Faḍma n Sumer

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Faḍma n Sumer

Lalla Faḍma n Sumer d tameṭṭut Taqbaylit ikecmen deg umezruy n tmurt s ibeddi-is deg wudem n wemnekcan afransis aseggas 1857. Lalla Faḍma tlul deg useggas 1830 deg taddart n Werja di Lεarc At Bu Yusef, di Tmurt n Leqbayel, temmut aseggas 1863, di temεemmert n At Sliman.

Tameddurt-is[beddel]

Lalla Faḍma n Summer neɣ Faḍma n At Sid Ahmed n Warja, d tameṭṭut i ikecmen deg umezruy n tmurt s ibeddi-is deg wudem n wemnekcan afransis. Tlul deg useggas 1830, aseggas ideg d-kecmen Iṛumyen tamddint n Lezzayer, deg taddart n Werja, deg lεerc n At-Buyusef. Taddart n Werja tezga-d deg webrid yettawin seg Micli ɣer Tizi n Tirurda, deg wul n Ǧerǧer. Isem n Summer i tewwi Faḍma, d isem n yiwet n taddart nniḍen ur nebεid ara ɣef Werja anda i tedder Faḍma.

Temẓi-s[beddel]

Tekker-d deg yiwet n twacult n yemrabḍen, nettat d yiwet n weltma-s d kuẓt (4) watmaten-is. Baba-s Muḥend Ameẓyan At Sidi Aḥmed, yeɣra Leqran, d aεeggal n Ṭariqa Taṛeḥmanit, i d-yeskker Sidi Σebdeṛeḥman Bu sin Iẓekwan deg useggas 1715. Asmi tewweḍ ṣa (7) n yiseggasen deg usemmud-is, tawacult-is teǧǧa Warja, tṛuḥ ɣer Summer anda yuɣal baba-s d Ccix n taddart.

Faḍma tettuṛebba-d, am nettat am teḥdayin n tallit-nni, deg wansayen d leεwayed n Leqbayel n zik. Maca, tewwi-d tikli nniḍen, yemgarraden d tin tezyiwin-is. Ur tettaɣ ara awal n yimawlan-is, tettefeɣ ɣer beṛṛa ɣer wennar n yergazen, ɣas akken tilawin n yimir-nni amkan-nsen deg wexxam, yerna dɣa ma yella d tamrabeḍt. Teffeɣ d tamnafeqt. Yuɣal d ttawin-tt medden d anzi, tin yekkren ɣer tayeḍ ad as-tini tuɣaleḍ d Lalla n Werja, ma deg yella tefka lebɣi i lebɣi-is, ur teṭṭif ara deg leεwayed n zik. Baba-s d watmaten-is ḥeṣlen deg-s, tagi d tamsalt n nnif, gma-s akken ad tt-iεaqeb, ḥebsen-tt deg wexxam acḥal n wussan.

Faḍma tura d tameṭṭut[beddel]

Asmi tewweḍ 16 n yiseggasen, yenna-as baba-s : A Faḍma, aqli-kem-id tura d tameṭṭut, ilaq-am ad terreḍ axxam. Tenna-as : ur lliɣ seg tid yettarran ixxamen, a-t-an ara yi-d-ttasen kra n temsal meqqren d tid kan ara ḍefreɣ. Baba-s, tebda tkeccem-it tugdi, awal ara yettazal, heddren, qqaren-as, ahat ur teṣfi ara. Akken ad tbeggen tidet, Faḍma terḍa ad teddu d tislit. Yuɣ-itt Yeḥya n At-Buxulaf n taddart n Σeskker deg lɛerc n At-Yetturaɣ. Teqqim deg wexxam n wergz-is ṣa (7) wassan tuɣal-d ɣer Summer.

Deg tallit-nni, Aṛumi yebda yettaɣ-d tamurt n Leqayel. Deg 1837, yeṭṭef tamdint n Delles. Ssyin akkin, d nnuba n Budwaw, Tizi n At-Σica, Lberj-n-Mnayel, Dreɛ Lmizan d Tizi-Wezzu ad ɣlint ddaw tecḍaḍt-is. Seg yimir-n i iεewwel ad yeɣḍel Adrar n Nnif, imir-n, i tekcem Faḍma annar umennuɣ.

Ussan n tegrawla[beddel]

Portrait-Fatma N'Soumer.jpg

Deg 1849, tesdukkel amennuɣ d Si Muḥemmed Lhacimi, yiwen n wergaz i yettekkan deg tnekra d-yeskker Bu Taɣaḍt (Bu Meεza) deg Ḍahra, deg umalu n Lezzayer tamaneɣt. Wagi ṭṭfen-t Iṛumyen ɣer lḥebs deg Fṛansa, yessaweḍ yerwel-d, yuɣal-d ɣer tmurt anda d-yufa yeḥma useqi. Tadukli n sin yelmeẓyen-a, tessaɣ amennuɣ deg yal amkan deg Ǧerǧer, ssawlen i Yeqbayliyen ad beggsen ad nnaɣen mgal acengu. D amennuɣ ara idumen i teɣzi n yiseggasen.

Ssyin akkin, Faḍma n Summer tessunded tanekra n Bu Tserdunt (Bubeɣla) s yisem-is n tidet : Muḥemmed Ben Σebdelmalek, i d-yekkan seg tama n utaram. Tessudes amennuɣ deg Ǧerǧer, tuɣal d ccif ɣef yiserdasen i d-teskker, i d-yekkan seg leεrac am At-Yetturaɣ, At-Buyusuf, At-Yellilten, Illulen-Umalu… Tebḍa-ten ɣef sin yegrawen : amenzu d imusseblen d wid tettawin isalen, wis d iεerḍiyen i tmettant neɣ iserdasen s leslaḥ. Tessuter deg At-Yiraten ad ɣzen tisrafin, i At-Yellilten ad xedmen akal akken ad afen d acu ara ččen deg tegnit n umennuɣ, i At-Iḥitussen, Dderna, Illulen, Tiziḍt d Texliǧt-Iḥeddaden ad d-xedmen ibeckiḍen d lbaṛud. Ass n 7 Yebrir 1854, iserdasen n Lqebṭan Wolf ẓedment-d ɣef wedrar,. Faḍma yesduklen iɣil d trebuyaɛ n Bu Tserdunt, temmuger-iten ɣer Wasif Userdun (Sibaɛu), deg Yiɛezzugen. Γas akken ugaren-ten Yiṛumyen acḥal yid-sen, yerna ifen-ten leslaḥ, maca, lεesker n Fṛansa yuɣal ɣer deffir zdat n tyitwin n yiserdasen n Faḍma n Summer.

Ger yimennuɣen imeqqran nniḍen i yekkren ger Leqbayel d lɛesker n Fṛansa, d win yeṭṭreḍqen deg wemkan imi qqaren Tacekkirt, deg At-Buyusef, ger 16 d 19 n waggur n Yulyu 1854. Din ččan Iṛumyen tiyita akken ur nwin, Marical Randon yeǧǧa deffir-s 25 seg yifesyanen-is, akk d wugar n 800 seg yiserdaen-is, ma d wid nniḍen selkenten iḍarren-nsen. M’akken yerwel yenna-asen i Leqbayel : “Ad d-uɣaleɣ”.

Ger 1845 d 1856, Ǧerǧer kkan-as-d seg yal tama, lɛesker d-yekkan seg Tizi-Wezzu d win d-yekkan seg Qsenṭina d-izegren ɣef Bgayet. Deg Yulyu 1857, lεesker n Rondon d win n Faḍma mlalen deg Yiceṛṛiḍen, yekker imenɣi ger sin yemrigen. Amḍan n yiserdasen n Fṛansa yugaren s waṭas Iqbayliyen akk d leslaḥ i tesseqdec Fṛansa deg umenuɣ-a tessaweḍ ad tessenger yes-s almi d aneggaru seg yiserdasen n Faḍma. Tabɣest d tissas n wid yennuɣen ɣef tleli-nsen ur ay tezmir sdat n wehdum d-yeɣlin fell-asen.

Iseggasen-is ineggura[beddel]

M-akken i tt-senzen, Jean d’arc nneɣ akken i s-yessawal Rondon i Faḍma, yeɣli-d fell-as Jiniral Yusef, tameddit n wass, deg taddart n Texliǧt At-Σettu yeṭṭef-itt netta akk d tid-nni yellan yid-s. Wwin-tt ɣer Tmezgida, nnig Iferḥunen, anda yessers lekka-s Marical Rondon. Ssyin rran-tt ɣer lḥebs nettat d gma-s Si Ṭaher akk d 200 n yemdanen nniḍen i yettwaṭṭfen, deg Temεemmert n Sidi Sliman deg Teblaḍt (ger Mdiya d Ṣṣur Lɣezlan) almi d asmi i temmut deg Ctembeṛ 1863, ɣef 33 n yiseggasen.

Ugar n ṣa (7) yiserdasen n umennuɣ, Fṛansa, seg twaṭṭfa n Faḍma n Summer, teṛza Tanekra n Yeqbayliyen ɣef tlelli-nsen, teṛza Adrar n Nnif, teṛza Tajmaɛt n tudrin, tṛessa deg wemkan-is tadbelt-ines deg tamurt n Leqbayel ugar n lqern.

Amezruy d yidles[beddel]

Ass n 3 Yulyu 1995, wwin-d iɣsan-is ɣer Lεalia anda teḍḍlen imeɣrasen n Tegrawla deg tmaneɣt. Almi d imir-n i yestaεref uwanek azzayri s umennuɣ-is mgal amnekcan afṛansis. D acu kan anecfu aɣerfan ɣef Faḍma yezga yedder. Inzi: ɣer deffir d Faḍma ɣer sdat d tiṛṣaṣin, qqaren-t medden ɣef wayen i yettraǧǧun wid-nni yettnaɣen lawan-nni, ma yella rran taqejirt ɣer deffir. Akken diɣen ara naf ddeqs n yisefra fell-as, d tajmilt ɣef yiseɣ tla. Kra seg-sen :

Asefru[beddel]

  • Ass n larbεa teṣebḥit
  • Ass-nni ɣef medden yeẓwer
  • Tafejrit mazal itran
  • Xati n win izerbzn yefḍer
  • Deg Yiceṛṛiḍen i temḥallas
  • Yexleḍ wemnay d lεesker
  • Yekker uɛeǧǧaǧ n leɣmam
  • Deg tegnaw yuli iḍer
  • Seg kra n win iḥedṛen dinna
  • Xati n win imi ɣezif leεmer
  • Marican bab n ukembbas
  • Deg yixef-is i iferru ccweṛ
  • Lalla Faḍma i d-nettzuru
  • Lal izebgan d lǧuheṛ
  • D Leǧninar i d lewkil-is
  • Weltma-s n Sidi Ṭaher
  • Amalah a Faḍma n Summer
  • Lal n wemzur d lḥenni
  • Isem-is inuda leεrac
  • Tura tɣab ur telli
  • A-tt-an deg Sidi Sliman
  • Ru a yiẓri d leḥmali

Idlisen fell-as[beddel]

  • Les Berbères Célèbres, M.A.Haddadou, Tiẓrigin Berti, Lzzayer tamaneɣt, 2003
  • Hommes et Femmes de Kabylie, DBK, Tiẓrigin Edisud, Aix-En-Provence, 2001
  • Faḍma n Summer, Bitam Boukhalfa, Tiẓrigin Aurassi, 2001
  • Femmes d’Algérie, J.Dejeux, Tiẓrigin Epigraphe, Lzzayer tamaneɣt, 1994
  • L’insurrection de la Grande Kabylie, C.Robin, Tiẓrigin Henri Charles Laranzelle, Paris
  • Promenades en temps de guerre chez les Kabyles, F.Hun, Tiẓrigin Challamel, Paris, 1860
  • Histoire de l’Algérie contemporaine, J.A.Julien, Tiẓrigin PUF, Paris, 1964.
  • Faḍma n Summer, M.S.Feredj, Tasɣunt Revue Historique Maghreébine, 1979.

Tamesluyt[beddel]