Ṣṭif

Seg Wikipedia
Neggez ar: ẓer isebtar, anadi

Ṣṭif : d tamaneɣt n tamurt n Ldzayer, Imezdaɣ-is n wazal n 350 000 (2006).


Aɛraben[beddel]

Listiɛmar aɛrab d lestiɛmar i d-iǧǧan tikta meqren akter n wiyad ɣef umezruy ni imaziɣen. Iɛraben xellfen ibizantiyen deg 705 almi deg azal n 972. Lestiɛmar aɛrab n tmurt n imaziɣen d yewit n twaɣit i tella ɣef imaziɣen di tazwara armi rebhen telelli-nsen deg lqern wis VIII.

Takrit ni iɛraben ur tzgir ara tirugza n imaziɣen, lamɛna imaziɣen llan ɛyan imi ttnaɣen-ed atas n isegassen mgal iɛdawen i d-izzin-asen di yal tama daymi xesren amgaru mgal iɛraben.

Imaziɣen kemlen atas n leqrun mbeɛd amgar-nsen mgal iɛeraben seg wemkan ɣer wayed, mgal yewet n tgeldit taɛrabt ɣef tayed, armi deg (9721148) imi yewit n tageldit tamziɣt , Iziriyen (9721148) s timelwi n Ziri mmi-s n Menad, tettf-ed tazmart deg Dzzayer. Tallit agi tella yewit n tallit ur nesɛi lehna imi teččur s imenɣi akk-d tarkukitt, Lqern wis XI akk-d 13 walan-ed assexdem ameqran n tutlayt taɛrabt, imi yebda-d deg Lqern wis XI anbaz amenyut n yewin n wedrum aɛrab d-ikkan si Maṣer yettuseman Banu Hilal, deg zdaxel n ul tmurt n imaziɣen.

Imi ifatimiyen (yewet n tgeldit taɛrabt i g-hekmen deg Iɛraben imi staɛmren-d tamurt n imaziɣen) wexxren-ed abud-nsen ɣef Maṣer deg 972, mmi-s n Ziri ittusemman Buluɣin (971-984) yettwakelf-ed ɣef tafriqt ugafa. Awexxar n tanawt taɛrabt ɣef Maṣer ishel-ed asnulfu n tageldit n Iziriyen seddaw Ḥammad mmi-s n Buluɣin imi rebhen-ed imaziɣen tanaya-nsen.

Deg 1090 Iḥamadiyen, aferkaw n Iziriyen, xedmen-ed Bgayet tamaneɣt-nsen; Ihemadiyen hekemen-ed deg ɣef Dzzayer azal n lqern (1008-1152) armi nezfen ɣef ddemma n wanbaz n Banu Hilal. Deg azal n 1152 Amussu n Tdukli (Lmuwahiddin s taɛrabt) ihudd tageldat n Iḥammadiyen.

Amussu n Tdukli[beddel]

Deg uzzal n lqern wis XII, Mmi-s n Tumart (a*. 1080 - a. 1130), ccix amziɣ n lǧameɛ akk-d amalway n ddin i snulf-ed tarbaɛt tamaziɣt n Amussu n Tdukli; Mmi-s n Tumart yura-d ahric ameqran n tiktabin n ddin s tutlayt tmaziɣt.

Ɛabd Lmumin (1094-1163), yewin seg inelmaden-is i t-id-xelfen imi yemmut, i snulf-ed taglelda n Tdukli deg Tin Mal ( tamdint deg talemmast n tmurt n Merruk).

Tagelda n Tdukli temɣ-id almi thekm-ed ɣef ahric ameqran n Tafriqt ugafa; Merruk deg 1146, Dzzayer 1151, deg 1160 hekemed ɣef ahric ameqran n Tamezɣa. Deg 1163 armi 1199, tikkelt tamezwarut deg umezruy n Tamezɣa, ahric amerqran n imaziɣen ɛacen seddaw yewit n tgelda tamaziɣt.

Akter n azal 300 isegassen Iziyaniyen, aferkaw n Tagelda n Tdukli, hekmen-ed ɣef Tamezɣa armi 1516 imi Iɛetmaniyen kecmen ɣef Dzzayer.

Tagelda n Tdukli, ɣas akken d yewit n tdukla tamaziɣt i tella, si tazwar-ines armi taggara-ines, ur tesɛi ara leqsed n usellek n agdud amaziɣ, imi d yewit n tajmaɛt n ddin i tella, ɣef wagi assexdem n tutlayt taɛrabt yettnecni deg tamurt imaziɣen imi ahric ameqran n imaziɣen ttwaɛrben-ed.

Lqern wis XVI yezra-d daɣen talalit n Tamurt n Izwawen deg talemmast n tafriqt, imi ahric ameqran n tafriqt i ttmuqlen ɣef rrif n lebher yella seddaw n lestiɛmar aɛutmani.

Tadukli n Tamurt n wezwawen[beddel]

Tanaya n izwawen tɛac azal n 300 issegasen armi taslekt tafransist deg 1830.

Cwit kan n ineɣmisen i d-nesɛa ɣef lmuda agi n umezruy n wegdud-nneɣ, ur neɛlim ara daɣen asmi tebda, imi ulac ikaramen ɣef agi. Ayen yellan mlba ccek, d wayen ixebbern iɣellaten n iɛetmaniyen deg tisekwla-nsen akk-d ikaramen-nsen deg lqern 16, Izwawen herzen-ed ɣef telelli-nsen azal n 300 isegassen.

Yal adrum deg timura n izwawen yesɛa aseqqamu ameqran n tadart-is i ghekmen fell-as, yal asqqamu yesɛa tejmeɛt, Di tajmaɛt agi tella yewit n tajmaɛct ɛlayen, llan imalwayen-nsen. Gar-asen, llan yergazen yettwasnen atas deg timura n izwawen imi llan irgazen s tirgugza.

Deg 1830 Asqamu Ameqran n wagdud Azwaw, i hekmen ɣef wegdud Azwaw merra, issawal-ed i ccix Amɣar ad yilli d amalway n iɛsekriyen n Tadukli n Tamurt n wezwawen ad harreb mgal Fransa akk-d ad iɛass ɣef tlelli-is.

Tirugza n ccix Amɣar tella sinnig taɣerfant-is sɣur agdud-s imi ihureb-ed almi tagara ɣef ayen yesɛn ccan; tilelli n tamurt-is akk-d n wegdud-is.

Deg tagara, agdud Azwaw ixxesr-ed ɣef ddemma n lqewa tatrart n Fransa akk-d lexdaɛ n ugeldun n weɛraben yettuseman ɛabd Lqader imi d-yefka takbabt-is ɣef Amtawa n Tafna wahid Fransa; ayagi yefka-d lweqt d lǧehd i Fransa at kemel ɣef ayen yeqimen deg lebɣi n Izwawen.

Iɛetmanen[beddel]

Iɛetmaniyen seddaw n timelwi n Khairr ad-Din d w'ayetma-s ɛaruj, i d-xelqen atrar ussamer n Dzayer, bdan asseɣwel n tama agi am asutel n ifflisen n ddunit merra. Taflist-nsen ternu, temɣid ɣef lqrun 1600; taflist mgal lbaburat n Lmarican g Lebher-nneɣ sebba n Ttrad n Taflist Tamezwarut, akk-d Ttrad n Taflist Tis Snat, anda mutten atas n imddanen.

Ṣṭif deg lweqt nni ur tesɛi ara atas n lɣaci mi ahric amerqran n imezdaɣen-ines llan kkra d imaziɣen akk-d atas n iflisen d lɛasker iɛetmaniyen s tawacult-nsen.

Taslekt Tafransist[beddel]

Mbeɛd n lexsara n ccix Amɣar, Aheddad, akk-d Fadma n Summer, ahric amqran n inelmaden-nsen ttwanfan ɣef La Nouvelle-Calédonie; ɣef tagara n taslekt n Fransa atas n lɣaci xesren ixammen-nsen, akal-nsen, akk-d lherma-nsen.

ɣef agi azal ameqran n lebni n Ṣṭif d Fransa i t-yebnan imi thud ayen yellan aqbel n taslekt.

Fransa tebna-d lmersa n n Ṣṭif akk-d talemmast n temdint.

Fransa teqim deg n Ṣṭif azal n 100 n isegassen armi texser lherb deg 1962.

Ṣṭif n Tura[beddel]

Imi irumiyen ffɣen-d Izwawen keccmen-ed ɣef talemmast n temdint; Ṣṭif tezra timeriwt tameqrant n imezdaɣen.