Talitwanit

Seg Wikipedia
Neggez ar: ẓer isebtar, anadi

Talitwanit ttmeslayen-tt ass-a 3 n yimelyunen n medden di Litwanya (98 % seg yimezdaɣen n Tegduda Talitwanit), ma nerna-yas-d i wemḍan-agi anect yettmeslayen talitwanit berr'a i Litwanya, ad d-naf d akken 3,5 n yimelyunen n yemdanen ara yettmeslayen talitwanit deg wemḍal. Si ger n 800.000 n Yilitwaniyen ay yettidiren di lberr'ani, aḥric ameqqran deg-sen yettidir deg Yiwunak Yedduklen (650.000), maca diɣ nezmer ad naf aṭas n Yilitwaniyen di Pulunya (anda 70.000 n yemdanen ay yettmeslayen talitwanit), di Brizil (40.000), di Ter'jentint (35.000), di Kanada (14.725), di Briṭanya Tameqqrant (12.000), akk d Uruguay (10.000) (Grimes 1992). D acu kan, akken d-iger tamawt Zinkuvicius deg wedlis-is, maci Ilitwaniyen merr'a ay izedɣen di lberr'ani ssnen tutlayt-nsen.

Deg wennar n tesnilsit (linguistique), qqaren-d d akken d talitwanit i deg ay d-qqimen waṭas akk n yedrizen (traces) si tutlayt tahendur'ufit (indo-européen) taqdimt, tin i seg d-yeffeɣ umur meqqren si tutlayin n Tur'uft n wass-a. Qqiment-d di tlitwanit aṭas n tɣawsiwin n tjerr'umt taqburt ay sr'uḥent tutlayin tihendur'ifiyin nniḍen. D acu kan, am tutlayin merr'a n twacult tahendur'ufit, ula d talitwanit tbeddel akk d lweqt. Talɣa (forme) taqburt akk n tlitwanit yettwassnen, qqaren-as "talitwanit taqburt", yiwen ur a tt-yettmeslay ass-a.

Tawacult-is[beddel]

Talitwanit tekcem di twacult tameqqrant n tutlayin tihendur'ufiyin (indo-européenne), am tefr'ensist, taneglizit akk d weḥric meqqren si ttulayin n Tur'uft (Europe). D acu kan, talitwanit ur čuba ara aṭas tafr'ensist neɣ taneglizit am akken čuba tutlayin ay d-iqerben ɣur-s, tid wukud tecrek aẓar iqerben. Tawacult n tutlayin tihendur'ufiyin tebḍa d ifurka, dɣa talitwanit tekcem deg ufurk n tutlayin tibaltiyin, di lweqt i deg taneglizit akk d talmanit, ɣef umedya, kecment deg ufurk n tutlayin tijirmaniyin. Afurk n tutlayin tibaltiyin yebḍa ɣef snat n tegrawin (tirebbaɛ) : tutlayin tibaltiyin tigmuḍanin (ticerqiyin) i deg tella tlitwanit akk d tliṭṭunit (letton, d tutlayt icuban mliḥ taliwanit u ttmeslayen-tt di Liṭṭunya), akk d terbaɛt n tutlayin tibaltiyin tutrimin (tiɣerbiyin) i deg tella teprusit taqburt, d tutlayt ay inegren di tizi n 1700, u qqimen-d seg-s ala kan kra n yedrizen (traces) yuran. Ihi, t utlayt i ɣer teqreb kter' tlitwanit d taliṭṭunit. Yuɣ lḥal, tutlayin-agi di snat ugarent akk tutlayin tihendur'ufiyin deg wanect i d-yeqqimen deg-sent d idrizen iqburen di tejr'utin (cas) n thendur'ifit taqburt.

Tantalyin n tlitwanit[beddel]

Talitwanit tella tesɛa aṭas n tentalyin, d acu kan, llant kra deg-sen ay yedduklen akk d tiyaḍ, u uɣalent d yiwet kan n tentala. Ma d imesilsiyen (linguistes), msefhamen s umata akken ad bḍun talitwanit ɣef snat n tentalyin timeqqranin. Tamenzut, d tin umi qqaren "aukshtaichiai" neɣ tukctaytit, neɣ Talitwanit n Ufella. Ma d tis snat d tin umi qqaren "zemachiai" negh tasamugtit neɣ Talitwanit n Wadda. Yiwen n umassan, Grimes (deg wedlis-is n 1992), yerna-d tantala tis tlata, tadzukit, ay yeḥseb d yiwet si tentalyin timeqqranin n tlitwanit, di lweqt i deg tuget deg n yimassanen qqaren-d d akken tadzukit d tanḍa kan (variante) n tukctaytit. Tutlayt talitwanit tatrat ay tesseqdac tmurt ass-a tekka-d seg yiwet n tduntala (sous-dialecte) n tukctaytit (talitwanit n ufella) ay ttmeslayen deg wenẓul (sud) n Litwanya, d acu kan, iḍrisen iqburen akk n tlitwanit uran s tlitwanit n wadda.

Tira[beddel]

Talitwanit tesseqdac agemmay alatini ay yettubeddlen ciṭṭaḥ. Akken ad d-sbanen "iɣdebba" (accents) n tutlayt talitwanit, Ilitwaniyen sseqdacen izmal n ussemgirred (signes diacritiques). Yuɣ lḥal, tesseqdec tlitwanit yiwen n lweqt agemmay asirili (arusi) si 1864 alammi d 1905, d acu kan, yuɣal-itt-id ugemmay alatini imi d netta kan ay isehlen i tira-yines.

Tasɣent-is (ddur'-is) di tmetti[beddel]

Ass-a, talitwanit tesɛa aẓayer (statut) n tutlayt tamenṣabt di Litwanya, yernu tettuseqac deg yinurar merr'a n leqdic akk d tudert n yal ass. Seg wasmi ay d-yebda lqern wis 20 ara tettuseqdac tlitwanit deg uɣerbaz.

Ger n 1920 d 1940 (di tallit n uzarug amenzu n tmurt), tesbedd-d Litwanya anagraw (système) ikemlen n usselmed ara yesseqdacen talitwanit d tutlayt n usselmed seg uɣerbaz amenzu alamma d tasdawit. Yuɣ lḥal, agdud alitwani d win iḥemmlen ad iɣer aṭas s tutlayt-is. Di tallit i deg tewwi Litwanya azarug-is amenzu, ugar n 7100 n yedlisen ay d-yeffɣen s tlitwanit, yernu ass-a aṭas n tɣawsiwin yuran ara d-iteffɣen s tlitwanit, gar-asent iḍrisen ussnanen (textes scientifiques) d wakniyen (techniques) akk d yeɣmisen d tesɣunin (revues). Di 1990, ffɣen-d di Litwanya 240 n yeɣmisen s 4,5 n yimelyunen n wudmawen (exemplaires) akk d 43 n tesɣunin s 2,6 n yimelyunen n wudmawen.

Llant diɣ tregwa n rr'adyu akk d tilibizyu s tlitanit. Kra n wahilen (programmes) ay d-tgen i yiberr'aniyen, ttmeslayen s teglizit.

Mi akka ara d-yettqerrib uzemz (date) n unekcum n Litwanya ɣer Tdukli Tur'ufit (Union Européenne), talitwanit ur tettɣimi ara kan d tutlayt taɣelnawt n yiwet kan n tmurt wanag ad tuɣal d yiwet si tutlayin timenṣabin n Tur'uft u ad d-taf iman-is s waya tga aḥurif ɣer sdat akken ad tuɣal d tutlayt tagraɣlant. Xas ma yella lqern wis 20 yeǧǧa-d leǧruḥ di tutlayt-a yernu qrib yegli yis-s akken ad tuɣal si tutlayin yemmuten, lqern wis 21 yeldi-d tiwwura timaynutin ɣef tutlayt-a akken ad tennerni ɣer sdat.

Tamselyut[beddel]