temnaḍin n ugafa (nord).

Di tallit n tsehrest (listiɛmaṛ), timura tinehrasin gant ifadden i wakken d tutlayin-nsent ara yettuseqdacen. Xas ma yella tadbelt talmanit di Cameroun tga ifadden i wakken d talmanit ara yettusqedcen di tmurt-a, imseɣdaden (missionnaires) almaniyen d yimarikaniyen iprisbitiriyen smenyafen ad sqedcen tutlayin tineṣliyin n yimezdaɣen n Cameroun, am tbasaat (basaa), tabulut (bulu), tadualat (duala), tewondot (ewondo) akk d tmungakat (mungaka) i wakken ad slemden medden u ad ten-id-sxedmen ɣer ddin amasiḥi. Xas ma yella almaniyen ur ldin ara aṭas n yiɣerbazen di Cameroun, maca ɛerḍen ad ḥettmen ɣef yiɣerbazen ad sseqdacen talmanit, u ḥeṛsen imseɣdaden i wakken ad gen aya. D acu kan, imseɣdaden llan tṭfen aṭas n yiɣerbazen yernu d nitni ay yellan ḥekmen deg uselmed di tallit talmanit, di Cameroun.

Xas llan Walmaniyen bɣan ad ḥettmen tutlayt-nsen ɣef Yikamruniyen, ineggura-yagi kemmlen la sseqdacen tutlayin-nsen tineṣliyin wagar-asen mebla uguren. Asmi ay texṣer Lalman tamurt n Cameroun, inehrasen (colonisateurs) imaynuten wwin-d yid-sen tasertit (politique) n tutlayin nniḍen. Ibriṭaniyen ḥekmen Cameroun s webrid arusrid (indirectement), u d lḥekkam ineṣliyen n tmurt i yes tella Briṭanya la tesselḥay tamurt, dɣa, nezmer ad d-nini dakken di tegnit am ta, qrib yettuḥettem ɣef Yikamruniyen ad issinen u ad sqedcen tutlayin-nsen tineṣliyin. Maca deg weḥric-nni ay teḥkem Fṛansa, Ifṛensisen llan bɣan ad ssertin (assimiler) Ikamruniyen, meḥsub ad asen-mḥun laṣel-nsen, tamagit-nsen (identité) u ad ten-rren d Ifṛensisen. D aya ay yedǧan Fṛansa ur tqebbel ara aseqdec n tutlayin tineṣliyin. Di tmiwa yellan s ddaw n leɛnaya tabriṭanit, kra n tutlayin tineṣliyin am tbafutt (bafut), tadualat (duala) akk d tmungakat (mungaka) llant la ttuseqdacent lwaḥid akk d teglizit deg uselmed. Yuɣ lḥal, Ibriṭaniyen dǧan timsal n uselmed ger yifassen n trebbaɛ n ddin akk d wusligen (privés), di lweqt i deg adabu afṛensis d netta ay d-yelhan s timmad-is s wakk timsal n uselmed n Yefriqiyen yellan s ddaw leḥkem-is. Di tmiwa ay teḥkem Fṛansa, dima llan yemgerraden (conflits) ger yemseɣdaden (missionnaires) d udabu afṛensis, imi imseɣdaden kemmlen la sseqdacen tutlayin tineṣliyin i lmend n uselmed d usexdem n medden ɣer tmasiḥit. D aya ay yedǧan adabu afṛensis ad yeg ussisen (efforts) i wakken ad yesnerni tafṛensist di Cameroun di lweqt i deg yerra tutlayin tineṣliyin di rrif. Di 1917, tadbelt (administration) tafṛensist tuɣal la tettak tallalt (lemɛawna) n yedrimen i yiɣerbazen yesseqdacen tafṛensist d tutlayt n uselmed. Sakkin, deg umenzu n Tubeṛ akk d 28 Dujembeṛ 1920, yeffeɣ-d usaḍuf i wakken ad ttwaɣelqen yiɣerbazen yellan sselmaden s tutlayin tineṣliyin di Cameroun, ad yeɣleq 47 yiɣerbazen ay yeldi ugellid Njoya di tama n Yibamunen, anda tutlayt n uselmed tella d tabamunt. Ma di 1922, Fṛansa teɣleq 1800 yiɣerbazen n yemseɣdaden iprisbitiriyen imarikaniyen i deg tutlayt n uselmed tella d tabulut (bulu). Tkemmel Fṛansa la tɣelleq deg yiɣerbazen, alamma ay d asmi ay d-teqqim tefṛensist d tutlayt tawḥidt n uselmed di Cameroun. D acu kan, xas texdem Fṛansa akk aya, tutlayin tineṣliyin kemmlent la ttuseqdacent deg usexdem n medden ɣer ddin amasiḥi d teywalt (communication) ger medden. Dɣa, di lweqt i deg tutlayt tunṣibt (officielle) tella d tutlayt n teywalt tunṣibt, tutlayin tineṣliyin d nitenti ay yellan d tutlayin n teywalt ɣer wegdud ama di teklizt (église), deg leswaq, neɣ di tmeɣriwin tidelsanin, deg wexxam d wanda nniḍen. Maca tisertiyin (politiques) n tutlayt ay sqedcent Lalman, Briṭanya akk d Fṛansa ur dǧint ara ad tili kra n tutlayt taneṣlit ara yesɛun azal meqqren ugar n tiyaḍ, u ad tuɣal d nettat ay d tutlayt taɣelnawt asmi ara tawi Cameroun azarug-is (indépendance).

Tasertit n tutlayt di tallit n uzarug (indépendance)[beddel]

Asmi ay tewwi Cameroun azarug-is, d tafṛensist ay yuɣalen d tutlayt-is tunṣibt (officielle) di tama yessawalen tafṛensist, di lweqt i deg taglizit tuɣal d tutlayt tunṣibt n tama yessawalen taglizit. Asmi ay teddukel tmurt deg umenzu n Tubeṛ, 1961, tagduda tafidiṛalit ay d-ilulen imir-n tuɣal tesɛa snat tutlayin tunṣibin. Cameroun, am waṭas n tmura tifriqiyin nniḍen, tesmenyaf d tutlayin "tirawsanin" (neutres) ay tesmenyaf ad tent-terr d tutlayin tunṣibin, imi taglizit akk d tefṛensist ur llint ara d tutlayin tineṣliyin n kra n wegdud yettidiren di Cameroun, yernu adabu akamruni iga aya i wakken ur d-ttilin ara wuguren ger yegduden, yernu ur yettṣerrif ara diɣ udabu idrimen i wakken ad yesnerni tutlayin tineṣliyin n tmurt. S waya ay nezmer ad nefhem ayɣer ay yerra udabu tutlayin tineṣliyin di rrif u yesmenyaf tutlayin n yinehrasen (colonisateurs) iqburen. Kra waggagen (intellectuels) ikamruniyen am Fonlon (di 1963), ur kukran ara ad d-ssumren (proposer) dakken yessefk ad rren aselmed n yigerdan d asnutlay (bilingue) seg yiseggasen imezwura n uɣerbaz, imi di tallit-nni ay ttilin yigerdan mazal-iten leqqaqit i wakken ad lemden tutlayin timaynutin. Ma d tutlayin tineṣliyin, nezmer ad d-nini dakken ur sɛin ara akk amkan deg yiseggasen imezwura n uzarug (indépendance) n Cameroun. Maca, xas ma yella anabaḍ yessusem, llant aṭas n trebbaɛ ay iqedcen mebla aḥbas i lmend n wesnerni n tutlayin tineṣliyin, u gar-asent nezmer ad d-nebder PROPELCA (Programme de Recherche Opérationnelle pour l'Enseignement des Langues au Cameroun), ara iqeddcen si 1977 ɣef temsal yerzan aselmed s tutlayin tiyemmatin di Cameroun. Maca llant daɣen trebbaɛ n SIL-Cameroun, Tiddukla Takamrunit n Tsuqilt n Wedlis d Uselmed n Tɣuri (CABTAL) akk d Tiddukla Taɣelnawt n Tseqquma n Tutlayt Tikamruniyin (National Association of Cameroonian Language Committees (NACALCO). Di 1979, yettwaxdem leqdic igerrzen i lmend n usizeɣ (standardisation) n tirawt n tutlayin tikamruniyin yernu aya yettekka mliḥ deg wesnerni n tutlayin-agi. Tamenḍawt n 18 Yennayer 1996 teḍmen akemmel n tsertit tunṣibt n tesnutlayt (bilinguisme) d wesnerni n tutlayin tiɣelnawin (tineṣliyin) n Cameroun, yernu aya yusa-d kan d akemmel i leqdic-nni ay d-bdant trebbaɛ-agi iqedcen ɣef tutlayin tineṣliyin, yernu tamenḍawt-agi d ayen ara yedǧen Cameroun ad teg leqrar ama i tutlayin-is tunṣibin, ama i tutlayin-is tineṣliyin ay yellan merṛa d aḥric si tgemmi (patrimoine) tadelsant n tmurt-agi. Di 1998, yella-d diɣ ubeddel d ameqran ɣef tutlayin n Cameroun imi amni (parlement) akamruni yesɛedda yiwen usenfar n usaḍuf (projet de loi) ay yefkan azal i uselmed n tutlayin tiɣelnawin, dɣa d asenfar-agi ay yuɣalen d asaḍuf 98/004 n 14 Yebrir 1998 ay d-iga uselway i lmend n uselmed n tutlayin tineṣliyin n tmurt. Xas ma yella Aɣlif (ministère) n Uselmed aɣelnaw werɛad ur d-igi ara aɣawas (plan) i wakken ad yexdem s usaḍuf-agi deg wennar, ulac ccek dakken asmi ay d-tga Cameroun asaḍuf-agi, tebda-d tikli tamaynut i lmend n wesnerni n tutlayin-is tiɣelnawin. D acu kan, mi ara nwali mliḥ ɣer wayen d-yeqqar usaḍuf-agi d tegnit i deg tella Cameroun, nezmer ad nesteqsi iman-nneɣ ma yella dɣa d tidet Cameroun tezmer ad d-tesseḍru ayen teɛzem ad t-texdem neɣ asaḍuf-agi ad yeqqim kan di lkaɣeḍ (am tmenḍawt n 1996), ad yettṛaju melmi ara t-id-sseḍrun deg wennar. Yuɣ lḥal llan yagi kra ara yettwalin dakken anabaḍ (lḥukuma) ur ixeddem ara ayen d-yenna. Xas ma yella asaḍuf-agi d ussis (lmeǧhud) i wakken ad teg ddewla ayen yessefken i tutlayin tiɣelnawin, maca aɛetṭel n ddewla i wakken ad texdem s usaḍuf-a yesbanay-d dakken imḍebbren xedmen-d asaḍuf-agi uqbel lawan-is neɣ ur xemmen ara akken yessefk i wakken ad t-id-gen. Akka ay s-teḍra diɣ i tmenḍawt-nni n 1996. Dɣa, deg wayen yerzan aselmed n tutlayin-agi, mazal werɛad ur tefri ara yiwet n temsalt : lemmer ad kecment tutayin tiɣelnawin s aɣerbaz, inelmaden ad tent-lemden d tinegwa (matières) neɣ ad lemmden yis-sent kullec ? Asaḍuf akamruni yenna-d dakken inelmaden ad lemmden tutlayin-agi d tinegwa, d acu kan, lemmer ad ttusqedcent tutlayin tiɣelnawin d ttawil i uselmed, aṭas n Yikamruniyen ara ilemden tutlayin-nsen tiyemmatin, yernu aya ad yessishel aselmed n tɣuri i waṭas n yimezdaɣen n tmurt. Lemmer ad ttuslemdent tutlayin-agi d tinegwa kan, mazal llan wuguren nniḍen ay yessefk ad ten-yefru unabaḍ akamruni. Yuɣ lḥal, ma iḥelles-d unabaḍ ad yesseḍru ayen d-yenna usaḍuf n 1998, yessefk ad ixemmem ɣef yeswiren (niveaux) n yinelmaden umi ara yesselmed tutlayin tineṣliyin, d wacḥal n tsaɛtin ara lemmden yinelmaden tutlayin-agi di dduṛt, am wakken ay yessefk ad ssersen tiwtilin (ccuruṭ) ay yessefken ad ilin deg yiselmaden ara yeslemden tutlayin-agi, imi aselmed n tutlayin tineṣliyin s wudem iṣehḥan ur yessefk ara ad yettunefk kan i menwala, yernu yessefk diɣ ɣef unabaḍ ad yessɣer iselmaden imaynuten u ad asen-yeg ifadden, am wakken ara d-yessebded timṣukyin (structures) ara d-yelhun d useḍru n tsertit-agi (politique) u yessefk diɣ ɣef unabaḍ ad d-yefk idrimen ara yettusqedcen i wakken ad ttwaxedmen akk lecɣal-agi s wudem iṣehḥan.

S umata, tagnit n tutlayin di Cameroun ur txulef ara tin n umur ameqran di tmura n wenẓul (sud) n Sṣeḥra : d timura i deg llant aṭas n tutlayin; tutlayt n unehras (colonisateur) aqbur d nettat ay d tutlayt tunṣibt; anabaḍ (lḥukuma) terra tutlayin tineṣliyin di rrif; mazal timura-yagi sɛan assaɣen (liens) iǧehden akk d tmura ay tent-yeshersen (ay tent-yesteɛmṛen) zik-nni; yernu llan wuguren ger yegduden yettmeslayen tutlayin yemgerraden (yemxallafen) di tmura-ya. Tasnutlayt tunṣibt d uselmed asnutlay Akken d-nenna sufella-yagi, tasnutlayt (bilinguisme) d nettat ay d tasertit (politique) tunṣibt (officielle) ay i ɣef tebna Cameroun tasertit-is n tutlayin. Amagrad 1, taṣeddart 3 n tmenḍawt (constitution) n 18 Yennayer 1996 yesban-d mliḥ aya : "Tutlayin tunṣibin n Tegduda n Cameroun d taglizit d tefṛensist, tutlayin-agi di snat sɛɛant yiwen uẓayer (statut). Awanak (ddewla) yessefk ad yeḍmen asnerni n tesnutlayt di merṛa timiwa akk d yinurar merṛa n tmurt, am wakken yessefk diɣ ad yeḥrez u ad yesnerni tutlayin tiɣelnawin." Xas ma yella timenḍawin iɛeddan n Cameroun, seg wasmi ay tewwi tmurt-agi azarug, mmeslayent-d ɣef tsertit tunṣibt n tesnutlayt, ar ass-a, werɛad ur tban ara tsertit-agi deg wennar. Xas ma yella tamenḍawt teqqar-d dakken tafṛensist akk d teglizit sɛant yiwen uẓayer, meḥsub ɛedlent di Cameroun, d tafṛensist ay yernan taglizit deg yinurar n tedbelt (administration), aselmed d ttawilat n teywalt (communication). Yuɣ lḥal, nezmer ad d-nini mebla akukru dakken tafṛensist s yisem-is d tutlayt, d idles neɣ d tasertit, teǧhed deg wakk inurar n tmurt. Tafṛensist terna taglizit imi tamezwarut-agi ttmeslayen-tt u fehhmen-tt waṭas n medden, wid yessawalen tafṛensist si zik ay tṭfen imukan iɛlayanen n unabaḍ (lḥukuma) akk d tedbelt (administration) yernu Cameroun ur tesɛi ara tasetit n tutlayin ara iḍemnen s tidet izerfan (lḥuquq) n tutlayin tidersanin (minoritaires). Nnig waya, tasertit tunṣibt n tesnutlayt tesnulfa-d bedḍu ger wid yettmeslayen taglizit d wid yettmeslayen tafṛensist di Cameroun, yernu deg yiseggasen-agi ineggura, nger tamawt dakken aya yezmer ad yessiweḍ ɣer wuguren imeqranen ay izemren ad bḍun tamurt. Dɣa, xas ma yella tasertit n tesnutlayt tettwaxdem-d i wakken ad tesdukel tamurt, tasertit-agi tezmer daɣen ad tili d ssebba n wuguren neɣ n bedḍu n tmurt. Imi d tafṛensist ay iǧehden deg yinurar merṛa, uɣalen wid yessawalen taglizit la ttḥulfun i yiman-nsen ttwaḥeqren, u la ttwalin dakken taglizit-nni-nsen d ssiman ay ten-yesduklen, msegman wagar-asen u ttḥulfun dakken sɛan tamagit (identité) ay ten-icerken. Wid yessawalen taglizit dima ttasmen ɣef tmiwa i deg ttidiren di Cameroun. Dɣa, asmi ay d-ffɣent ddiɛayat deg yiseggasen n 90 dakken anabaḍ ad d-yesnulfu timnaḍin (provinces) timaynutin i yes ara yesdukel timnaḍin yessawalen taglizit akk d temnaḍin yessawalen tafṛensist ay ten-id-iqerben i wakken ad d-gent timnaḍin tifulmanin (autonomes), imezdaɣen n temnaḍin yessawalen taglizit ugin aya yernu nnuɣen i wakken ur d-yettili ara rṛay-agi. Wid yessawalen taglizit walan dakken aya d aɣawas (plan) ay d-ihegga udabu i wakken ad yarez timiwa yessawalen taglizit ɣer tmiwa yessawalen tafṛensist, dɣa s waya, zemren ad sṛuḥen tutlayt taglizit d yedles-nsen. Imi ay d-tewḥel Cameroun di tallit-nni di tegnit iweɛṛen am tin, bdan yemḍebbren ikamruniyen la ttemcawaṛen i wakken ad d-xedmen tamenḍawt tamaynut, deg wayen umi semman "askasi ameqran" (grand débat). Wid yessawalen taglizit, s umata, smenyafen ad teqqim tmurt n Cameroun dima s ɛecṛa temnaḍin-yines, mebla ma beddlent tlisa-nsent, u ma yella anabaḍ la yettxemmim ad yefk tafulmant (autonomie) i kra n temnaḍin, wid yessawalen taglizit smenyafen ad yefk kan tafulmant i wakk timnaḍin n tmurt u ad yerr Cameroun d tamurt tafidiṛalit.

I wakken ad tesnerni Cameroun tasertit n tesnutlayt (bilinguisme), tebda la tesselmad s snat tutlayin si 1961. Yella yessefk ihi ɣef tmurt ad tesseqdec snat tutlayin deg uselmed, ladɣa deg weswir (niveau) n tesdawit. Cameroun tesɛa setta n tesdawiyin n uwanak (ddewla), ṛebɛa deg-sent sseqdacent tafṛensist d teglizit d tutlayin n uselmed. Di tesdawit takamrunit, wid yessawalen tafṛensist d wid yessawalen taglizit ttɣimin idis s idis deg yimukan anda ay qqaren, lemmden akken. Ma d aselmad yesseqdac tutlayt tunṣibt ay yessen xir i wakken ad yesselmed timsirin-is (dduṛus) di lweqt i deg inelmaden ttaddamen tinqiḍin s tutlayt ay sen-yehwan, yernu asmi ara d-awḍen yikayaden (examens), zemren ad ten-sɛeddin s tutlayt ay sen-yehwan diɣ, ama s teglizit neɣ s tefṛensist. D acu kan, aseqdec n snat tutlayin di tesdawit takamrunit d ayen ay d-yeglan s waṭas n wuguren. Tamenzut, amur ameqran di temsirin s tefṛensist ay yettwaxdam, imi amur ameqran deg yiselmaden seg wid yessawalen tafṛensist, yernu inelmaden yessawalen taglizit ur ten-yeɛǧib ara waya u ttḥulfun dakken la yettɛeddi meḥyaf fell-asen. ɣef leḥsab n tezrawin (études) ay iga Tambi (1973) d Njeck (1992), di tasdawit n Yaoundé, 80% si temsirin yettwaxdam s tefṛensist di lweqt i deg ala kan 20% n temsirin ara yettwaxdamen s teglizit. D aya ay yedǧan inelmaden yessawalen taglizit ur ferṛḥen ara s tsertit tunṣibt n tesnutlayt di tmurt-nsen. Ugur nniḍen ay d-yesnulfa uselmed asnutlay netta d tukci n tenqiḍin deg yikayaden (examens), imi inelmaden yessawalen taglizit qqaren-d dakken iselmaden ur d asen-ttaken ara tinqiḍin yelhan. Di Cameroun, anelmad yezmer ad yesɛeddi akayad-is ama s tefṛensist neɣ s teglizit, maca aṭas seg wid yessawalen taglizit, mi ur rebbḥen ara di tezrawin-nsen, d iselmaden-nsen ay sseḍlamen, u qqaren-d dakken iselmaden yessawalen tafṛensist, imi ur ẓwiren ara di teglizit, ur fehhmen ara akken yessefk ayen d-uran yinelmaden-nsen yessawalen taglizit. Dɣa aya d yiwet si ssebbat ay yedǧan ikamruniyen yessawalen taglizit d wid yessawalen tafṛensist ur ttemsefhamen ara yernu yal tarbaɛt tettcikki di tayeḍ. Ma d taluft tis tlata ay d-tesnulfa tsertit-agi n tesnutlayt teqqen s aselmed n tutlayt tunṣibt tis snat i yinelmaden. Yuɣ lḥal, i wakken inelmaden ikamruniyen ad afen iman-nsen di tmurt-nsen u ad ilin wejden i wakken ad ɣren akken yessefk, adabu yesselmad tafṛensist i yinelmaden yessawalen taglizit, am wakken yesselmad taglizit i yinelmaden yessawalen tafṛensist. D acu kan, aselmed-agi n uheggi ur yettwaxdem akken yessefk, adabu ur yefki ara ttawilat yessefken i waya, yernu inelmaden ur sɛin ara lebɣi iǧehden i wakken ad lemden tutlayt-nsen tunṣibt tis snat. Anect-a maci d ayen ittgen ifadden i yinelmaden i wakken ad nadin ɣren mliḥ. Yessefk ɣef Cameroun ad tesselhu aselmed n uheggi ay tteg i yinelmaden, am wakken ara teqdec i wakken ad tesselhu aswir (niveau) n tmusni n yiselmaden di tutlayin tunṣibin. Aya ad yedǧ inelmaden ad sɛun laman xir n zik deg yiselmaden-nsen, yernu wid yessawalen taglizit ur ttḥulfun ara i yiman-nsen ttwaḥeqren.

Yessefk diɣ ad d-nger tamawt dakken imi Cameroun tesɛa snat tutlayin tunṣibin, aya yedǧa tamurt-agi ad tesɛu sin yinagrawen (systèmes) n uselmed yemgerraden, yernu ula d aya yesnulfa-d uguren yeḥwaǧen tifratin. Deg unagraw n uselmed afṛensis, taglizit d tanga (matière) yettuḥettmen ɣef wakk inelmaden seg wasmi ara d-bdun almad alamma d asmi ara faken almad-nsen alemmas. D acu kan, deg unagraw n uselmed aglizi, yessefk ɣef akk inelmaden ad lemden tafṛensist seg useggas-nsen amenzu n welmad alamma d asmi ara awḍen s aswir n GCE. Dɣa, anelmad yessawalen tafṛensist yernu yeɣra s unagraw afṛensist yewjed ad yelmed di tesdawit s tefṛensist xir n unelmad yessawalen taglizit u yeɣra s unagraw aglizi. Nnig waya, tukci n tenqiḍin temxallaf ger unagraw aglizi d unagraw afṛensis, yernu anect-a d ugur meqqren deg uselmed. Anelmad yeqqaren s unagraw aglizi yettextiri tamezzugt (spécialité) asmi ara yextir tinegwa (matières) i deg yeẓwer, yernu d tinegwa-nni kan ara yesɛeddi asmi ara yesɛeddi akayad n GCE (lbak), di lweqt i deg anelmad yeqqaren s unagraw afṛensis yettuḥettem fell-as ad iɣer akk tinegwa yernu ur irebbeḥ ara alamma yewwi-d talemmast (moyenne) deg wakk tinegwa ay yeqqar. Nnig waya, deg wayen yerzan aselmed n tutlayin tiberṛaniyin, d anagraw n welmad afṛensis ay yifen anagraw n welmad aglizi. Deg unagraw afṛensis, inelmaden yeqqaren deg uɣerbaz alemmas lemmden taspenyulit d talmanit, di lweqt i deg anagraw aglizi ur yesselmad ara i yinelmaden-is tutlayin-agi, dɣa wid yessawalen tafṛensist ifen wid yessawalen taglizit di tmusni n tutlayin tiberṛaniyin, yernu aya yezmer ad yedǧ inelmaden yeɣran s teglizit ad ḥulfun dakken ttwaḥeqren. Yuɣ lḥal, xas ma yella Cameroun la tesselḥay tamurt s tsertit n tesnutlayt, tamurt-a werɛad ur tesɛi ara tasertit n useqɛed n tutlayt ara tt-yedǧen ad tesseqdec snat tutlayin akken yessefk. Adabu ur a ixeddem acemma i wakken ad iẓer ma yella ayen ixeddem ɣef tutlayt yewwi-d kra n lfayda neɣ ala. Xas ma yella taglizit akk d tefṛensist simmal la irennu uzal-nsent di Cameroun u la ttuɣalent d tutlayin n wemsefham ger Yikamruniyen yettmeslayen aṭas n tutlayin yemgerraden, adabu ur a itteg acemma i wakken ad yesnerni snat-agi n tutlayin. Lemmer d lebɣi, adabu yessefk ad yeqdec ɣef useqɛed d usizeɣ n teglizit akk d tefṛensist n Cameroun, d acu kan, ar ass-a mazal adabu yesxasṣ ttawil i wanect-a. Tamurt ur tezmir ara ad tesnerni tutlayin-is tunṣibin mebla ma tga aya. Amkan n tutlayin tineṣliyin

Di tmurt n Cameroun, adabu yesseqdac kan tutlayin tunṣibin di lweqt i deg tutlayin tineṣliyin ala d agdud ay tent-yesseqdacen, citṭaḥ kan deg-sent ay yettwarun, yernu ddrent kan deg yilsawen n medden ay tent-yesseqdacen wagar-asen ama di tmurt neɣ deg yexxamen. Di temsalt-agi, Bitja'a Kody yenna-d : "tutlayin tiɣelnawin (tineṣliyin) ddrent kan deg yimawen n medden, la tent-sseqdacen kan sdaxel n twacult. Adabu ur yettnadi ara akk ad tent-yesseqdec ala kan di lḥemlat n tefranin (lbuṭ) anda kra ttmeslayen s tutlayin tiɣelnawin i wakken ad qennɛen medden. Ula d yiwet si tutlayin tiɣelnawin ur tettuseqdac di tedbelt (administration) neɣ di tɣemsa (presse), wala deg udellel neɣ di tilibizyu taɣelnawt, wala deg yiɣerbazen n ddewla neɣ di lḥemlat n uselmed n tɣuri ay ixeddem udabu." Ass-a, tutlayin-agi atenti la teddunt i wakken ad negrent, ladɣa di temdinin anda ay uɣalen yelmeẓyen la sseqdacen ugar tutlayin tunṣibin (officielles). Bitja'a Kody (2001) yenna-d dakken ɣef leḥsab n yiwet n tezrawt (étude) yettwaxedmen di temdint n Yaoundé, 32% seg yelmeẓyen yesɛan ger 10 d 17 yiseggasen di leɛmeṛ-nsen ur ssinen ara ad ssiwlen ula d yiwet si tutlayin tineṣliyin n Cameroun. D tafṛensist ay d tutlayt-nsen tawḥidt i yes ttemsefhamen akk d wiyaḍ. Bitja'a Kody yenna-d dakken ilmeẓyen yellan di liḥala-yagi mazal ad rnun di lǧil ara d-iteddun, imi Ikamruniyen ur nessin ara tutlayin tineṣliyin n tmurt ur zemmren ara ad slemden tutlayin-agi i yigerdan-nsen. Yuɣ lḥal, d Ikamruniyen s timmad-nsen ara ineqqen tutlayin-nsen tineṣliyin. Di lweqt i deg timenḍawin (constitutions) tiqdimin n Cameroun (1961, 1972, 1984) ur d-nnint acemma ɣef tutlayin tineṣliyin n Cameroun, tin n 1996 tefka azal i wesnerni-nsent, yernu aya d abeddel ameqran deg wennar n tsertit n tutlayin di Cameroun. Nnig waya, awanak (ddewla) itteg ifadden i medden (usligen - privés) i wakken ad qedcen i lmend n wesnerni n tutlayin tineṣliyin. ɣef waya, tirebbaɛ tusligin (privées) gant isenfaren (projets) n uneɛruḍ n uselmed akk d unadi ɣef tutlayin tineṣliyin yernu adabu, xas ma yella ur a d-yettak ara afus n lemɛawna, yeqbel iqeddicen-agi s tsusmi. Iqeddicen ay xeddment trebbaɛ am SIL-Cameroon, CABTAL akk d NACALCO d ayen igerrzen iteddun deg webrid yelhan : tirebbaɛ-agi la qeddcent i wakken ad ssizɣent (standardiser) tutlayin tineṣliyin u ad tent-slemden, am wakken ara ttgent leqdicat n unadi fell-asent u qeddcent i wakken ad tent-ttmeslayen medden yernu ur neggrent ara. D acu kan, nesḥissif imi tutlayin tineṣliyin mazal-itent ɣabent deg uɣerbaz n uwanak (ddewla), xas ma yella, ɣef leḥsab n wakken ay d-yeqqar Chumbow (1996), "aseqdec n tutlayin tiyemmatin seg yiseggasen imezwura n uselmed yetturar dduṛ meqqren deg wesnerni n tḥeṛci n wegrud".

Xas ma yella kra n tmura n Tefriqt n ddaw n Sṣeḥra sseqdacent tutlayin tineṣliyin deg uselmed di tlata yiseggasen imezwura n uselmed, Cameroun tesseqdac tutlayin-is tunṣibin (tafṛensist d teglizit) deg wakk iswiren (niveaux) n welmad, seg wasmi ara d-bdun warrac almad-nsen alamma d asmi ara awḍen ɣer tesdawit. D aya ay yedǧan medden ad ḥemmlen tutlayin tunṣibin u ad sɛunt azal ɣur-sen di lweqt i deg ḥeqren tutlayin tineṣliyin n tmurt-nsen. Maca taḥeqranit-agi n tutlayin tineṣliyin maci ala di Cameroun ay yella, yernu Adegbija (2000) yeqqar-d : "Yuɣ lḥal, deg waṭas n tmura ay yellan zik d tihersin (colonies) n Fṛansa d Portugal, tutlayin tineṣliyin ur ttwaqbalent, ur ttuselmadent deg uɣerbaz ula deg yiseggasen imezwura n welmad. Imi timura-yagi d tigellilin taswiɛt-a, ur bɣint ara ad gent ussisen (lmeǧhudat) i wakken ad beddent i tutlayin-nsent tineṣliyin, nnig waya, imawlan ttnadin i wakken igerdan-nsen ad lemden tutlayin tuṛufiyin (européennes) ɣef zik lḥal. Ttejṛiba tesban-d dakken amur ameqran deg yimawlan di Cameroun ur qbilen ara ad lemden yigerdan-nasen tutlayin tineṣliyin deg uɣerbaz. Aṭas n yimawlan ay yettaznen igerdan-nsen ɣer walmaten n yigerdan (jardins ḍenfants) akken kan ara awḍen tlata yiseggasen i wakken ad lemden taglizit neɣ tafṛensist. D ayen ibanen dakken imawlan ara yefken arraw-nsen i wakken ad lemden tutlayt tunṣibt ur begɣun ara ad lemden warraw-nsen tutlayin tineṣliyin asmi ara kecmen s aɣerbaz. Dɣa, tagnit-agi maci d nettat ara iɛiwnen tutlayin tineṣliyin ad kecment s aɣerbaz akamruni. Almaten n yigerdan sseqdacen tarrayin (méthodes) n uselmed tibriṭaniyin, timarikaniyin neɣ tifṛensisin. D tikli-yagi ay yedǧan timura n Tefriqt taɣerbit ay testeɛmeṛ Fṛansa zik-nni, ad qqiment dima qqnent idles-nsen ɣer Fṛansa, yernu d aya ay d-yezgan d unjug (obstacle) i wakken ur ttnernint ara tutlayin tineṣliyin di tmura-nsent. D acu kan, xas ma yella tebɣa Cameroun ad tessekcem tutlayin tineṣliyin s aɣerbaz, taswiɛt-a, ur tezmir ara ad teg aya, acku ameṣruf (budget) ay yefka udabu n tmurt-a i uselmed mecṭuh mliḥ, yernu ur yettadǧa ara agrud akamruni ad yesɛu ula cwiṭ seg wayen yeḥwaǧ d ttawil i wakken ad yelmed, nnig waya, lexṣaṣ n yedrimen yesxasṣ ula d tasnarrayt (méthodologie) n uselmed akk d usekcem n yiselmaden imaynuten. Seg wakken xusṣen yedrimen di Cameroun alamma ay yeqqim unabaḍ (lḥukuma) ɛecṛa yiseggasen ur yezmir ara ad d-yessekcem iselmaden imaynuten s aɣerbaz amenzu (primaire), yernu alamma ay d melmi kan ay tekfa taluft-agi. Dɣa, di tallit-nni, aṭas n tneɣra (classes) ay yeqqimen mebla aselmad yernu amur ameqran deg yigerdan ur ɣrin ara aṭas neɣ ur ufin ara win ara ten-yesseɣren. Ma yella tadamsa (économie) n tmurt ur tezmir ara i uɣerbaz, amek ay ara tezmer i usekcem n tutlayin tineṣliyin s aɣerbaz amenzu ? Yuɣ lḥal, asekcem n tutlayin s tineṣliyin s aɣerbaz maci d awezɣi neɣ d ayen iweɛṛen aṭas ɣef udabu akamruni, maca ugur atan deg wanect ara d-yesqam waya, ladɣa ma neẓra dakken aṭas seg yiselmaden n yiɣerbazen ikamruniyen la ttuxellaṣen s yedrimen n lemɛawna n Tbanka Tamaḍlant (Banque Mondiale). Imi adabu la yesseqac kan taglizit akk d tefṛensist deg uselmed, yernu yettmeslay d wegdud ala s tutlayin-agi, aṭas n medden yettmeslayen tutlayin tineṣliyin qqimen di rrif, ur zmiren ara ad ttekkin neɣ ad d-inin rṛay-nsen di temsal yesɛan azal di tmurt-nsen, yernu s waya, ur ttazmaren ara ad ttekkin deg wesnerni n tmurt-nsen. Aṭas deg-sen ur ẓrin d acu yellan di tmenḍawt (constitution) wala deg usaḍuf (lqanun) n uɛaqeb n tmurt-nsen d yisuḍaf ay yesselḥayen tudert-nsen. Dɣa, aselḥu n lumuṛ n uwanak (ddewla) d ayen yellan ger yifassen kan n tedɣert (élite), yernu xas ma yella adabu yessefra ad yesselmed taɣuri i yimeqranen, ar ass-a werɛad ur yebdi ara aya. Yuɣ lḥal, Tadaǧeu (1975) yenna-d dakken lemmer adabu ad yesselḥu tamurt s tlata tutlayin, taglizit, tafṛensist d tutlayin tineṣliyin, ad yeg ifadden i wakken ad ttwalemdent deg uɣerbaz u ad ttusqedcent deg yinurar merṛa, aya yezmer ad d-yawi abaɣur (lfayda) meqqren i Yikamruniyen. Ma d nekni si tama-nneɣ, nettwali dakken yelha lemmer tutlayin-agi tineṣliyin ad tent-skecmen deg s aɣerbaz amenzu : tabasaat (basaa), tabulut (bulu), tewondot (ewondo), tadualat (duala), tafe'fe't (fe'fe'), tafulfuldet (fulfulde), tamungakat (mungaka) akk d tpidgint n teglizit. Tabasaat ad tt-sqedcen wid ay tt-yessawalen di tama n yiri n lebḥeṛ n Cameroun akk d temnaḍin (provinces) n tlemmast n tmurt; tabulut akk d tewondot ad tent-sqedcen di tlemmast, deg wenẓul (sud) akk d temnaḍin ticerqiyin; tadualat ad tt-sqedcen wid Yedualaten akk d kra n yegduden n terbaɛt tasawat (sawa) am Yibakweriyen (Bakweri) akk d Yibakossiyen (Bakossi) di temnaḍin n wenẓul aɣerbi, d Yemboten (Mbo) yettidiren di temnaḍt n Yiri n Lebḥeṛ; tafe'fe't ad tt-sqedcen di temnaḍt taɣerbit; tafulfuldet ad tt-sqedcen di tlata-nni n temnaḍin n ugafa; tamungakat ad tt-sqedcen deg Temnaḍt n Ugafa Aɣerbi u di tgara, tapidgint n teglizit n Cameroun ad tt-sqedcen di temnaḍin anda ay ttmeslayen taglizit.

Askasi ɣef tutlayt taɣelnawt[beddel]

Seg wasmi ay tewwi Cameroun azarug-is (indépendance), afran n tutlayt taɣelnawt (tutlayt neɣ tutlayin tineṣliyin i yes ara sselḥun tamurt) yella-yas d ugur. Xas ma yella adabu yefren ad yewwet nneḥ ɣef temsalt-agi imi ay yugad lemmer ad yefren kra n tutlayt/tutlayin, u ad yedǧ tiyaḍ, aya ad d-yexleq uguren ger yegduden yemgerraden n Cameroun yernu ad ihudd tadukli n tmurt, kra n waggagen (intellectuels) imeqranen, imuzzag (spécialistes) n uselmed d yimesnilsiyen (linguistes) lhan-d mliḥ akk d temsalt-agi yernu nudan ad as-d-afen tifrat. Ngijol (1964) yessumer-d (proposer) ad tesɛu tmurt n Cameroun yiwet kan n tutlayt taɣelnawt i lmend n teywalt, n uselmed n tɣuri akk d uselmed deg uɣerbaz d wesnerni n tmagit (idendité) tadelsant n tmurt. Ma d Ba Njock (1966), si tama-s, yessumer-d dakken adabu ad yebḍu tamurt d timiwa ɣef leḥsab n tutlayin, yal yiwet ad tesɛu tutlayt-is i yiman-is. Xas ma yella takti-yagi (lfekra) telha, tifrat am ta tezmer ad d-tesnulfu uguren di kra n tmiwa anda ur tban ara d acu-tt tutlayt ay yettuseqdacen deg-sen s waṭas. Ahat, Ba Njock akk d wid yeddan d tmuɣli-s mmeslayen-d ɣef takti-yagi imi ay walan dakken deg yiseggasen n settin, yebda udabu la yesselmad setta si tutlayin tineṣliyin n tmurt di tesdawit tafidiṛalit, d acu kan, adabu akamruni yeḥbes aselmed-agi imi ay yugad lemmer ad d-neṭqen Yikamruniyen yettmeslayen tutlayin nniḍen u ad d-ssutren ad tent-sselmaden ula d nitenti. Nnig waya, i wakken ad yefru udabu tamsalt n wanta ay d tutlayt yifen tayeḍ, imḍebbren nnan-d tutlayin tineṣliyin merṛa n Cameroun d "tutlayin tiɣelnawin", ɛedlent akk yernu ulac amgerrad (lxilaf) gar-asent. Di temlilit n Useqqamu Aɣelnaw n Temsal Tidelsanin ay d-yellan di Yaoundé seg 18 ɣer 22 Dujembeṛ 1974, yeɛzem udabu ad asent-yessawal i tutlayin tineṣliyin "tutlayin tiɣelnawin". D acu kan, di lweqt i deg anabaḍ (lḥukuma) yella yeḥwaǧ ad yesɛu tabɣest (lkuṛaj) i wakken ad yefren anti ay d tutlayin tiɣelnawin i yes ara yesselḥu tamurt, netta yessanef i temsalt-a, u yefren ad yeɛdel ger wakk tutlayin mebla ma yefra ugur. Maca xas ma yella adabu ur yessaweḍ ara ad yefru aya, llant di Cameroun ɛecṛa n rṛadyuwat taẓiyanin (régionales), yal tamnaḍt tesɛa tin-is, yernu ttwaxedment-d i wakken ad ttmeslayen s tutlayin ay ttmeslayen aṭas di temnaḍin-nsent. Lweqt ay tettak yal rṛadyu i tutlayt-is taneṣlit yemxallaf si temnaḍt ɣer tayeḍ. Di temnaḍt n Ugafa Ubɛid (Extrême-Nord), rṛadyu n temnaḍt tettak 27.36% si lweqt-is i tutlayin tineṣliyin, ma d tamnaḍt n Ugafa Aɣerbi, rṛadyu-yines yellan di Bamenda tettak kan 4,17% si lweqt-is i tutlayin tineṣliyin. Yuɣ lḥal, yella wemgerrad d ameqran di lweqt ay tettak yal rṛadyu i tutlayin tineṣliyin, yernu aya yesskan-d dakken yal rṛadyu d nettat ay yettḍebbiren deg wanect ara tefk d lweqt i tutlayin-agi. Amur ameqran di teywalt (communication) yettwaxdam s teglizit d tefṛensist, ama di rṛadyu neɣ di tilibizyu n Cameroun, yernu aya yesskan-d dakken amur ameqran seg yimezdaɣen n Cameroun rran-ten di rrif imi ur sen-ttmeslayen ara s tutlayin-nsen, di lweqt i deg Ikamruniyen-agi, lemmer ad asen-mmeslayen s tutlayin ay fehhmen, zemren ad nefɛen tamurt-nsen ugar. Ula d Todd (1983) tettwali dakken yelha lemmer ad tefren Cameroun yiwet kan n tutlayt taɣelnawt. ɣef leḥsab-is nettat, tapidgint n teglizit n Cameroun tezmer ad turar dduṛ n tutlayt taɣelnawt mebla uguren imi tutlayt-a tesɛa tamṣuka (structure) iqerben ɣer tin n tutlayin tineṣliyin, yernu d nettat kan ay d tutlayt tawḥidt di Cameroun ur nesɛi ara agdud neɣ taqbilt ay tt-yettmeslayen d tutlayt-is taneṣlit, ur tesɛi tama ibanen anda ay tt-ttmeslayen wala ddyana yeqqnen ɣur-s, am wakken ur telli ara d tutlayt ay d-iḥettem kra n unabaḍ (lḥukuma) n yinehrasen (colonisateurs). S waya, wid yetṭfen talemmast ttwalin dakken tapidgint n teglizit n Cameroun d tutlayt ay izemren ad tesdukel mliḥ Ikamruniyen imi "ur telli d tutlayt n yiwen".

Llan wid ur neddi ara rṛay-agi, qqaren-d dakken tapidgint teqreb ɣer teglizit yernu amur ameqran di tmawalt-is (léxique) d awalen ay d-yekkan si teglizit.D acu kan, imi tutlayt-agi ttmeslayen-tt u ttemsefhamen yis-s waṭas n medden yettmeslayen tutlayin yemgerraden, yelha ma yella tettuseqdec d tutlayt n uselmed, u teqqar-d Todd (1983) dakken "lemmer ad tuɣal tpidgintd tutlayt n uselmed, aya ur d-yesqamay ara aṭas i unabaḍ (lḥukuma) akamruni. Tutlayt-agi fehhmen-tt waṭas n medden deg waṭas n tmiwa n tmurt, yernu ttemsefhamen yis-s Yikamruniyen ula akk d yinaragen-nsen (lǧiran) ifriqiyen, yernu xas ma yella qlil kan anda ay tettili tutlayt-agi d tutlayt tayemmat n wegrud, tikwal, llan aṭas n yigerdan n Cameroun ay s-isellen i tutlayt-a tettuseqdac seg wasmi ara ilin d imecṭaḥ. Aṭas aya seg wasmi ara tetturar tpidgint n teglizit n Cameroun dduṛ n usiweḍ n yedles akamruni, yernu tezmer ad tettuseqdec mebla uguren deg wemni (parlement) neɣ di lemcawṛat n tedrimt". Imi ay tettwaḥseb tpidgint n teglizit n Cameroun d yiwet si tutlayin n tmurt-a, tezmer ad turar dduṛ n tutlayt taɣelnawt mebla uguren. Nnig waya, aseqɛed d usizeɣ-yines (standardisation) ur s-d-yesqamay ara akk aṭas i udabu imi ay yella yagi wayen yuran s tutlayt-a. Maca xas ma yella tapidgint n teglizit n Cameroun tezmer ad d-awi ibuɣar (lfaydat) imeqranen i tmurt, adadu, taswiɛt-a, mazal yegguma ad yeg ifadden i wakken ad tettuseqdec.

Tagrayt[beddel]

Xas ma yella tasertit (politique) n Cameroun terked u tezmer tmurt ad d-telhu d wuguren n tutlayt, yettban-aɣ-d dakken aya maci si temsal timeqranin ay iceɣben adabu. Yuɣ lḥal, Cameroun, am waṭas n tmura n Tefriqt n ddaw n Sṣeḥra, ur tettwali ara dakken timsal n tutlayt zwarent. Dɣa, skud ulac uguren akk d tsertit n tutlayt i yes la tlehḥu tmurt ass-a, fiḥel ma yexdem udabu acemma nniḍen i wakken ad yefru uguren ay d-mazal ɛellqen. Xas ma yella imesnilsiyen (linguistes) d yimassanen ay d-yerran lwelha-nsen ɣer temsalt n tutlayin tineṣliyin la d-ttmeslayen u la d-ssumuren (proposer) iberdan ara yefrun ugur-agi, adabu akamruni yettban-aɣ-d dakken yefṛeḥ s tegnit i deg tella tmurt ass-a deg wennar n tutlayin. Yuɣ lḥal, ayen ara ixeddem udabu, la t-ixeddem kan i teswiɛt mebla ma iwala ɣer lbeɛd.

I wakken ad teg Cameroun tasetit n tutlayt yelhan, yessefk fell-as ad tesselmed igerdan s tutlayt-nsen tayemmat deg yiseggasen-nsen imezwura n welmad, sakkin, ad asen-tesselmed tutlayin tunṣibin (officielles - taglizit akk d tefṛensist). Maca, i wakken ad terbeḥ tsertit-agi, yessefk ad tettwaxdem ɣef leḥsab n ttawil yellan, u cwiṭ, cwiṭ kan, ladɣa di tmiwa n tmurt, berṛa i temdinin, anda igerdan ssnen kan tutlayin-nsen tineṣliyin. Dɣa, tutlayin tineṣliyin n yal tama ad ttusqedcent i uselmed u tent-snernin deg yeswiren (niveaux) yemgerraden. Yernu, mi ara tennerni kra n tutlayt, tezmer ad tuɣal d nettat ay d tutlayt n uselmed n temnaḍt merṛa. Anabaḍ (lḥukuma), iseqquma aẓiyanen (régionaux), yiseqquma n tutlayt d yemdanen iqeddcen ɣef tutlayt yessefk ad gen ifadden i yinelmaden i wakken maci ala d taglizit d tefṛensist wanag ula d tutlayin tineṣliyin, yernu yessefk ad yettwaxdem waya deg wakk timiwa n tmurt. Maca taswiɛt-a, tamsalt n tutlayt mazal werɛad tefri di tmurt n Cameroun anda amur ameqran seg yimezdaɣen "ur neɣri ara" ttwaɛezlen imi ur ssinen tafṛensist wala taglizit. Nnig waya, imi igerdan ur a lemmden ara s tutlayt-nsen tayemmat, aṭas n yigerdan ur a nrebbeḥ ara di tezrawin-nsen (leqraya), acku seɛɛun uguren akk d teglizit d tefṛensist, u di tgara, xas ma yella adabu yebɣa ad yesselḥu tamurt s snat tutlayin tunṣibin u yebɣa ad yeɛdel gar-asent, ur yessaweḍ ara, yernu yessefk ad yefru uguren yerzan aya imi ay yella wemgerrad (conflit) ger wid yessawalen tafṛensist d wid yessawalen taglizit, yernu aya yezmer ad yessiweḍ ɣer bedḍu n tmurt. ɣef waya, yessefk ɣef Cameroun ad tɛawed tamuɣli deg tikli ay d-tewwi di tsertit-is n tutlayin u ad teg ayen yessefken s tidet i wakken ad ten-tefru.

Idlisen[beddel]

  • Chumbow, Sammy Beban (1996): "The Role of National Languages within a Comprehensive Language Policy for Cameroon". Academic Discourse presented at the University of Buea.
  • Ngijol, Pierre (1964): "Nécessité ḍune langue nationale". ABBIA No. 7: 83-99.

Njeck, Alice Forsab (1992): Official Bilingualism in the University of Yaounde : Some Educational and Social Issues. Mémoire de Maîtrise, Université de Yaoundé.

  • Tadaǧeu, Maurice (1975): "Language Planning in Cameroon: Towards a Trilingual Education System". In: Herbert, Robert K. (ed.): Patterns in Language, Culture and Society: Sub-Saharan Africa. Colombus, Ohio: 53-75. (= Working Papers in Linguistics 19).
  • Tambi, Jot (1973): Received Language Bilingualism in Cameroon: A Study of Functions and Attitudes. Mémoire du DES, Université de Yaoundé.
  • Todd, Loreto (1983): "Language Options for Education in a Multilingual Society: Cameroon". In: Kennedy, Chris (ed): Language Planning and Language Education. London: 160-171.
  • Yettwakkes-d umagrad-agi si Linguistik online 18, 1/04

http://www.linguistik-online.de/18_04/echu.html

Tamselyut, Iseddagen & Izdayen Iberraniyen[beddel]