Ibaskiyen

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Ibaskiyen d imezdaɣen n Tmurt n Yibaskiyen, d yiwet n tama ay d-yuzgan ɣef yiri n yilel (lebḥer), ger n Fransa akk d Spenyul akk d yidurar n Pyrénées utrimen (iɣerbiyen). D nitni ay d imezdaɣ iqdimen akk n tmiwa-yagi yernu ttmeslayen yiwet n tutlayt, tabaskit, seg wakken d taqdimt, ar ass-a werɛad d-ufin yimassanen d acu n tutlayt nniḍen ay tt-icuban neɣ d acu n twacult n tutlayin i ɣer ara tt-qqnen. Tamurt n Yibaskiyen ass-a tebḍa ɣef sin yeḥricen. Yiwen weḥric, win n ugafa (nord), d Fr'ansa ay t-iḥekmen u yuzga-d ugezdu n Pyrénées-Atlantiques, ma d aḥric nniḍen, win n wenẓul , d Spenyul ay t-iḥekmen yernu yebḍa ɣef snat n tmiwa (timettiyin timaniyin) : tin n Tmurt n Yibaskiyen, tamaneɣt-is d Vitoria, akk d tin n Navarra u tamaneɣt-is qqaren-as Pamplona. D acu kan, Ibaskiyen ara yessuturen acḥal d iseggasen aya ad awin azarug-nsen , ttwalin tamu rt-nsen d yiwet-is, agdud-nsen yeddukel, yernu smenyafayen ad semmin i yiman-nsen "Euskaldunak" u ad semmin i tmurt-nsen "Euskadi", ma d tutlayt-nsen, qqaren-as "Euskara".

Di Spenyul llan azal n 2.600.000 n Yibaskiyen di lweqt i deg di Fpansa llan kan 250.000. Azal n 700.000 n Yibaskiyen ay yettmeslayen tabaskit di Spenyul, di lweqt i deg di Fransa, 400.00 kan ay tt-yettmeslayen.

Ibaskiyen sɛan yiwet n tɣerma d taqdimt aṭas yernu mazal-itt tedder ar ass-a, u sɛan yiwet n tsekla tatlayt d tamerkantit maci d kra, cennun-tt-id kra akken n yimedyazen umi qqaren id "bertsolari". Ibaskiyen mazal diɣ ṭṭfen deg waṭas n wansayen, gar-asen takessawt n wakraren deg wedrar, addal n takurt tabaskit akk d wadag n yiceṭṭiḍen.

Amezruy-nsen [1][beddel]

Idrizen iqdimen akk ay d-ufan ɣef Yibaskiyen ttuɣalen ɣer 8000 n yiseggasen uqbel n Sidna ɛisa, u akken yebɣu yili, d igiman n yiseggasen ayaka seg wasmi ara ttidiren Yibaskiyen di tmiwa-yagi i deg llan ass-a. Seg wasmi ay bdan a d-keccmen yiberr'aniyen ɣer tmurt-nsen, Ibaskiyen, ladɣa wid n Navarra, zgan-d mgal-nsen u nuḍḥen akken ad ilin d ilelliyen. Dɣa nnuɣen mgal n Rruman yernu di tallit i deg llan Yinselmen sbedden tixlifin-nsen di Spenyul, yernu Fransa llan ḥekmen-tt Yefranken , ssawḍen Yibaskiyen ad d-gen tageldit timziregt di Navarra di 850, s ddaw n leḥkem n Inigo Arista. Tageldit-agi tewweḍ ɣer tallit-is n wureɣ s ddaw n leḥkem n Sancho III Ameqqran, ay iḥekmen tamurt si 1000 alammi d 1035. Ma di tama n ugafa, llan sɛan diɣ Yibaskiyen yiwet n tgeldit nniḍen ay yellan qrib d timziregt, d tin umi qqaren Soule. D acu kan, deg yiseggasen ay d-iḍefren, tufa-d Navarra iman-is zzint-as-d tgeldiwin timsiḥiyin (chrétiennes) si yal tama yernu tigi gant fell-as lḥer's akken ad teǧǧ tilelli-yines u llant tettent-as-d seg wakal-is, dɣa seg yimir-n ay tuɣal Navarra tettɛeddi sya ɣer da s ddaw n leɛnaya n tgeldiwin-agi (Castilla, Aragon akk d Fransa), akken ur tseɛɛu ara uguren yid-sent. Maca, xas tella Navarra tettɛeddi s yisem s ddaw n leḥkem aberr'ani, isuḍaf-yines (leqwanin-is) d yeglamen (privilèges) n wid ay tt-iḥekmen llan mazal ttuqadaren. Ma d tageldit tabaskit n Soule tebda ula d nettat tettɛeddi s ddaw n leɛnaya n lḥekkam ifr'ensisen u seg yimir-n ay tebda a tesruḥuy cwiṭ, cwiṭ tilelli-yines. Di 1234, yuli Champagne Thibaud Amenzu ɣer leḥkem di Navarra u yewwi amkan n twacult-nni yellan teḥkem tamurt uqbel, d anect-a ay yeǧǧan Navarra ad teqqen ɣer Fransa si 1284 alammi d 1328. D acu kan, di tallit-nni n leḥkem afrensis, tesseǧhed Navarra tinettit-is tasertit , yernu werǧin qbilen Yibaskiyen ad ten-teḥkem Fransa. Xas akken ifuk leḥkem usrid n Fransa di Navarra, d yiwet n twacult tafrensist, Evreux, ay ikemmlen teḥkem tamurt. Ma d tama n Soule yewwi-tt ugellid n Fr'ansa, Philippe le Bel di 1306, u seg yimir-n ay tuɣal d aḥric si tgeldit tafrensist. Uguren ay tella tesɛa twacult n Evreux di Navarra ldin-as tawwurt i Ferdinand II n Aragon akken ad yesdukel tama-yagi ɣer tgeldit n Castilla. Ma Navarra n Wadda (neɣ Navarre yellan ɣer tama n Fr'ansa) tewwi-tt twacult tafr'ensist n Bourbon di lqern wis XVI. Di 1607, agellid n Fr'ansa, Henri IV (Henri III n Navarra), ay yellan si twacult-agi, ikemmel asdukel Navarra n Wadda ɣer Fransa u seg wass-n ay tuɣal d aḥric si tmurt-a, tleḥḥu s usaḍuf n Fr'ansa. Ma d Navarra taspenyulit, xas akken tella d aḥric si Spenyul s yisem, kemmlent tsuda-yines a xeddment alammi d 1841, asmi ay d asen-ttwakksen i lḥekkam ibaskiyen n tama-nni iglamen-nsen (. Yuɣ lḥal, teɣli Tmurt n Yibaskiyen di beḍḍu akk d leḥkem aberrani imi, si tama, Ibaskiyen ur nudan ara ad d-gen tamurt meqqren yedduklen, si tama nniḍen, timura d-yezzin fell-as llant ugarent Tamurt n Yibaskiyen di lǧehd. Di 1959, snulfan-d yiɣelnaẓriyen ibaskiyen yiwet n tuddsa timselleḥt, isem-is E.T.A, d tin ara yekkaten i lmend n uzarug n Tmurt n Yibaskiyen di Spenyul, xas akken tettunefk-as timanit i tama-yagi akk d Navarra di 1980.

Tamselyut[beddel]

  1. http://imedyazen1.tripod.com/id12.html