Urigami

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Urigami[beddel]

Amedya n urigami : Afrux s lkaɣeḍ.

Urigami, taẓuri n useḍfes n lkaɣeḍ[beddel]

Urigami d taẓuri n useḍfes n lkaɣeḍ. Aseḍfes d abeṭṭen, nettini-as daɣen asnefḍes neɣ aḍebbeq. S cwiṭ n lkaɣeḍ nezmer ad d-nesnulfu tiɣawsiwin icebḥen aṭas. Mačči d yiwen n umedya i nezmer ad nawi. S useḍfes n lkaɣeḍ ad nesnulfu amdan n lkaɣeḍ, aɣersiw, tasafagt, imɣan… tiɣawsiwin akk yesɛan talɣa. Mi ara neḍfes kra, tekfa, taɣawsa-nni, akken tebɣu tili talɣa-as isem-is tamudemt. Deg wansayen n tẓuri s umata, ladɣa deg urigami aqbur ssexdamen agzam d usenṭeḍ. Ma d imir-a, deg urigami atrar, ulac deg-s agzam n lkaɣeḍ neɣ asemlili s usenṭaḍ. Mi ara yili d tamudemt n urigami azegriran, ggten yeḥricen, yessefk fell-aɣ ad nsemlil sin (2), kraḍ (3) neɣ ugar n yizegriren, nessekcam-iten wa deg wa.

Amezruy awezlan n tẓuri[beddel]

.Urigami ansayan[beddel]

Ibekki i ttalin

Aseḍfes n lkaɣeḍ, yezmer ad yili ilul-d deg tmurt n Ccinwa. Ad yili yeḍfer-d anulfu n lkaɣeḍ deg useggas 105 seg d ilul Sidna Ɛisa Amasiḥ. Kra nniḍen ttinin-ak, ilul-d useḍfes n lkaɣeḍ deg Japun. Taẓuri-a tesɛa amezruy yeḥwaǧen anadi, mazal tewwiḍ tafat ɣer tɣemmar-is merra. Ulac din ccek ma yella-d unadi, ahat aɣ-yessewhem wayen ara naf. Akken bɣunt ilint temsal, yiwet tban, d ijapuniyen i d-yewwin ugar i tẓuri n urigami. Aya ur yezmir ara daɣen ad yerr deg yidis ayen d-wwin iɣerfan nniḍen. Acku amhaz n tẓuri yewwi sin iberdan. Abrid d-wwin Ijapuniyen, d nitni i as-yefkan isem, gan-as ilugan, rran urar n useḍfes d taẓuri. Deg taggara n lqern wis VI i yekcem lkaɣeḍ ɣer tmurt n Japun. Wwin-t ineḍfaren n wesγan (Ddin) abudi seg tmurt n Ccinwa, yedda-d d unekcum n tbudit ɣer tmurt n Japun. Seg wassen ahat i yebda umahil n useḍfes n lkaɣeḍ. D acu kan deg tallit-nni ɣlay lkaɣeḍ, maci menwala yezmer ad t-yekseb. Imi lkaɣeḍ d taɣawsa ɣlayen, ḍefsen ibudiyen kra n tmudmin, ttafken-tent d asefk i Uyakuc-nsen Buda. Ttaken daɣen yemdanen tamudemt d asefk deg umenzu n useggas neɣ deg tmeɣriwin, i yesli d teslit. Zik, teddun wudmawen n urigami seg yimi s ameẓẓuɣ. Aselmed yella s wawal kan, tettafk-it yemma-s i yelli-s. D imi kan i d allal n tẓuri-nni, ur yelli wacu yuran deg lkaɣeḍ. Aḍris amezwaru i d yemmeslayen ɣef tẓuri n urigami d asefru n Ihara Saikaku deg useggas 1680. Muqlem Tawlift uṭṭun 1. Adlis-a d abdar kan i d-yebder taẓuri n Urikata, yedda-d yisem-is deg yiwen usefru seg isefra n wammud-is.

Armi d aseggas n 1764 i d-yeẓreg udlis nniḍen, tikkelt-a asentel-is merra yettmeslayed ɣef useḍfes n lkaɣeḍ, azwel-is: Hoketsuki (Ijellilen d tkerrusin). D adlis n urikata, deg tallit-nni akka i d as-ttinin i tẓuri n useḍfes. Sakin tennulfa-d tẓuri nniḍen i umi ttinin urigami. Isem-a ur yelli d aqbur, yennulfa-d deg useggas n 1880. Ijellilen d tkerrusin (Hoketsuki), d adlis yura-t Ise Sadataki, ad naf deg-s timudmin amedya n ujellel i yes-s ttɣummun tijeɣlin, isefken… Tikwal ḍefsen lkaɣeḍ amellal deg yella usefru neɣ izen yuran akken ad t-cegɛen am tebrat… Muqlem Tawlift uṭṭun wis sin (2). Deg tallit ideg tella tẓuri n Urikata ur ḍefsen ara timudmin am tid n tura, ala ajellil n usefk neɣ leqlul. Sakin, yeffeɣ-d udlis nniḍen yura Rokoan Gido deg useggas 1797, azwel-is: Aseḍfes n ugim n yiɣernuqen (Senbazuru Origata). Muqlem Tiwlifin uṭṭun 3. Yerna yeffeɣ-d deg useggas n 1845 yiwen n wedlis ameqqran, d tasanayt i d-yesgerwen akk idles Ajapuni. Ddan-d deg-s merra tmudmin tiqburin i d-yegran deg yidles Ajapuni.[[Tugna:Example. Ger Urigami atrar d Urikata n zik, Maci kifkif. Zik, llan ssexdamen yiwen n lkaɣeḍ yettwaxeddmen s ufus, sawalen-as waci “washi“. Mi ara ḍefsen yimurigamen n tallit-nni lkaɣeḍ, ur yewzin ara uḍefs-nsen am win n wid n tura. Acku seg tama, lkaɣeḍ ala winna i yellan yerna ur qeṭben ara yiḍefsen-is. Seg tama nniḍen, ur tellugen ara tẓuri am wakka tellugen tura. Rnu i waya, llan gezmen lkaɣeḍ, ssenṭaḍen-t. Armi d-yekcem lqern wis 20 i temhez tẓuri, yennulfa-d urigami atrar, nniqal tgen.

.Urigami atrar[beddel]

Deg iseggasen n 30 n lqern iɛeddan, niqal taẓuri n urigami tesbek am akken i tt-id-ǧǧan d leqrun aya i teqqim. D amurigam Uchiyama Koko i d ababat n urigami atrar. D netta daɣen i d amezwaru i isetnen izerfan-is n umeskar. Sakin ḍefren-t-id inaẓuren nniḍen, yal wa d acu i d-yewwi d amaynut i tẓuri n urigami. Amedya n Yoshizawa Akira i d-iẓergen deg useggas 1950 idlisen ideg llant tmudmin timaynutin. Deg useggas 1950, d Akira Yoshizawa d Sam Randlett i d-yesnulfan izamulen n tɣuri sseqdacen tura merra yimurigamen n umaḍal. Tameẓla yellan ger urigami ansayan d wetrar mmalen-ten-id kra tɣawsiwin. Amedya amezwaru d aslugen n tẓuri. Yiwen umenzay seg yimenzayen n uzadur n urigami atrar yeqqar-d: timudmin akk ara d-yesnulfu umurigam yessefk ad ilint seg tferkit tamkuẓt. Ad tettwaḍfes tferkit war agzam neɣ asenṭeḍ. Asnulfu d useqdec n umeskan. Acku aseqdec n umeskan yettɛawan amurigam akken ad yales i tmudemt akken tella maci s uwehhi. Yettḍafar umurigam n wassa ameskan ideg ara yaf akk isallen i yes-s ara yeḍfes tamudemt. Asnulfu n tmudmin timaynutin teldi tawwurt i wesnulfu n tewsatin nniḍen amedya n urigami aẓuran, urigami adday, urigami n tusnakt… Assa, urigami yefrek d ifurkan. Taẓuri, tura tesɛa ilugan ibanen, yettwasnen. Di tazwara d timziknin tigraɣlanin kan i yessawḍen taẓuri n urigami ad tt-issinen ugar n yemdanen. Tura rnan-d wallalen nniḍen amedya n Internet, idlisen d isura, ssawḍen taẓuri ɣer tɣemmar merra n umaḍal.

.Urigami deg tmurt n Lezzayer[beddel]

Da ɣur-neɣ nessen seg wacḥal aya d acu i d aḍfas n lkaɣeḍ. Anwa deg-neɣ ur neḍfis tasafagt, tasebbaḥrut neɣ ahat aɣerrabu? Anwa ur neḍfis tacacit s lkaɣeḍ n uɣmis deg uzal akken ad yesdari aqerruy-is seg ḥamu n yiṭij?… Aya akk d taẓuri n urigami, aya akk yesɛa amezruy ur d-yeɣli seg yigenni am ugeffur. Deg useggas 1056 i skecmen imaziɣen lkaɣeḍ ɣer tmurt n Spanya. Yezmer ad yili imir-nni i glan ula s tẓuri n uḍfas n lkaɣeḍ. Akken tebɣu tili, d At Umur neɣ imuren (les maures), imaziɣen n Spanya i yeẓẓan taẓuri-a di tmura n turuft. Deg tallit-nni, Imuren, snulfuyen-d s umata udmawen inzegganen. Acku deg tallit-nni taɣuri n Ddin tesḥerrem allus n tugna n wemdan neɣ aɣersiw. Muqlem Tawlafin uṭṭun 1. Talɣa-ya, anda ma ulac tesɛa azal n VIII leqrun seg-mi tt-id-snulfan Imuren. Tura, yuɣal d azamul n yimurigamen akk n turuft. D azamul i deg nettekka ula d nekni, acku nettalas deg-s. Deg Spanya ttinin-as Agḍiḍ ameẓyan (Pajarita), ma deg Fransa ttinin-as (La cocotte). Deg tallit tatrat, seg tewwi tmurt-nneɣ azarug-is, truḥ amzun neqqim kan deg uḍfas n wudmawen iqburen. Maca, ɣer taggara-ya, s Internet d unekcum n kra n yedlisen n tẓuri ɣer tnedlisin n tmurt-nneɣ nezmer ad nini tqelleɛ tleslalit n tẓuri n wurigami. Wali-t ukessar-a Tiwlafin uṭṭun 2 d 3. D timziknin n tẓuri n urigami d yeḍran deg useggas 2010 d 2011. Rnu i waya, bdan kra n yeɣmisen d tesɣunin, ama wid yuran s tmaziɣ, taɛrabt neɣ tafransist ttmeslayen-d ɣef tẓuri n uḍfas n lkaɣeḍ, Urigami. Ulac din ccek, llan yimurigamen d tmurigamin deg tmurt-nneɣ, mazal kan ttwasnen.