Mixayel Aleksandrubicc Bakunin

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Mixayel Aleksandrubicc Bakunin

Mixayel Aleksandrubicc Bakunin (s trusit Михаил Александрович Бакунин), imi qqaren tikwal Michel Bakounine, illul ass n 20 neɣ 30 di mayu 1814 di Primuxino, di tmurt n Rrus, imut ass amenzu di yulyu usseggass n 1876 di Bern, tamurt n Sswis d afilusuf awernaḍ (anarchiste). Acḥal d asseggas d Pierre-Joseph Proudhon illa-d d tala-s n tikta.

Ass-mi idder di Mosku d Saint-Petersburg illa issuqul-d imarayen ilamniyen am Hegel d Fichte ar trusit. Di 1842, yusa ar tmurt n Lalman u si imi iwweḍ imlal n ilmeẓyen inelmayen n tmurt n llalmen di Berlin. Syin, idda ar Fransa anda imlal d Proudhon d George Sand u issen-d daɣen imnejla n tmurt Polonya. Si Paris, iruḥ ar tmurt n Swiss anda izdaɣ kra iseggasen u anda ikki u igar tamawt ama s tiga am tikti d ṭaqa n imussuten inelmayen.

Ass-mi akka I illa izdeɣ di tmurt n Swiss, anabaḍ n tmurt-a ira a t-isqarqer ar tmurt-is, tamurt n Russ. Bakunin yugi. U tigin-a ines tessassa as-d tukwsa n wayen isɛa, ama d axxam ama d ayen nniḍen. Di 1848, di tuɣalin-ines ar Paris, yura kra n wawalen d imsarɣiyen mgal tamurt n Rrus u dgha anect-a iwwi yas-d tufɣa si tmurt n Fransa, ittwaqerqer-d seg-s.

Amussu agrawliw n 1848 ifka yas abrid s wayes ikcem ar gar kra n trebbuɛa ifetlen arway d tektiwin ɣef tugdut. Ikki deg umennuɣ n Dresde n 1849 u dinna dɣa I ittwarez, “taɣdemt” teddem fell-as tamgart, u ittwarez “ar laxart”. Fkan-t, neɣ rran-t, s ifassen ttwaqnen, I udabu n tmurt n Rrus, win izemmemen fell-as tawwurt n tazult u I t-yuznen, kra issegwassen s yin, ar lka n usemmar n Siberya deg useggas n 1855.

Deg useggas n 1861, deg yiwen n ttriḥ i s-fkan I kra n wussan irwel ar tmurt n Japon, d Iwunak Idduklen u tagara ar tmurt n Lingliz. S yin idder akw tudart-is di Turuft, ladɣa di tmurt n Sswis. Di 1869 issali yiwet n tdukli tasertant: Tadukli Tanemlayt n Tugdut. Maca ugin as I tdukli agi ines anekcum ar tmenzut n Tagraɣlant Inemahalen (Internationale des travailleurs), nnan as tadukli inek ulac deg-s tirrebbuɛa tigraɣlayin. Dɣa assegwass nni, tebḍa Tdukli ya u wid illan ttekkin akw deg-s ddan ar Tagraɣlant Inemahalen iman nsen, myal yiwen ansi I ikka.

Di 1870 isseker-d ahetrwel d ummennuɣ di Lyon, maca ur issaweḍ sani n kra. Maca xas ilul-d din immut din umenniɣ-a, izga, kra iseggasen s yin, d amedya di Tɣiwant n Paris. Karl Marx d Friedrich Engles ufan as anamek diɣen: tasnaraft n tigellel.

Deg useggas n 1872 Bakunin essufɣen-t seg ukabar amarksiẓri di temlilit n la Haye imi imgaraden di tamuɣli netta d Marx. Marx inna ilaq uwanek anemlay ar isseddun timsal ar tuksa uwanek s wadda, ma d Bakunin ur iwala ara I wacu awanek akken ad tili tuksa ...uwanek-a.

Xas akken Bakunin, si zik, ittwali di Marx tigzi ɣef sin iḍaren, maca yufa-t tikwal ittzuxu u imiren id-inna d akken abrid n Marks ar Tesnaraft ar yawwi wid iddan deg-s u ma s yis-s urǧin ad tili tegrawla tanemlayt. Bakunin iceḍ daɣen imi iwwet di Marks ɣef iẓuran-is udayen u Marks inna daɣen ɣef Bakunin belli ittargu deg iḍ deg ass u ɣef anect-a Bakunin inna-d : d tidett!

Iffeɣ Bakunin seg wannar umennuɣ di Luganu deg useggas n 1873 u immut di Bern ass n 1 di yunyu 1876. Issal-id u eǧǧa-d amussu agraɣlan awernaẓri. Tawernatt macci kan d arway, di tazwara d ameggel n tikta, d amennuɣ ɣef izerfan, d tugin n tesnaraft uwanak ɣef wudem n tugdut.

Asirem d tektiwin n Bakunin fɣent-ed deg udlis-is Ilu d Uwanek. Fell-as netta tura Madeleine Grawitz Bakunin di teẓririgin Calamin-Levy 2000.

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