Microsoft Windows

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Windows (s tseklant "isfuyla" s tutlayt taglizit) d yiwet n tseddaṛt n inagramen n wammud id fres Microsoft iy selkimen imṣudan PC. D win id yarnan deffir MS DOS. Seg segwasen 1990 (agim, tza twines d tzat) , d ttwafɣa n Windows 95, id yemmugren arbaḥ ameqṛan, dɣa imi amaẓrag ines yestenya amtawa d waṭas imasraken n-iselkimen iwakken ad sveddayen deg furas nsen ala Windows 95 naɣ muyaf asen gen tafagwit n tedrimt, ayagi yeǧǧat ad yawi amḍiq ameqṛan deg ugduz.

taseddaṛt n Windows degs aṭas ifurkawen:

  • Afurk amenzu, d win umi neqqar afurk 16 (mraw sed) ibitten, iɣum Windows si lqem 1 ar 3.11 (3.2 s tcinwatt), Ifɣed asegwas n 1985 (mraw tza twines d tamet sem), ileḥḥu (itedddu) kan deg selkimen imṣudan PC, uqqin 16 ibitten.
  • Afurk wissin, umi qqaren afurk Windows NT (Windows NT 3.1, NT 4.O, arnu Windows 2000), ifɣed di 1993. D taneflit id yalsen (iɛawden) seg ulac, ittwaxdem iy selkimen n yemdanen d iqeddacen d iselkimen imyagwan PC. Di tazwara llan seqdacent tmettiwin.

Di 2001 Windows XP yeffɣed, yuɣal ufurk agi sseqdacent yemdanen marra, ayen yeǧǧan Microdoft ad suffaɣ wa deffir wayeḍ Windows Vista d Windows 7.

  • Afurk wis kraḍ, umi qqaren tikwal afurk Windows 9x, yefɣed asegwas n 1995, idder s-umsaday d ufurk NT. Afurk agi yevda d Windows 95, yarnad fellas Windows 98 d Windows Me. Yettwassen aṭas seg imdanen, yarna yusad iwakken ad yeṭṭef amḍiq n ufurk amenzu, yella d-afurk amezwaru s 32 ibitten.
  • Afurk wis kuz, umi qqaren afurk Windows CE, yefɣed asegwas n 1996. Yusad akken ad yeddu deg inagrawen yettwabban d warrumen fssusen n ufus (tilifun (teleɣri) ufus). d netta id azadur n Windows Mobile d Pocket PC.

Ifurkawen itikniken n Windows[beddel]

Afurk n 16 ibitten[beddel]

Ismawen n tengalin yettwasnen ger wacciwen.

  • Windows 1.0 : wanber 1985
  • Windows 2 : duǧamber 1987
  • Windows 2.10 i 286 : duǧamber 1987
  • Windows 2.10 i 386 : duǧamber 1987
  • Windows 2.11 …
  • Windows 3.0 : mayu 1990
  • Windows 3.1 "Janus" : yebrir 1992
  • Windows i Workgroups 3.1 "Kato" : tuber 1992
  • Windows i Workgroups 3.11 "Snowball" : wanber 1993
  • Windows i Workgroups 3.2 (lqem acinwat n Windows i Workgroups 3.11) : …

Ileqmen imezwura n Windows ttwasekkaren si DOS, sseqdacen anagraw n ifuyla n DOS. Sinna Windows tsekcmed kra n twura n unagraw n wammud, am umasal n uselkam n yimanis, asefrek n ukala multitaches, asefrek n tkatut tahlist d inuḍafen iw sefrek n ubeqqeḍ, asiggez, anasiw, imesli ... d wiyaḍ. Windows 2.10 i 386 yuǧwed ula d netta seg iketturen n Intel 80386, am usersi n yiɣes s uqqin imesten d uselkem n ahilen DOS di tmacinin tuhlisin s uqqin 8086.

Nezmer daɣen anesseqdac Windows di DOS wiyaḍ mači MS-DOS n Windows, am PC-DOS n IBM naɣ DR-DOS, maca ilaq an eǧǧ di rrif yark inzan inezriyen id ittcegga uselkim deg usbeddi. si Windows 95, agrudem udlif yuɣal susmenzi d-amadraw n MS-DOS. Dayen id yessekren ugur ger Caldera, ig llan d-amaẓrag n DR-DOS di lawan nni, yettaǧǧan daɣen Windows ad yelḥu, d Windows. Si Windows XP, nezmer ad nini dakken DOS dayen iruḥ yark seg inagrawen n wammud n Microsoft, maca talalt ines tezmer adili.

Afurk 9x[beddel]

Ismawen n tengalin yettwasnen ger wacciwen.

  • Windows 95 "Cikago" : ɣuct 1995
  • Windows 95 OSR2 "Detroit" : ɣuct 1996
  • Windows 98 "Memphis" : yunyu 1998
  • Windows 98 Taẓrigt tissnat, naɣ daɣen « Windows 98 SE ») : mayu 1999
  • Windows Me (naɣ Windows Millennium taẓrigt) : ctember 2000

A laǧay n yiɣes n NT meẓẓiyen aṭas d ugar n useqdec n wahilen ddaw MS-DOS, Microsoft tẓerged yiwen unagraw n wammud iwakken ad yettwaseqdac sɣuṛ yemdanen maṛṛa, d win id yebwin tiɣerwan yelhan n Windows NT u yeqqim d-amṣadan d-ileqman imenza n Windows d MS-DOS. Inagrawen Windows 95 d wid it idiḍefṛen d-inemhazen iregnawen 16/32 ibitten n-ileqman Windows 3.0 d 3.1. Ttwasulin yark ɣef yiwet tmudemt inuḍafen: i VxD ten. Di 1995, Windows 95 yebwid aṭas tɣawsuwin timaynutin: tissi n uzeṭṭa id yesukkes si tin n Windows NT, agrudem udlif amaynut. Mači d-anagraw n wammud amaynut, maca d tanemhazt n Windows 3.1. ɣuṛ Windows 95 tazmert iwakken ad yelḥu ɣef tiwilawin unekcum n tseddaṛt s wazal n 4 MO n tkatut tuddirt (RAM), lqem OSR2 n Windows 95 yebwid ttawil n tawadma n tezmart n USB d FAT32.

Lqem agi amezwaru yettwasnen ussan nni n tneflit ines s yisem n "Chicago" u yefɣed s yisem n Windows 95, yemmugred tinemhazin timeqṛanin, garasent Windows 98 d Windows Me (Millenium Edition), igeǧǧan inagrawen n wammud n Microsoft ad ttwasnen xilla. Ileqman agi yark sɛan yiwen wugur ameqṛan ninfafaden, ayen yeǧǧan Microsoft ad suffaɣ afurk n Windows NT 5.1 naɣ win umi neqqaṛ Windows XP iwakken att qazem ugur agi.

Afurk Windows NT[beddel]

Ismawen n tengalin yettwasnen ger wacciwen.

  • Windows NT 3.1 : ɣuct 1993
  • Windows NT 3.5 "Daytona" : ctember 1994
  • Windows NT 3.51 : yunyu 1995
  • Windows NT 4.0 : ɣuct 1996
  • Windows 2000 (Cairo) : fuṛaṛ 2000
  • Windows 2000 SP1 : ɣuct 2000
  • Windows 2000 SP2 : mayu 2001
  • Windows XP "Whistler, iluled seg ufsay n usenfar Neptune d win n Odyssey" : 25 tubaṛ 2001
  • Windows 2000 SP3 : yulyu 2002
  • Windows XP SP1 : ctember 2002
  • Windows XP taẓrigt Media Center : 2002
  • Windows Server 2003 : mayu 2003
  • Windows 2000 SP4 : yulyu 2003
  • Windows XP taẓrigt Starter : ɣuct 2004
  • Windows XP SP2 : ɣuct 2004
  • Windows XP taẓrigt axxam n "Windows XP Édition familiale / Windows XP taẓrigt twacult" : yebrir 2005
  • Windows XP 64 : avril 2005
  • Windows XP taẓrigt Media Center 2005 : ɣuct 2005
  • Windows Vista "Longhorn" : nunber 2006 i taṛmisin ; 30 yennayer 2007 i yemdanen maṛṛa.
  • Windows Server 2008 : fuṛaṛ 2008
  • Windows XP SP3 : yebrir 2008
  • Windows Vista SP1 "Windows Fiji" : id yefɣen di meɣṛes 2008
  • Windows Vista SP2 : yefɣed yunyu 2009
  • Windows 7 "Windows Vienna" : ifɣed ass n 22 tubaṛ 2009
  • Windows Server 2008 R2, ifɣad yiwen wass netta d Windows 7 (ass n 22 tubaṛ 2009)
  • Windows 7 SP1 : ifɣed fuṛaṛ 2011
  • Windows 8 : i 2012
  • Windows Home Server 2011 : uṛɛad id yeffaɣ acku ur yewjid ara.