Kamirun

Si Wikipedia, tasanayt tilellit.
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Kamirun
République du Cameroun
Flag of Cameroon.svg Coat of arms of Cameroon.svg
Administration
Government republic Suqel
Head of state Paul Biya Suqel
Tamaneɣt Yaoundé
Tutlayin tunṣibin Tafransist akked Taglizit
Tajyugrafit
CMR orthographic.svg akked LocationCameroon.svg
Tajumma 475442 km²
Borders with Tagduda n Tefriqt Talemmast, Ččad, Kungu, Ginya Tasebgast, Gabun akked Nijirya
Tadimugrafit
Imezdaɣ 17,463,836 imezdaɣ. (2005)
Density 36.73 imezdaɣ/km²
Isallen nniḍen
Time Zone West Africa Time Suqel akked UTC+01:00 Suqel
Internet TLD .cm Suqel
Calling code +237
Currency Central African CFA franc Suqel
Carte du Cameroun - Map of Cameroon

Tigduda n Kamirun, d yiwet n tmurt i d-yezgan di tefriqt talemmast ger Nijirya, Ččad, Tigduda n tefriqt tammast, Gabun, Gini n Ikwatur, d Gulf n Gini.

Yiwen n weḥric n wakal n kamirun yella s ddaw leɛnaya n udabu abriṭani (Isem-is Kamruns), ma d wayeḍ yella s ddaw ifrensiyen (i yewwin azarug-is deg umenzu n Yennayer 1960). Sin-agi yemḍiqen mlalen deg 1961 i wakken ad tlul Tigduda tafidiralit n Kamirun. Deg 20 mayyu 1972, tuɣal isem-is Tigduda idduklen n Kamirun. Ma di 1984, tamurt teṭṭef isem unṣib n Tigduda n Kamirun.

Tamsalt n tutlayt di Cameroun[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Aqeddem[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Kamirun d yiwet si tmura n Tefriqt taɣerbit, yernu am nettat am tmura nniḍen n tama-ya, tesɛa aṭas n yegduden d waṭas n tutlayin. Kamirun d yiwet si tmura n Tefriqt i deg ttwahdaṛent aṭas n tutlayin (ugar n 200), maca d ayen yessewhamen ma nenna-d dakken ar ass-a, ula d yiwet si tutlayin tifriqiyin n Kamirun ur tuɣal d tutlayt taɣelnawt. Anabaḍ (lḥukuma) n Kamirun yesteɛṛif kan s tefṛensist d teglizit (imi tamurt-agi tettusteɛmeṛ sɣur Legliz d Fṛansa), d nitenti umi tefka azal, xas ma yella yettili-d diɣ umenniɣ ger n snat-agi n tutlayin di tmurt-a. Maca, xas ma yella tutlayin tiɣelnawin n Kamirun tṭuqqtent, qqiment merṛa di rrif, yernu aya maci d ayen yelhan i wegdud. Imi imḍebbren n tmurt ttmeslayen u qeddcen kan s tutlayt taberṛanit, amur ameqran deg Yikamruniyen ḍhan-d amzun ttwaɛezlen di tmurt-nsen, ur fehhmen d acu ara ttmeslayen wid yellan nnig-nsen, yernu unjug-agi (obstacle) n tutlayt yergel-asen abrid i waṭas n yimezdaɣen n tmurt-a i wakken ad ttekkin di tsertit (politique) n tmurt-nsen. Maci ala d Kamirun ay yellan di tegnit-agi, wannag llant aṭas n tmura nniḍen di Tefriqt ara yettidiren akka : tadɣert (élite) tesɛa tutlayt-is, d tin i yes tezmer ad teḥkem tamurt s yiles ay tfehhem nettat, iles n umesbaṭli aqdim, di lweqt i deg agdud yellan s ddaw-atsen ttmeslayen-as kan s yiles-is asmi ara t-ḥwiǧen ad yedɣer (ad yebbuṭi). Xas ma yella Cameroun d tamurt yewwin azarug-is , asmi ay tt-ffɣent Fṛansa d Legliz, ur d-dǧint ara amkan-nsent d ilem, wanag imḍebbren n tmurt, xas d arraw n tmurt, qqnen allen-nsen ɣef yilsawen n tmurt-nsen.

Tazwart[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Tigduda n Cameroun d tamurt tagtutlayt (i deg ggtent tutlayin), i deg llant azal n 247 n tutlayin tineṣliyin n tmurt, yiwet n tutlayt n teywalt (communication - d tapidgint n teglizit) akk d snat n tutlayin tunṣibit , taglizit d tefṛensist. Snat-agi n tutlayin tunṣibit tewṛet-itent-id Cameroun si tallit-nni n tehrest (listiɛmaṛ), asmi Briṭanya d Fṛansa bḍant akal n tmurt-agi wagar-asen ger n tgara n Tṭrad n Umaḍal amezwaru d wasmi ay tewwi tmurt azarug-is . Atṭuqqet n tutlayin di Cameroun maci d ayen yessishilen taywalt (communication) ger yimezdaɣen n tmurt-a; dɣa skud Cameroun ur tesɛi ara tutlayt n teywalt ara yettwafhamen deg tmiwa n tmurt merṛa, amsefham mazal ad yeqqim yewɛeṛ ger Yikamruniyen. Nnig waya, xas ma yella tafṛensist d teglizit d tutlayin tunṣibin di snat di Cameroun, snat-agi n tutlayin ur ɛdilent ara deg wamek ay ttuseqdacent neɣ ttuselmadent, yernu aya iḍurr tasertit n tesnutlayt ay yebɣa ad yelḥu yis-s udabu n Cameroun. Yuɣ lḥal, tasertit n tutlayt di tmurt-a mazal-itt terwi yernu mazal ur d-banen ara yeswan-is : tasertit-agi ur tefki ara akk azal i tutlayin tineṣliyin n tmurt i wakken ad ten-tesnerni, yernu ur tessaweḍ ara ad terr tamurt n Cameroun d tin ay ilehḥun s snat n tutlayin tunṣibin akken yessefk lḥal. Dɣa, tasertit-nni tunṣibt i yes tebɣa naqal Cameroun ad tesdukel tamurt, ass-a tuɣal d ssebba n yemgerraden d wemsefraq aserti. Taluft n tutlayin di Cameroun d taqdimt yernu nezmer ad naf iẓuran-is di tallit n tehrest (listiɛmaṛ), tallit i deg ay d-yella wemgerrad ger tedbelt n tehrest d yemseɣdaden (missionnaires). Ass-a, taluft n Cameroun deg wayen yerzan tutlayin netta d amek ara tefru ugur-agi n utṭuqqet n tutlayin u ad tefru ugur n tutlayt taɣelnawt di lweqt i deg ara tkemmel ad tesselḥay tamurt s wudem amellil (efficacement) s snat tutlayt tunṣibin u ad teg akk ayen yessefken i wakken ad tesserbeḥ aya.

Cameroun s ttfaṣil u s tewzel[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

ɣef leḥsab n CIA Fact Book, di Yulyu 2001, Cameroun tella tesɛa 15.803.220 n yimezdaɣen. Tajumma n Cameroun tewweḍ ɣer 475.442 km², yernu tesɛa tilisa akk d Nigeria deg utaram (lɣerb), akk d Tcad deg ugafa-acerqi , akk d Tegduda n Tefriqt Talemmast di ccerq, akk d Ginya Tasebgast, Gabon d Congo deg wenẓul (sud). Cameroun tesɛa 10 tmiwa tideblanin (administratives), gar-asent snat ttmeslayent s teglizit, ma di tmanya-nni nniḍen, d tafṛensist ay yettwahdaṛen.

Di 1472, asmi ay yewweḍ yemsilel (navigateur) apuṛtugali Fernando Po ɣer temda (bassin) n Biafra, yekcem s uɣerrabu-yines ɣer wasif n Wouri ay d-yuzgan ɣef yiri n lebḥeṛ. Po yewhem mi ay iwala dakken llan yiqayemrunen (crevettes) deg wasif-nni, dɣa d aya ay t-yedǧan ad as-isemmi i wasif-agi "Rio dos Camarões" (asif n yiqayemrunen). Dɣa d wa ay d isem ay fkan i tmurt-nni merṛa. Asmi ay d-usan Walmaniyen akken ad tṭfen tamurt-a, semman-as "Kamerun". Igliziyen, asmi ay d-wwḍen, semman-as "Cameroon", ma d Ifṛensisen llan qqaren-as "Cameroun". Di 1884, tekcem Lalman ɣer Cameroun, u yebda-d leḥkem almani ɣef tmurt-a asmi ay stenyan Walmaniyen amtawa (leɛqed) ger tmurt-nsen d Yedoualaten (yiwen seg yegduden n Cameroun) di Yulyu n 1884, dɣa seg yimir-nni ay tuɣal Cameroun d tanemzuɣt (protectorat) talmanit. Maca asmi ay texṣer Lalman Ttṛad n Umaḍal amezwaru (di 1916), Fṛansa d Briṭanya bḍant Cameroun wagar-asent. Naqal llant ḥekment tamurt-a s ddaw n lewkala n Temɣunt n Yeɣlanen (Société des Nations), sakkin, d Tuddsa n Yeɣlanen Yedduklen (ONU) ay ikemmlen twekkel Fṛansa d Briṭanya i wakken ad kemmlent ad tṭfent Cameroun. Briṭanya ṣaḥent-tt-id snat n tesfifin n wakal, llan deg-sent azal n 90.000 km² yernu uzgant-d ɣef tlisa n Nigeria. Tasfift-nni n wakal ay d-yuzgan deg ugafa (nord) llan qqaren-as "Cameroun Tabriṭanit n Ugafa" (British Northert Cameroons), ma d tin n wenẓul qqaren-as "Cameroun Tabriṭanit n Wenẓul" (Southern British Cameroons"). D Fṛansa umi d-iṣaḥ umur ameqran si Cameroun yernu tefka-yas i umur-agi leḥkem-is i yiman-is, wanag Briṭanya, si Lagos, di Nigeria, ay tella la tesselḥay lumuṛ n wakalen-is di Cameroun.

Cameroun tafṛensist tewwi azarug-is (indépendance) deg umenzu n Yennayer, 1960. Sakkin, di Fuṛaṛ n 1960, imezdaɣen n Cameroun Tabriṭanit n Wenẓul deɣren (bbuṭin) i wakken ad sduklen tamurt-nsen akk d Cameroun ay teffeɣ Fṛansa. Tadukli-yagi terna teǧhed ugar deg umenzu n Tubeṛ 1961, asmi ay yettusdukel akk wakal n Cameroun, u tga-d tmurt-agi tafidiṛalit i deg llant snat n tmura, Cameroun Taɣerbit d Cameroun Tacerqit. Tafidiṛalit-agi teqqim alamma ay d 20 Magu 1972, asmi ay yerra adabu ddewla-yagi d tin yedduklen ugar, s wesnulfu n 7 temnaḍin . Sakkin, di 1984, aselway yessuffeɣ-d tanaḍt (décret) i deg d-rnant tlata temnaḍint timaynutin ɣer sebɛa-nni yellan naqal, u tuɣal Cameroun tesɛa ɛecṛa temnaḍin.

Deg wennar n uselmed, Cameroun tettḍafar sin yinagrawen (systèmes) : anagraw n uselmed s tutlayt taglizit ay yettwabnan ɣef leḥsab n unagraw aneglusaksi (anglo-saxon), akk d unagraw n uselmed s tutlayt tafṛensist ay yettwabnan ɣef leḥsab n unagraw afṛensis. Dɣa llan yiɣerbazen yesselmaden s wahil (programme) aglizi am wakken ay llan wid yesselmaden s wahil afṛensis, d acu kan, di tesdawit (université), inelmaden qqaren s snat tutlayin, s teglizit akk d tefṛensist. ɣef leḥsab n tesnaddanin (statistiques) n 1995, 63.4 % n Yikamruniyen ay yessnen ad ɣren, 75 % n yergazen d 52,01 % n tilawin.

Tagtutlayt (plurilinguisme) d tsertit n tutlayt di Cameroun[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Akken ay d-nenna sufella-yagi, Cameroun d tamurt tagtutlayt i deg llant 247 n tutlayin tineṣliyin, snat tutlayin tunṣibin akk d yiwet n tpidgint n teglizit ay ttmeslayen di Cameroun. [Tapidgint d tutlayt ur nelli ara d taneṣlit di tmurt, tikwal tettili d axaluḍ n snat neɣ n waṭas n tutlayin, sseqdacen-tt medden yettmeslayen tutlayin yemgerraden i wakken ad msefhamen yis-s. Tapidgint n Cameroun d taglizit ixelḍen d tutlayin nniḍen].

Xas ma yella adeg n internet n Ethnologue yeqqar-d dakken llant 279 n tutlayin di Cameroun, kra yimesnilsiyen (linguistes) am Wolf nnan-d dakken aya ur iṣehḥa ara, imi ay llant kra n tentalyin (dialectes) ay yettwaḥesben d tutlayin, yili nitenti d tintalyin kan n kra n tutlayt. Ger tutlayin tineṣliyin n Cameroun, llant ṛebɛa tutlayin qrib ad negrent, tigi d tutlayt tadulit (duli), tageyt (gey), tanagumit (nagumi) akk d tyenit (yeni). Tutlayin-agi akk ttmeslayen-tent deg ugafa (nord) n tmurt. Adeg n Ethnologue yenna-d di 1996, dakken 14 n tutlayin nniḍen n Cameroun ay inegren yagi. Di Tefriqt, llant ṛebɛa n twaculin timeqranin n tutlayin, tlata deg-sent nezmer ad tent-naf di Cameroun, imi di tmurt-a nezmer ad naf tutlayin n twacult tafrusyawit (afro-asiatique), tutlayin n twacult taniluṣeḥṛawit (nilo-saharienne) akk d tutlayin n twacult tanijirukuṛdufanit (nilo-kordofanienne). Tutlayin n twacult tanijirukuṛdufanit d nitenti ay yetṭuqqten di Cameroun, di lweqt i deg ulac akk kra n tutlayt n twacult taxuysant (khoisan) di tmurt-a. Tutlayin tineṣliyin ay fehhmen waṭas n medden nitenti d tafulfuldet (fulfulde), tewondot (ewondo), tabasaat (basaa), tadwualat (duala), tahausat (hausa), tawandalat (wandala), takanurit (kanuri), taɛṛabt tacuwat (choa), tapidgint n teglizit akk d tefṛensist. D acu kan, tlata kan tutlayin si ger tigi ay yettwahdaṛen yernu ttwafhament ugar tiyaḍ di tmiwa timeqranin di Cameroun, d tid ay sseqdacen medden di tmiwa-ya i wakken ad msefhamen wagar-asen : deg ugafa (nord) amur ameqran di medden yettmeslay neɣ ifehhem tafulfuldet, di lweqt i deg tapidgint n teglizit tettuseqdac di lɣerb, ma d tafṛensist tettuseqdac deg timiwa ay d-yeqqimen di tmurt. D acu kan, ulac leḥyuḍ yebḍan ger yal tutlayt d tayeḍ, yernu merṛa tutlayin-agi nezmer ad naf imdanen ay tent-yessnen di merṛa timiwa n tmurt. Tafulfuldet ttmeslayen-tt yernu tettwafham di tama n ugafa (nord) anda ay tella tama n Adamawa akk d temnaḍin (provinces) n ugafa ubɛid, dɣa, akal i deg tettuseqdac tfulfuldet yewweḍ ɣer 162.107 km² neɣ 34,8 % seg wakal n Cameroun.

Azal n 3 yimelyunen n medden ay yettmeslayen tafulfuldet, xas ma yella amur ameqran di medden-agi d almad ay tt-lemden, maci d nettat ay d tutlayt-nsen tayemmat. Wid yesɛan tafulfuldet d tutlayt-nsen tayemmat (Ifulfuldeyen) ur ttɛeddin ara i 350.000, maca tutlayt-nsen si zik ay tesɛa azal. Di lqern wis 17, tafulfuldet tettuseqdec d tutlayt i wezraɛ n Lislam deg ugafa (nord) n Cameroun. Tapidgint n teglizit n Cameroun sseqdacen-tt aṭas n medden maci ala di tmiwa ay teḥkem zik Briṭanya (timnaḍin n Ugafa Utrim d Wenẓul Utrim), wanag ula di tmiwa n yiri n lebḥeṛ akk d lɣerb n Cameroun. Ass-a, nezmer ad nḥulfu i tezrirt (influence) n tpidgint-agi ula di temnaḍin i deg sseqdacen tafṛensist. Dɣa ass-a, tapidgint n teglizit n Cameroun ur teqqim ara d tutlayt n teywalt (communication) ala kan ger Yikamruniyen yessawalen taglizit, wanag attan la tettimɣur, la tteffeɣ ɣef tlisa-s n zik-nni u tezmer, yiwwas, ad tuɣal d tutlayt n teywalt taɣelnawt (nationale). Ama di temdinin neɣ di tmurt, tapidgint n teglizit n Cameroun tuɣal la tettuseqdac di teklizin (églises) am wakken tettuseqdac di leswaq, deg yinegsaren (parking) n tkeṛwas, di teɣsarin (gares) n tmacinin, deg wezniq neɣ di tegnatin nniḍen. Yuɣ lḥal, tutlayt-agi "ur nelli n yiwen" nuɣal nezmer ad tt-naf anda ma nedda di tudert timettit-tudmist (socio-économique) n yimezdaɣen n Cameroun, yernu si tallit n Lalman ay tebda tpidgint-agi la tetturar dduṛ-agi.

Ma yella d tafṛensist, alamma ay d asmi ay tewwi Cameroun azarug-is (indépendance) ay tuɣal tesɛa dduṛ meqqren di teywalt (communication), imi seg yimir-n d asawen, bdan Yikamruniyen la lemmden s waṭas tutlayt-a. Dɣa, menɣir tlata-nni n temnaḍin (provinces) n ugafa anda d tafulfuldet ay d tutlayt n teywalt akk d snat-nni n temnaḍin i deg ssawalen (tapidgint n) taglizit, d tafṛensist ay yetturaren dduṛ meqqren di teywalt di xemsa-nni n temnaḍin nniḍen ay d-yegran di Cameroun. S waya, tennulfa-d yiwet n tefṛensist d taɣerfant (populaire), sseqdacen-tt Yikamruniyen yettmeslayen tutlayin yemgerraden wagar-asen, ladɣa di temdinin d tmiwa iqerben ɣer temdint. Nnig waya, Ikamruniyen merṛa, ama d wid yesseqdacen taglizit, tafṛensist neɣ tafulfuldet, ttemsefhamen merṛa wagar-asen s tefṛensist, u tettɣimi-d tutlayt-a d nettat ay d tutlayt n wemsefham tameqrant akk di tmurt. Snat-nni n tutlayin tunṣibin n Cameroun, taglizit d tefṛensist, kecemnt-d s amezruy n tmurt-a di 1916, asmi ay tettwarna Lalman u tettwabḍa Cameroun ger Fṛansa d Briṭanya. Inehrasen (colonisateurs) imaynuten nudan ad ḥettmen tutlayt-nsen ɣef yimezdaɣen n tmurt-agi, ladɣa deg yinurar n uselmed akk d tedbelt (administration). D aya ay yessawḍen snat-agi n tutlayin ad fkent aẓar di Cameroun di tallit n tsehrest (listiɛmaṛ), yernu asmi ay tewwi Cameroun azarug-is (indépendance), uɣalent ǧehdent ugar. Asmi ay teddukel Cameroun, di 1961, taglizit d tefṛensist uɣalent d snat n tutlayin tunṣibin n tmurt-a imi Cameroun tefren ad tesselḥu tamurt s tesnutlayt (bilinguisme).

Tasertit n tutlayt di tallit n tsehrest (listiɛmaṛ)[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Yessefk ad d-nini dakken uqbel ma kecmen-d yinehrasen (colonisateurs) ɣer Cameroun, kra n tutlayin tineṣliyin n tmurt-a ssawḍent ad sɛunt azal d ameqran. Tutlayt tabamunt (bamun) tella d yiwet si tutlayin-agi, yernu d sselṭan Njoya (yiwen ugellid ineslem n Cameroun) ay tt-yesqeɛɛden i wakken ad tuɣal d tutlayt n uselmed, uqbel ma wwḍen-d yemseɣdaden (missionnaires) almaniyen. Tutlayt tafulfuldet daɣen tella tesɛa azal meqqren imi di lqern wis 17, d ta ay d tutlayt ay yettusqedcen i wezraɛɛ n Lislam di tlata-nni n temnaḍin n ugafa (nord).

Di tallit n tsehrest (listiɛmaṛ), timura tinehrasin gant ifadden i wakken d tutlayin-nsent ara yettuseqdacen. Xas ma yella tadbelt talmanit di Cameroun tga ifadden i wakken d talmanit ara yettusqedcen di tmurt-a, imseɣdaden (missionnaires) almaniyen d yimarikaniyen iprisbitiriyen smenyafen ad sqedcen tutlayin tineṣliyin n yimezdaɣen n Cameroun, am tbasaat (basaa), tabulut (bulu), tadualat (duala), tewondot (ewondo) akk d tmungakat (mungaka) i wakken ad slemden medden u ad ten-id-sxedmen ɣer ddin amasiḥi. Xas ma yella almaniyen ur ldin ara aṭas n yiɣerbazen di Cameroun, maca ɛerḍen ad ḥettmen ɣef yiɣerbazen ad sseqdacen talmanit, u ḥeṛsen imseɣdaden i wakken ad gen aya. D acu kan, imseɣdaden llan tṭfen aṭas n yiɣerbazen yernu d nitni ay yellan ḥekmen deg uselmed di tallit talmanit, di Cameroun.

Xas llan Walmaniyen bɣan ad ḥettmen tutlayt-nsen ɣef Yikamruniyen, ineggura-yagi kemmlen la sseqdacen tutlayin-nsen tineṣliyin wagar-asen mebla uguren. Asmi ay texṣer Lalman tamurt n Cameroun, inehrasen (colonisateurs) imaynuten wwin-d yid-sen tasertit (politique) n tutlayin nniḍen. Ibriṭaniyen ḥekmen Cameroun s webrid arusrid (indirectement), u d lḥekkam ineṣliyen n tmurt i yes tella Briṭanya la tesselḥay tamurt, dɣa, nezmer ad d-nini dakken di tegnit am ta, qrib yettuḥettem ɣef Yikamruniyen ad issinen u ad sqedcen tutlayin-nsen tineṣliyin. Maca deg weḥric-nni ay teḥkem Fṛansa, Ifṛensisen llan bɣan ad ssertin (assimiler) Ikamruniyen, meḥsub ad asen-mḥun laṣel-nsen, tamagit-nsen (identité) u ad ten-rren d Ifṛensisen. D aya ay yedǧan Fṛansa ur tqebbel ara aseqdec n tutlayin tineṣliyin. Di tmiwa yellan s ddaw n leɛnaya tabriṭanit, kra n tutlayin tineṣliyin am tbafutt (bafut), tadualat (duala) akk d tmungakat (mungaka) llant la ttuseqdacent lwaḥid akk d teglizit deg uselmed. Yuɣ lḥal, Ibriṭaniyen dǧan timsal n uselmed ger yifassen n trebbaɛ n ddin akk d wusligen (privés), di lweqt i deg adabu afṛensis d netta ay d-yelhan s timmad-is s wakk timsal n uselmed n Yefriqiyen yellan s ddaw leḥkem-is. Di tmiwa ay teḥkem Fṛansa, dima llan yemgerraden (conflits) ger yemseɣdaden (missionnaires) d udabu afṛensis, imi imseɣdaden kemmlen la sseqdacen tutlayin tineṣliyin i lmend n uselmed d usexdem n medden ɣer tmasiḥit. D aya ay yedǧan adabu afṛensis ad yeg ussisen (efforts) i wakken ad yesnerni tafṛensist di Cameroun di lweqt i deg yerra tutlayin tineṣliyin di rrif. Di 1917, tadbelt (administration) tafṛensist tuɣal la tettak tallalt (lemɛawna) n yedrimen i yiɣerbazen yesseqdacen tafṛensist d tutlayt n uselmed. Sakkin, deg umenzu n Tubeṛ akk d 28 Dujembeṛ 1920, yeffeɣ-d usaḍuf i wakken ad ttwaɣelqen yiɣerbazen yellan sselmaden s tutlayin tineṣliyin di Cameroun, ad yeɣleq 47 yiɣerbazen ay yeldi ugellid Njoya di tama n Yibamunen, anda tutlayt n uselmed tella d tabamunt. Ma di 1922, Fṛansa teɣleq 1800 yiɣerbazen n yemseɣdaden iprisbitiriyen imarikaniyen i deg tutlayt n uselmed tella d tabulut (bulu). Tkemmel Fṛansa la tɣelleq deg yiɣerbazen, alamma ay d asmi ay d-teqqim tefṛensist d tutlayt tawḥidt n uselmed di Cameroun. D acu kan, xas texdem Fṛansa akk aya, tutlayin tineṣliyin kemmlent la ttuseqdacent deg usexdem n medden ɣer ddin amasiḥi d teywalt (communication) ger medden. Dɣa, di lweqt i deg tutlayt tunṣibt (officielle) tella d tutlayt n teywalt tunṣibt, tutlayin tineṣliyin d nitenti ay yellan d tutlayin n teywalt ɣer wegdud ama di teklizt (église), deg leswaq, neɣ di tmeɣriwin tidelsanin, deg wexxam d wanda nniḍen. Maca tisertiyin (politiques) n tutlayt ay sqedcent Lalman, Briṭanya akk d Fṛansa ur dǧint ara ad tili kra n tutlayt taneṣlit ara yesɛun azal meqqren ugar n tiyaḍ, u ad tuɣal d nettat ay d tutlayt taɣelnawt asmi ara tawi Cameroun azarug-is (indépendance).

Tasertit n tutlayt di tallit n uzarug (indépendance)[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Asmi ay tewwi Cameroun azarug-is, d tafṛensist ay yuɣalen d tutlayt-is tunṣibt (officielle) di tama yessawalen tafṛensist, di lweqt i deg taglizit tuɣal d tutlayt tunṣibt n tama yessawalen taglizit. Asmi ay teddukel tmurt deg umenzu n Tubeṛ, 1961, tagduda tafidiṛalit ay d-ilulen imir-n tuɣal tesɛa snat tutlayin tunṣibin. Cameroun, am waṭas n tmura tifriqiyin nniḍen, tesmenyaf d tutlayin "tirawsanin" (neutres) ay tesmenyaf ad tent-terr d tutlayin tunṣibin, imi taglizit akk d tefṛensist ur llint ara d tutlayin tineṣliyin n kra n wegdud yettidiren di Cameroun, yernu adabu akamruni iga aya i wakken ur d-ttilin ara wuguren ger yegduden, yernu ur yettṣerrif ara diɣ udabu idrimen i wakken ad yesnerni tutlayin tineṣliyin n tmurt. S waya ay nezmer ad nefhem ayɣer ay yerra udabu tutlayin tineṣliyin di rrif u yesmenyaf tutlayin n yinehrasen (colonisateurs) iqburen. Kra waggagen (intellectuels) ikamruniyen am Fonlon (di 1963), ur kukran ara ad d-ssumren (proposer) dakken yessefk ad rren aselmed n yigerdan d asnutlay (bilingue) seg yiseggasen imezwura n uɣerbaz, imi di tallit-nni ay ttilin yigerdan mazal-iten leqqaqit i wakken ad lemden tutlayin timaynutin. Ma d tutlayin tineṣliyin, nezmer ad d-nini dakken ur sɛin ara akk amkan deg yiseggasen imezwura n uzarug (indépendance) n Cameroun. Maca, xas ma yella anabaḍ yessusem, llant aṭas n trebbaɛ ay iqedcen mebla aḥbas i lmend n wesnerni n tutlayin tineṣliyin, u gar-asent nezmer ad d-nebder PROPELCA (Programme de Recherche Opérationnelle pour l'Enseignement des Langues au Cameroun), ara iqeddcen si 1977 ɣef temsal yerzan aselmed s tutlayin tiyemmatin di Cameroun. Maca llant daɣen trebbaɛ n SIL-Cameroun, Tiddukla Takamrunit n Tsuqilt n Wedlis d Uselmed n Tɣuri (CABTAL) akk d Tiddukla Taɣelnawt n Tseqquma n Tutlayt Tikamruniyin (National Association of Cameroonian Language Committees (NACALCO). Di 1979, yettwaxdem leqdic igerrzen i lmend n usizeɣ (standardisation) n tirawt n tutlayin tikamruniyin yernu aya yettekka mliḥ deg wesnerni n tutlayin-agi. Tamenḍawt n 18 Yennayer 1996 teḍmen akemmel n tsertit tunṣibt n tesnutlayt (bilinguisme) d wesnerni n tutlayin tiɣelnawin (tineṣliyin) n Cameroun, yernu aya yusa-d kan d akemmel i leqdic-nni ay d-bdant trebbaɛ-agi iqedcen ɣef tutlayin tineṣliyin, yernu tamenḍawt-agi d ayen ara yedǧen Cameroun ad teg leqrar ama i tutlayin-is tunṣibin, ama i tutlayin-is tineṣliyin ay yellan merṛa d aḥric si tgemmi (patrimoine) tadelsant n tmurt-agi. Di 1998, yella-d diɣ ubeddel d ameqran ɣef tutlayin n Cameroun imi amni (parlement) akamruni yesɛedda yiwen usenfar n usaḍuf (projet de loi) ay yefkan azal i uselmed n tutlayin tiɣelnawin, dɣa d asenfar-agi ay yuɣalen d asaḍuf 98/004 n 14 Yebrir 1998 ay d-iga uselway i lmend n uselmed n tutlayin tineṣliyin n tmurt. Xas ma yella Aɣlif (ministère) n Uselmed aɣelnaw werɛad ur d-igi ara aɣawas (plan) i wakken ad yexdem s usaḍuf-agi deg wennar, ulac ccek dakken asmi ay d-tga Cameroun asaḍuf-agi, tebda-d tikli tamaynut i lmend n wesnerni n tutlayin-is tiɣelnawin. D acu kan, mi ara nwali mliḥ ɣer wayen d-yeqqar usaḍuf-agi d tegnit i deg tella Cameroun, nezmer ad nesteqsi iman-nneɣ ma yella dɣa d tidet Cameroun tezmer ad d-tesseḍru ayen teɛzem ad t-texdem neɣ asaḍuf-agi ad yeqqim kan di lkaɣeḍ (am tmenḍawt n 1996), ad yettṛaju melmi ara t-id-sseḍrun deg wennar. Yuɣ lḥal llan yagi kra ara yettwalin dakken anabaḍ (lḥukuma) ur ixeddem ara ayen d-yenna. Xas ma yella asaḍuf-agi d ussis (lmeǧhud) i wakken ad teg ddewla ayen yessefken i tutlayin tiɣelnawin, maca aɛetṭel n ddewla i wakken ad texdem s usaḍuf-a yesbanay-d dakken imḍebbren xedmen-d asaḍuf-agi uqbel lawan-is neɣ ur xemmen ara akken yessefk i wakken ad t-id-gen. Akka ay s-teḍra diɣ i tmenḍawt-nni n 1996. Dɣa, deg wayen yerzan aselmed n tutlayin-agi, mazal werɛad ur tefri ara yiwet n temsalt : lemmer ad kecment tutayin tiɣelnawin s aɣerbaz, inelmaden ad tent-lemden d tinegwa (matières) neɣ ad lemmden yis-sent kullec ? Asaḍuf akamruni yenna-d dakken inelmaden ad lemmden tutlayin-agi d tinegwa, d acu kan, lemmer ad ttusqedcent tutlayin tiɣelnawin d ttawil i uselmed, aṭas n Yikamruniyen ara ilemden tutlayin-nsen tiyemmatin, yernu aya ad yessishel aselmed n tɣuri i waṭas n yimezdaɣen n tmurt. Lemmer ad ttuslemdent tutlayin-agi d tinegwa kan, mazal llan wuguren nniḍen ay yessefk ad ten-yefru unabaḍ akamruni. Yuɣ lḥal, ma iḥelles-d unabaḍ ad yesseḍru ayen d-yenna usaḍuf n 1998, yessefk ad ixemmem ɣef yeswiren (niveaux) n yinelmaden umi ara yesselmed tutlayin tineṣliyin, d wacḥal n tsaɛtin ara lemmden yinelmaden tutlayin-agi di dduṛt, am wakken ay yessefk ad ssersen tiwtilin (ccuruṭ) ay yessefken ad ilin deg yiselmaden ara yeslemden tutlayin-agi, imi aselmed n tutlayin tineṣliyin s wudem iṣehḥan ur yessefk ara ad yettunefk kan i menwala, yernu yessefk diɣ ɣef unabaḍ ad yessɣer iselmaden imaynuten u ad asen-yeg ifadden, am wakken ara d-yessebded timṣukyin (structures) ara d-yelhun d useḍru n tsertit-agi (politique) u yessefk diɣ ɣef unabaḍ ad d-yefk idrimen ara yettusqedcen i wakken ad ttwaxedmen akk lecɣal-agi s wudem iṣehḥan.

S umata, tagnit n tutlayin di Cameroun ur txulef ara tin n umur ameqran di tmura n wenẓul (sud) n Sṣeḥra : d timura i deg llant aṭas n tutlayin; tutlayt n unehras (colonisateur) aqbur d nettat ay d tutlayt tunṣibt; anabaḍ (lḥukuma) terra tutlayin tineṣliyin di rrif; mazal timura-yagi sɛan assaɣen (liens) iǧehden akk d tmura ay tent-yeshersen (ay tent-yesteɛmṛen) zik-nni; yernu llan wuguren ger yegduden yettmeslayen tutlayin yemgerraden (yemxallafen) di tmura-ya. Tasnutlayt tunṣibt d uselmed asnutlay Akken d-nenna sufella-yagi, tasnutlayt (bilinguisme) d nettat ay d tasertit (politique) tunṣibt (officielle) ay i ɣef tebna Cameroun tasertit-is n tutlayin. Amagrad 1, taṣeddart 3 n tmenḍawt (constitution) n 18 Yennayer 1996 yesban-d mliḥ aya : "Tutlayin tunṣibin n Tegduda n Cameroun d taglizit d tefṛensist, tutlayin-agi di snat sɛɛant yiwen uẓayer (statut). Awanak (ddewla) yessefk ad yeḍmen asnerni n tesnutlayt di merṛa timiwa akk d yinurar merṛa n tmurt, am wakken yessefk diɣ ad yeḥrez u ad yesnerni tutlayin tiɣelnawin." Xas ma yella timenḍawin iɛeddan n Cameroun, seg wasmi ay tewwi tmurt-agi azarug, mmeslayent-d ɣef tsertit tunṣibt n tesnutlayt, ar ass-a, werɛad ur tban ara tsertit-agi deg wennar. Xas ma yella tamenḍawt teqqar-d dakken tafṛensist akk d teglizit sɛant yiwen uẓayer, meḥsub ɛedlent di Cameroun, d tafṛensist ay yernan taglizit deg yinurar n tedbelt (administration), aselmed d ttawilat n teywalt (communication). Yuɣ lḥal, nezmer ad d-nini mebla akukru dakken tafṛensist s yisem-is d tutlayt, d idles neɣ d tasertit, teǧhed deg wakk inurar n tmurt. Tafṛensist terna taglizit imi tamezwarut-agi ttmeslayen-tt u fehhmen-tt waṭas n medden, wid yessawalen tafṛensist si zik ay tṭfen imukan iɛlayanen n unabaḍ (lḥukuma) akk d tedbelt (administration) yernu Cameroun ur tesɛi ara tasetit n tutlayin ara iḍemnen s tidet izerfan (lḥuquq) n tutlayin tidersanin (minoritaires). Nnig waya, tasertit tunṣibt n tesnutlayt tesnulfa-d bedḍu ger wid yettmeslayen taglizit d wid yettmeslayen tafṛensist di Cameroun, yernu deg yiseggasen-agi ineggura, nger tamawt dakken aya yezmer ad yessiweḍ ɣer wuguren imeqranen ay izemren ad bḍun tamurt. Dɣa, xas ma yella tasertit n tesnutlayt tettwaxdem-d i wakken ad tesdukel tamurt, tasertit-agi tezmer daɣen ad tili d ssebba n wuguren neɣ n bedḍu n tmurt. Imi d tafṛensist ay iǧehden deg yinurar merṛa, uɣalen wid yessawalen taglizit la ttḥulfun i yiman-nsen ttwaḥeqren, u la ttwalin dakken taglizit-nni-nsen d ssiman ay ten-yesduklen, msegman wagar-asen u ttḥulfun dakken sɛan tamagit (identité) ay ten-icerken. Wid yessawalen taglizit dima ttasmen ɣef tmiwa i deg ttidiren di Cameroun. Dɣa, asmi ay d-ffɣent ddiɛayat deg yiseggasen n 90 dakken anabaḍ ad d-yesnulfu timnaḍin (provinces) timaynutin i yes ara yesdukel timnaḍin yessawalen taglizit akk d temnaḍin yessawalen tafṛensist ay ten-id-iqerben i wakken ad d-gent timnaḍin tifulmanin (autonomes), imezdaɣen n temnaḍin yessawalen taglizit ugin aya yernu nnuɣen i wakken ur d-yettili ara rṛay-agi. Wid yessawalen taglizit walan dakken aya d aɣawas (plan) ay d-ihegga udabu i wakken ad yarez timiwa yessawalen taglizit ɣer tmiwa yessawalen tafṛensist, dɣa s waya, zemren ad sṛuḥen tutlayt taglizit d yedles-nsen. Imi ay d-tewḥel Cameroun di tallit-nni di tegnit iweɛṛen am tin, bdan yemḍebbren ikamruniyen la ttemcawaṛen i wakken ad d-xedmen tamenḍawt tamaynut, deg wayen umi semman "askasi ameqran" (grand débat). Wid yessawalen taglizit, s umata, smenyafen ad teqqim tmurt n Cameroun dima s ɛecṛa temnaḍin-yines, mebla ma beddlent tlisa-nsent, u ma yella anabaḍ la yettxemmim ad yefk tafulmant (autonomie) i kra n temnaḍin, wid yessawalen taglizit smenyafen ad yefk kan tafulmant i wakk timnaḍin n tmurt u ad yerr Cameroun d tamurt tafidiṛalit.

I wakken ad tesnerni Cameroun tasertit n tesnutlayt (bilinguisme), tebda la tesselmad s snat tutlayin si 1961. Yella yessefk ihi ɣef tmurt ad tesseqdec snat tutlayin deg uselmed, ladɣa deg weswir (niveau) n tesdawit. Cameroun tesɛa setta n tesdawiyin n uwanak (ddewla), ṛebɛa deg-sent sseqdacent tafṛensist d teglizit d tutlayin n uselmed. Di tesdawit takamrunit, wid yessawalen tafṛensist d wid yessawalen taglizit ttɣimin idis s idis deg yimukan anda ay qqaren, lemmden akken. Ma d aselmad yesseqdac tutlayt tunṣibt ay yessen xir i wakken ad yesselmed timsirin-is (dduṛus) di lweqt i deg inelmaden ttaddamen tinqiḍin s tutlayt ay sen-yehwan, yernu asmi ara d-awḍen yikayaden (examens), zemren ad ten-sɛeddin s tutlayt ay sen-yehwan diɣ, ama s teglizit neɣ s tefṛensist. D acu kan, aseqdec n snat tutlayin di tesdawit takamrunit d ayen ay d-yeglan s waṭas n wuguren. Tamenzut, amur ameqran di temsirin s tefṛensist ay yettwaxdam, imi amur ameqran deg yiselmaden seg wid yessawalen tafṛensist, yernu inelmaden yessawalen taglizit ur ten-yeɛǧib ara waya u ttḥulfun dakken la yettɛeddi meḥyaf fell-asen. ɣef leḥsab n tezrawin (études) ay iga Tambi (1973) d Njeck (1992), di tasdawit n Yaoundé, 80% si temsirin yettwaxdam s tefṛensist di lweqt i deg ala kan 20% n temsirin ara yettwaxdamen s teglizit. D aya ay yedǧan inelmaden yessawalen taglizit ur ferṛḥen ara s tsertit tunṣibt n tesnutlayt di tmurt-nsen. Ugur nniḍen ay d-yesnulfa uselmed asnutlay netta d tukci n tenqiḍin deg yikayaden (examens), imi inelmaden yessawalen taglizit qqaren-d dakken iselmaden ur d asen-ttaken ara tinqiḍin yelhan. Di Cameroun, anelmad yezmer ad yesɛeddi akayad-is ama s tefṛensist neɣ s teglizit, maca aṭas seg wid yessawalen taglizit, mi ur rebbḥen ara di tezrawin-nsen, d iselmaden-nsen ay sseḍlamen, u qqaren-d dakken iselmaden yessawalen tafṛensist, imi ur ẓwiren ara di teglizit, ur fehhmen ara akken yessefk ayen d-uran yinelmaden-nsen yessawalen taglizit. Dɣa aya d yiwet si ssebbat ay yedǧan ikamruniyen yessawalen taglizit d wid yessawalen tafṛensist ur ttemsefhamen ara yernu yal tarbaɛt tettcikki di tayeḍ. Ma d taluft tis tlata ay d-tesnulfa tsertit-agi n tesnutlayt teqqen s aselmed n tutlayt tunṣibt tis snat i yinelmaden. Yuɣ lḥal, i wakken inelmaden ikamruniyen ad afen iman-nsen di tmurt-nsen u ad ilin wejden i wakken ad ɣren akken yessefk, adabu yesselmad tafṛensist i yinelmaden yessawalen taglizit, am wakken yesselmad taglizit i yinelmaden yessawalen tafṛensist. D acu kan, aselmed-agi n uheggi ur yettwaxdem akken yessefk, adabu ur yefki ara ttawilat yessefken i waya, yernu inelmaden ur sɛin ara lebɣi iǧehden i wakken ad lemden tutlayt-nsen tunṣibt tis snat. Anect-a maci d ayen ittgen ifadden i yinelmaden i wakken ad nadin ɣren mliḥ. Yessefk ɣef Cameroun ad tesselhu aselmed n uheggi ay tteg i yinelmaden, am wakken ara teqdec i wakken ad tesselhu aswir (niveau) n tmusni n yiselmaden di tutlayin tunṣibin. Aya ad yedǧ inelmaden ad sɛun laman xir n zik deg yiselmaden-nsen, yernu wid yessawalen taglizit ur ttḥulfun ara i yiman-nsen ttwaḥeqren.

Yessefk diɣ ad d-nger tamawt dakken imi Cameroun tesɛa snat tutlayin tunṣibin, aya yedǧa tamurt-agi ad tesɛu sin yinagrawen (systèmes) n uselmed yemgerraden, yernu ula d aya yesnulfa-d uguren yeḥwaǧen tifratin. Deg unagraw n uselmed afṛensis, taglizit d tanga (matière) yettuḥettmen ɣef wakk inelmaden seg wasmi ara d-bdun almad alamma d asmi ara faken almad-nsen alemmas. D acu kan, deg unagraw n uselmed aglizi, yessefk ɣef akk inelmaden ad lemden tafṛensist seg useggas-nsen amenzu n welmad alamma d asmi ara awḍen s aswir n GCE. Dɣa, anelmad yessawalen tafṛensist yernu yeɣra s unagraw afṛensist yewjed ad yelmed di tesdawit s tefṛensist xir n unelmad yessawalen taglizit u yeɣra s unagraw aglizi. Nnig waya, tukci n tenqiḍin temxallaf ger unagraw aglizi d unagraw afṛensis, yernu anect-a d ugur meqqren deg uselmed. Anelmad yeqqaren s unagraw aglizi yettextiri tamezzugt (spécialité) asmi ara yextir tinegwa (matières) i deg yeẓwer, yernu d tinegwa-nni kan ara yesɛeddi asmi ara yesɛeddi akayad n GCE (lbak), di lweqt i deg anelmad yeqqaren s unagraw afṛensis yettuḥettem fell-as ad iɣer akk tinegwa yernu ur irebbeḥ ara alamma yewwi-d talemmast (moyenne) deg wakk tinegwa ay yeqqar. Nnig waya, deg wayen yerzan aselmed n tutlayin tiberṛaniyin, d anagraw n welmad afṛensis ay yifen anagraw n welmad aglizi. Deg unagraw afṛensis, inelmaden yeqqaren deg uɣerbaz alemmas lemmden taspenyulit d talmanit, di lweqt i deg anagraw aglizi ur yesselmad ara i yinelmaden-is tutlayin-agi, dɣa wid yessawalen tafṛensist ifen wid yessawalen taglizit di tmusni n tutlayin tiberṛaniyin, yernu aya yezmer ad yedǧ inelmaden yeɣran s teglizit ad ḥulfun dakken ttwaḥeqren. Yuɣ lḥal, xas ma yella Cameroun la tesselḥay tamurt s tsertit n tesnutlayt, tamurt-a werɛad ur tesɛi ara tasertit n useqɛed n tutlayt ara tt-yedǧen ad tesseqdec snat tutlayin akken yessefk. Adabu ur a ixeddem acemma i wakken ad iẓer ma yella ayen ixeddem ɣef tutlayt yewwi-d kra n lfayda neɣ ala. Xas ma yella taglizit akk d tefṛensist simmal la irennu uzal-nsent di Cameroun u la ttuɣalent d tutlayin n wemsefham ger Yikamruniyen yettmeslayen aṭas n tutlayin yemgerraden, adabu ur a itteg acemma i wakken ad yesnerni snat-agi n tutlayin. Lemmer d lebɣi, adabu yessefk ad yeqdec ɣef useqɛed d usizeɣ n teglizit akk d tefṛensist n Cameroun, d acu kan, ar ass-a mazal adabu yesxasṣ ttawil i wanect-a. Tamurt ur tezmir ara ad tesnerni tutlayin-is tunṣibin mebla ma tga aya. Amkan n tutlayin tineṣliyin

Di tmurt n Cameroun, adabu yesseqdac kan tutlayin tunṣibin di lweqt i deg tutlayin tineṣliyin ala d agdud ay tent-yesseqdacen, citṭaḥ kan deg-sent ay yettwarun, yernu ddrent kan deg yilsawen n medden ay tent-yesseqdacen wagar-asen ama di tmurt neɣ deg yexxamen. Di temsalt-agi, Bitja'a Kody yenna-d : "tutlayin tiɣelnawin (tineṣliyin) ddrent kan deg yimawen n medden, la tent-sseqdacen kan sdaxel n twacult. Adabu ur yettnadi ara akk ad tent-yesseqdec ala kan di lḥemlat n tefranin (lbuṭ) anda kra ttmeslayen s tutlayin tiɣelnawin i wakken ad qennɛen medden. Ula d yiwet si tutlayin tiɣelnawin ur tettuseqdac di tedbelt (administration) neɣ di tɣemsa (presse), wala deg udellel neɣ di tilibizyu taɣelnawt, wala deg yiɣerbazen n ddewla neɣ di lḥemlat n uselmed n tɣuri ay ixeddem udabu." Ass-a, tutlayin-agi atenti la teddunt i wakken ad negrent, ladɣa di temdinin anda ay uɣalen yelmeẓyen la sseqdacen ugar tutlayin tunṣibin (officielles). Bitja'a Kody (2001) yenna-d dakken ɣef leḥsab n yiwet n tezrawt (étude) yettwaxedmen di temdint n Yaoundé, 32% seg yelmeẓyen yesɛan ger 10 d 17 yiseggasen di leɛmeṛ-nsen ur ssinen ara ad ssiwlen ula d yiwet si tutlayin tineṣliyin n Cameroun. D tafṛensist ay d tutlayt-nsen tawḥidt i yes ttemsefhamen akk d wiyaḍ. Bitja'a Kody yenna-d dakken ilmeẓyen yellan di liḥala-yagi mazal ad rnun di lǧil ara d-iteddun, imi Ikamruniyen ur nessin ara tutlayin tineṣliyin n tmurt ur zemmren ara ad slemden tutlayin-agi i yigerdan-nsen. Yuɣ lḥal, d Ikamruniyen s timmad-nsen ara ineqqen tutlayin-nsen tineṣliyin. Di lweqt i deg timenḍawin (constitutions) tiqdimin n Cameroun (1961, 1972, 1984) ur d-nnint acemma ɣef tutlayin tineṣliyin n Cameroun, tin n 1996 tefka azal i wesnerni-nsent, yernu aya d abeddel ameqran deg wennar n tsertit n tutlayin di Cameroun. Nnig waya, awanak (ddewla) itteg ifadden i medden (usligen - privés) i wakken ad qedcen i lmend n wesnerni n tutlayin tineṣliyin. ɣef waya, tirebbaɛ tusligin (privées) gant isenfaren (projets) n uneɛruḍ n uselmed akk d unadi ɣef tutlayin tineṣliyin yernu adabu, xas ma yella ur a d-yettak ara afus n lemɛawna, yeqbel iqeddicen-agi s tsusmi. Iqeddicen ay xeddment trebbaɛ am SIL-Cameroon, CABTAL akk d NACALCO d ayen igerrzen iteddun deg webrid yelhan : tirebbaɛ-agi la qeddcent i wakken ad ssizɣent (standardiser) tutlayin tineṣliyin u ad tent-slemden, am wakken ara ttgent leqdicat n unadi fell-asent u qeddcent i wakken ad tent-ttmeslayen medden yernu ur neggrent ara. D acu kan, nesḥissif imi tutlayin tineṣliyin mazal-itent ɣabent deg uɣerbaz n uwanak (ddewla), xas ma yella, ɣef leḥsab n wakken ay d-yeqqar Chumbow (1996), "aseqdec n tutlayin tiyemmatin seg yiseggasen imezwura n uselmed yetturar dduṛ meqqren deg wesnerni n tḥeṛci n wegrud".

Xas ma yella kra n tmura n Tefriqt n ddaw n Sṣeḥra sseqdacent tutlayin tineṣliyin deg uselmed di tlata yiseggasen imezwura n uselmed, Cameroun tesseqdac tutlayin-is tunṣibin (tafṛensist d teglizit) deg wakk iswiren (niveaux) n welmad, seg wasmi ara d-bdun warrac almad-nsen alamma d asmi ara awḍen ɣer tesdawit. D aya ay yedǧan medden ad ḥemmlen tutlayin tunṣibin u ad sɛunt azal ɣur-sen di lweqt i deg ḥeqren tutlayin tineṣliyin n tmurt-nsen. Maca taḥeqranit-agi n tutlayin tineṣliyin maci ala di Cameroun ay yella, yernu Adegbija (2000) yeqqar-d : "Yuɣ lḥal, deg waṭas n tmura ay yellan zik d tihersin (colonies) n Fṛansa d Portugal, tutlayin tineṣliyin ur ttwaqbalent, ur ttuselmadent deg uɣerbaz ula deg yiseggasen imezwura n welmad. Imi timura-yagi d tigellilin taswiɛt-a, ur bɣint ara ad gent ussisen (lmeǧhudat) i wakken ad beddent i tutlayin-nsent tineṣliyin, nnig waya, imawlan ttnadin i wakken igerdan-nsen ad lemden tutlayin tuṛufiyin (européennes) ɣef zik lḥal. Ttejṛiba tesban-d dakken amur ameqran deg yimawlan di Cameroun ur qbilen ara ad lemden yigerdan-nasen tutlayin tineṣliyin deg uɣerbaz. Aṭas n yimawlan ay yettaznen igerdan-nsen ɣer walmaten n yigerdan (jardins ḍenfants) akken kan ara awḍen tlata yiseggasen i wakken ad lemden taglizit neɣ tafṛensist. D ayen ibanen dakken imawlan ara yefken arraw-nsen i wakken ad lemden tutlayt tunṣibt ur begɣun ara ad lemden warraw-nsen tutlayin tineṣliyin asmi ara kecmen s aɣerbaz. Dɣa, tagnit-agi maci d nettat ara iɛiwnen tutlayin tineṣliyin ad kecment s aɣerbaz akamruni. Almaten n yigerdan sseqdacen tarrayin (méthodes) n uselmed tibriṭaniyin, timarikaniyin neɣ tifṛensisin. D tikli-yagi ay yedǧan timura n Tefriqt taɣerbit ay testeɛmeṛ Fṛansa zik-nni, ad qqiment dima qqnent idles-nsen ɣer Fṛansa, yernu d aya ay d-yezgan d unjug (obstacle) i wakken ur ttnernint ara tutlayin tineṣliyin di tmura-nsent. D acu kan, xas ma yella tebɣa Cameroun ad tessekcem tutlayin tineṣliyin s aɣerbaz, taswiɛt-a, ur tezmir ara ad teg aya, acku ameṣruf (budget) ay yefka udabu n tmurt-a i uselmed mecṭuh mliḥ, yernu ur yettadǧa ara agrud akamruni ad yesɛu ula cwiṭ seg wayen yeḥwaǧ d ttawil i wakken ad yelmed, nnig waya, lexṣaṣ n yedrimen yesxasṣ ula d tasnarrayt (méthodologie) n uselmed akk d usekcem n yiselmaden imaynuten. Seg wakken xusṣen yedrimen di Cameroun alamma ay yeqqim unabaḍ (lḥukuma) ɛecṛa yiseggasen ur yezmir ara ad d-yessekcem iselmaden imaynuten s aɣerbaz amenzu (primaire), yernu alamma ay d melmi kan ay tekfa taluft-agi. Dɣa, di tallit-nni, aṭas n tneɣra (classes) ay yeqqimen mebla aselmad yernu amur ameqran deg yigerdan ur ɣrin ara aṭas neɣ ur ufin ara win ara ten-yesseɣren. Ma yella tadamsa (économie) n tmurt ur tezmir ara i uɣerbaz, amek ay ara tezmer i usekcem n tutlayin tineṣliyin s aɣerbaz amenzu ? Yuɣ lḥal, asekcem n tutlayin s tineṣliyin s aɣerbaz maci d awezɣi neɣ d ayen iweɛṛen aṭas ɣef udabu akamruni, maca ugur atan deg wanect ara d-yesqam waya, ladɣa ma neẓra dakken aṭas seg yiselmaden n yiɣerbazen ikamruniyen la ttuxellaṣen s yedrimen n lemɛawna n Tbanka Tamaḍlant (Banque Mondiale). Imi adabu la yesseqac kan taglizit akk d tefṛensist deg uselmed, yernu yettmeslay d wegdud ala s tutlayin-agi, aṭas n medden yettmeslayen tutlayin tineṣliyin qqimen di rrif, ur zmiren ara ad ttekkin neɣ ad d-inin rṛay-nsen di temsal yesɛan azal di tmurt-nsen, yernu s waya, ur ttazmaren ara ad ttekkin deg wesnerni n tmurt-nsen. Aṭas deg-sen ur ẓrin d acu yellan di tmenḍawt (constitution) wala deg usaḍuf (lqanun) n uɛaqeb n tmurt-nsen d yisuḍaf ay yesselḥayen tudert-nsen. Dɣa, aselḥu n lumuṛ n uwanak (ddewla) d ayen yellan ger yifassen kan n tedɣert (élite), yernu xas ma yella adabu yessefra ad yesselmed taɣuri i yimeqranen, ar ass-a werɛad ur yebdi ara aya. Yuɣ lḥal, Tadaǧeu (1975) yenna-d dakken lemmer adabu ad yesselḥu tamurt s tlata tutlayin, taglizit, tafṛensist d tutlayin tineṣliyin, ad yeg ifadden i wakken ad ttwalemdent deg uɣerbaz u ad ttusqedcent deg yinurar merṛa, aya yezmer ad d-yawi abaɣur (lfayda) meqqren i Yikamruniyen. Ma d nekni si tama-nneɣ, nettwali dakken yelha lemmer tutlayin-agi tineṣliyin ad tent-skecmen deg s aɣerbaz amenzu : tabasaat (basaa), tabulut (bulu), tewondot (ewondo), tadualat (duala), tafe'fe't (fe'fe'), tafulfuldet (fulfulde), tamungakat (mungaka) akk d tpidgint n teglizit. Tabasaat ad tt-sqedcen wid ay tt-yessawalen di tama n yiri n lebḥeṛ n Cameroun akk d temnaḍin (provinces) n tlemmast n tmurt; tabulut akk d tewondot ad tent-sqedcen di tlemmast, deg wenẓul (sud) akk d temnaḍin ticerqiyin; tadualat ad tt-sqedcen wid Yedualaten akk d kra n yegduden n terbaɛt tasawat (sawa) am Yibakweriyen (Bakweri) akk d Yibakossiyen (Bakossi) di temnaḍin n wenẓul aɣerbi, d Yemboten (Mbo) yettidiren di temnaḍt n Yiri n Lebḥeṛ; tafe'fe't ad tt-sqedcen di temnaḍt taɣerbit; tafulfuldet ad tt-sqedcen di tlata-nni n temnaḍin n ugafa; tamungakat ad tt-sqedcen deg Temnaḍt n Ugafa Aɣerbi u di tgara, tapidgint n teglizit n Cameroun ad tt-sqedcen di temnaḍin anda ay ttmeslayen taglizit.

Askasi ɣef tutlayt taɣelnawt[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Seg wasmi ay tewwi Cameroun azarug-is (indépendance), afran n tutlayt taɣelnawt (tutlayt neɣ tutlayin tineṣliyin i yes ara sselḥun tamurt) yella-yas d ugur. Xas ma yella adabu yefren ad yewwet nneḥ ɣef temsalt-agi imi ay yugad lemmer ad yefren kra n tutlayt/tutlayin, u ad yedǧ tiyaḍ, aya ad d-yexleq uguren ger yegduden yemgerraden n Cameroun yernu ad ihudd tadukli n tmurt, kra n waggagen (intellectuels) imeqranen, imuzzag (spécialistes) n uselmed d yimesnilsiyen (linguistes) lhan-d mliḥ akk d temsalt-agi yernu nudan ad as-d-afen tifrat. Ngijol (1964) yessumer-d (proposer) ad tesɛu tmurt n Cameroun yiwet kan n tutlayt taɣelnawt i lmend n teywalt, n uselmed n tɣuri akk d uselmed deg uɣerbaz d wesnerni n tmagit (idendité) tadelsant n tmurt. Ma d Ba Njock (1966), si tama-s, yessumer-d dakken adabu ad yebḍu tamurt d timiwa ɣef leḥsab n tutlayin, yal yiwet ad tesɛu tutlayt-is i yiman-is. Xas ma yella takti-yagi (lfekra) telha, tifrat am ta tezmer ad d-tesnulfu uguren di kra n tmiwa anda ur tban ara d acu-tt tutlayt ay yettuseqdacen deg-sen s waṭas. Ahat, Ba Njock akk d wid yeddan d tmuɣli-s mmeslayen-d ɣef takti-yagi imi ay walan dakken deg yiseggasen n settin, yebda udabu la yesselmad setta si tutlayin tineṣliyin n tmurt di tesdawit tafidiṛalit, d acu kan, adabu akamruni yeḥbes aselmed-agi imi ay yugad lemmer ad d-neṭqen Yikamruniyen yettmeslayen tutlayin nniḍen u ad d-ssutren ad tent-sselmaden ula d nitenti. Nnig waya, i wakken ad yefru udabu tamsalt n wanta ay d tutlayt yifen tayeḍ, imḍebbren nnan-d tutlayin tineṣliyin merṛa n Cameroun d "tutlayin tiɣelnawin", ɛedlent akk yernu ulac amgerrad (lxilaf) gar-asent. Di temlilit n Useqqamu Aɣelnaw n Temsal Tidelsanin ay d-yellan di Yaoundé seg 18 ɣer 22 Dujembeṛ 1974, yeɛzem udabu ad asent-yessawal i tutlayin tineṣliyin "tutlayin tiɣelnawin". D acu kan, di lweqt i deg anabaḍ (lḥukuma) yella yeḥwaǧ ad yesɛu tabɣest (lkuṛaj) i wakken ad yefren anti ay d tutlayin tiɣelnawin i yes ara yesselḥu tamurt, netta yessanef i temsalt-a, u yefren ad yeɛdel ger wakk tutlayin mebla ma yefra ugur. Maca xas ma yella adabu ur yessaweḍ ara ad yefru aya, llant di Cameroun ɛecṛa n rṛadyuwat taẓiyanin (régionales), yal tamnaḍt tesɛa tin-is, yernu ttwaxedment-d i wakken ad ttmeslayen s tutlayin ay ttmeslayen aṭas di temnaḍin-nsent. Lweqt ay tettak yal rṛadyu i tutlayt-is taneṣlit yemxallaf si temnaḍt ɣer tayeḍ. Di temnaḍt n Ugafa Ubɛid (Extrême-Nord), rṛadyu n temnaḍt tettak 27.36% si lweqt-is i tutlayin tineṣliyin, ma d tamnaḍt n Ugafa Aɣerbi, rṛadyu-yines yellan di Bamenda tettak kan 4,17% si lweqt-is i tutlayin tineṣliyin. Yuɣ lḥal, yella wemgerrad d ameqran di lweqt ay tettak yal rṛadyu i tutlayin tineṣliyin, yernu aya yesskan-d dakken yal rṛadyu d nettat ay yettḍebbiren deg wanect ara tefk d lweqt i tutlayin-agi. Amur ameqran di teywalt (communication) yettwaxdam s teglizit d tefṛensist, ama di rṛadyu neɣ di tilibizyu n Cameroun, yernu aya yesskan-d dakken amur ameqran seg yimezdaɣen n Cameroun rran-ten di rrif imi ur sen-ttmeslayen ara s tutlayin-nsen, di lweqt i deg Ikamruniyen-agi, lemmer ad asen-mmeslayen s tutlayin ay fehhmen, zemren ad nefɛen tamurt-nsen ugar. Ula d Todd (1983) tettwali dakken yelha lemmer ad tefren Cameroun yiwet kan n tutlayt taɣelnawt. ɣef leḥsab-is nettat, tapidgint n teglizit n Cameroun tezmer ad turar dduṛ n tutlayt taɣelnawt mebla uguren imi tutlayt-a tesɛa tamṣuka (structure) iqerben ɣer tin n tutlayin tineṣliyin, yernu d nettat kan ay d tutlayt tawḥidt di Cameroun ur nesɛi ara agdud neɣ taqbilt ay tt-yettmeslayen d tutlayt-is taneṣlit, ur tesɛi tama ibanen anda ay tt-ttmeslayen wala ddyana yeqqnen ɣur-s, am wakken ur telli ara d tutlayt ay d-iḥettem kra n unabaḍ (lḥukuma) n yinehrasen (colonisateurs). S waya, wid yetṭfen talemmast ttwalin dakken tapidgint n teglizit n Cameroun d tutlayt ay izemren ad tesdukel mliḥ Ikamruniyen imi "ur telli d tutlayt n yiwen".

Llan wid ur neddi ara rṛay-agi, qqaren-d dakken tapidgint teqreb ɣer teglizit yernu amur ameqran di tmawalt-is (léxique) d awalen ay d-yekkan si teglizit.D acu kan, imi tutlayt-agi ttmeslayen-tt u ttemsefhamen yis-s waṭas n medden yettmeslayen tutlayin yemgerraden, yelha ma yella tettuseqdec d tutlayt n uselmed, u teqqar-d Todd (1983) dakken "lemmer ad tuɣal tpidgintd tutlayt n uselmed, aya ur d-yesqamay ara aṭas i unabaḍ (lḥukuma) akamruni. Tutlayt-agi fehhmen-tt waṭas n medden deg waṭas n tmiwa n tmurt, yernu ttemsefhamen yis-s Yikamruniyen ula akk d yinaragen-nsen (lǧiran) ifriqiyen, yernu xas ma yella qlil kan anda ay tettili tutlayt-agi d tutlayt tayemmat n wegrud, tikwal, llan aṭas n yigerdan n Cameroun ay s-isellen i tutlayt-a tettuseqdac seg wasmi ara ilin d imecṭaḥ. Aṭas aya seg wasmi ara tetturar tpidgint n teglizit n Cameroun dduṛ n usiweḍ n yedles akamruni, yernu tezmer ad tettuseqdec mebla uguren deg wemni (parlement) neɣ di lemcawṛat n tedrimt". Imi ay tettwaḥseb tpidgint n teglizit n Cameroun d yiwet si tutlayin n tmurt-a, tezmer ad turar dduṛ n tutlayt taɣelnawt mebla uguren. Nnig waya, aseqɛed d usizeɣ-yines (standardisation) ur s-d-yesqamay ara akk aṭas i udabu imi ay yella yagi wayen yuran s tutlayt-a. Maca xas ma yella tapidgint n teglizit n Cameroun tezmer ad d-awi ibuɣar (lfaydat) imeqranen i tmurt, adadu, taswiɛt-a, mazal yegguma ad yeg ifadden i wakken ad tettuseqdec.

Tagrayt[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

Xas ma yella tasertit (politique) n Cameroun terked u tezmer tmurt ad d-telhu d wuguren n tutlayt, yettban-aɣ-d dakken aya maci si temsal timeqranin ay iceɣben adabu. Yuɣ lḥal, Cameroun, am waṭas n tmura n Tefriqt n ddaw n Sṣeḥra, ur tettwali ara dakken timsal n tutlayt zwarent. Dɣa, skud ulac uguren akk d tsertit n tutlayt i yes la tlehḥu tmurt ass-a, fiḥel ma yexdem udabu acemma nniḍen i wakken ad yefru uguren ay d-mazal ɛellqen. Xas ma yella imesnilsiyen (linguistes) d yimassanen ay d-yerran lwelha-nsen ɣer temsalt n tutlayin tineṣliyin la d-ttmeslayen u la d-ssumuren (proposer) iberdan ara yefrun ugur-agi, adabu akamruni yettban-aɣ-d dakken yefṛeḥ s tegnit i deg tella tmurt ass-a deg wennar n tutlayin. Yuɣ lḥal, ayen ara ixeddem udabu, la t-ixeddem kan i teswiɛt mebla ma iwala ɣer lbeɛd.

I wakken ad teg Cameroun tasetit n tutlayt yelhan, yessefk fell-as ad tesselmed igerdan s tutlayt-nsen tayemmat deg yiseggasen-nsen imezwura n welmad, sakkin, ad asen-tesselmed tutlayin tunṣibin (officielles - taglizit akk d tefṛensist). Maca, i wakken ad terbeḥ tsertit-agi, yessefk ad tettwaxdem ɣef leḥsab n ttawil yellan, u cwiṭ, cwiṭ kan, ladɣa di tmiwa n tmurt, berṛa i temdinin, anda igerdan ssnen kan tutlayin-nsen tineṣliyin. Dɣa, tutlayin tineṣliyin n yal tama ad ttusqedcent i uselmed u tent-snernin deg yeswiren (niveaux) yemgerraden. Yernu, mi ara tennerni kra n tutlayt, tezmer ad tuɣal d nettat ay d tutlayt n uselmed n temnaḍt merṛa. Anabaḍ (lḥukuma), iseqquma aẓiyanen (régionaux), yiseqquma n tutlayt d yemdanen iqeddcen ɣef tutlayt yessefk ad gen ifadden i yinelmaden i wakken maci ala d taglizit d tefṛensist wanag ula d tutlayin tineṣliyin, yernu yessefk ad yettwaxdem waya deg wakk timiwa n tmurt. Maca taswiɛt-a, tamsalt n tutlayt mazal werɛad tefri di tmurt n Cameroun anda amur ameqran seg yimezdaɣen "ur neɣri ara" ttwaɛezlen imi ur ssinen tafṛensist wala taglizit. Nnig waya, imi igerdan ur a lemmden ara s tutlayt-nsen tayemmat, aṭas n yigerdan ur a nrebbeḥ ara di tezrawin-nsen (leqraya), acku seɛɛun uguren akk d teglizit d tefṛensist, u di tgara, xas ma yella adabu yebɣa ad yesselḥu tamurt s snat tutlayin tunṣibin u yebɣa ad yeɛdel gar-asent, ur yessaweḍ ara, yernu yessefk ad yefru uguren yerzan aya imi ay yella wemgerrad (conflit) ger wid yessawalen tafṛensist d wid yessawalen taglizit, yernu aya yezmer ad yessiweḍ ɣer bedḍu n tmurt. ɣef waya, yessefk ɣef Cameroun ad tɛawed tamuɣli deg tikli ay d-tewwi di tsertit-is n tutlayin u ad teg ayen yessefken s tidet i wakken ad ten-tefru.

Idlisen[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]

  • Chumbow, Sammy Beban (1996): "The Role of National Languages within a Comprehensive Language Policy for Cameroon". Academic Discourse presented at the University of Buea.
  • Ngijol, Pierre (1964): "Nécessité ḍune langue nationale". ABBIA No. 7: 83-99.

Njeck, Alice Forsab (1992): Official Bilingualism in the University of Yaounde : Some Educational and Social Issues. Mémoire de Maîtrise, Université de Yaoundé.

  • Tadaǧeu, Maurice (1975): "Language Planning in Cameroon: Towards a Trilingual Education System". In: Herbert, Robert K. (ed.): Patterns in Language, Culture and Society: Sub-Saharan Africa. Colombus, Ohio: 53-75. (= Working Papers in Linguistics 19).
  • Tambi, Jot (1973): Received Language Bilingualism in Cameroon: A Study of Functions and Attitudes. Mémoire du DES, Université de Yaoundé.
  • Todd, Loreto (1983): "Language Options for Education in a Multilingual Society: Cameroon". In: Kennedy, Chris (ed): Language Planning and Language Education. London: 160-171.
  • Yettwakkes-d umagrad-agi si Linguistik online 18, 1/04

http://www.linguistik-online.de/18_04/echu.html

Tamselyut, Iseddagen & Izdayen Iberraniyen[ẓreg | ẓreg aɣbalu]